Premium Essay

The Contingency Approach

In: Other Topics

Submitted By saitips
Words 959
Pages 4
แนวคิดทฤษฎีการบริหารเชิงสถานการณ์ (The contingency approach)

ทฤษฎีการบริหารเชิงสถานการณ์นั้นเป็นแนวคิดการบริหารจัดการที่ผ

ู้บริหารจะปฏิบัติซึ่ง
ขึ้นอยู่กับสถานการณ์ หรือเป็นแนวคิดซึ่งเป็นทางเลือกของผู้บริหารในการกำหนดโครงสร้า

งและระบบควบคุมองค์การ โดยขึ้นอยู่กับสถานการณ์และลักษณะต่าง ๆ ของสภาพแวดล้อมภายนอกที่มีผลกระทบต่อการดำเนินงานขององค์การ หรือเป็นวิธีการที่กล่าวถึงองค์การที่มีลักษณะแตกต่างกันซึ่งต้

องเผชิญกับสถานการณ์ที่แตกต่างกัน และต้องใช้วิธีการบริหารจัดการที่แตกต่างกันด้วย ทฤษฎีการบริหารเชิงสถานการณ์เป็นการประสมประสานแนวคิดในการบริห

ารจัดการที่สำคัญ 4 ประการคือ (1) แนวคิดแบบดั้งเดิม (2) แนวคิดเชิงพฤติกรรม (3) แนวคิดเชิงปริมาณ (4) แนวคิดเชิงระบบ [1]ทฤษฎีองค์การตามสถานการณ์และกรณี (Contingency Theory) เริ่มมีบทบาทประมาณปลายปี ค.ศ.1960 เป็นทฤษฎีที่พัฒนามาจากความคิดอิสระ ที่ว่าองค์การที่เหมาะสมที่สุดควรจะเป็นองค์การที่มีโครงสร้างแ

ละระบบที่สอดคล้องกับสภาพแวดล้อม และสภาพความเป็นจริงขององค์การ ตั้งอยู่บนพื้นฐานการศึกษาสภาพแวดล้อมที่แตกต่างกันของมนุษย์ (Humanistic Environment) ทฤษฎีองค์การตามสถานการณ์และกรณีนี้มีอิสระมาก โดยมีธรรมชาติ (Natural) เป็นตัวแปรและเป็นปัจจัยสำคัญในการกำหนดรูปแบบ กฎเกณฑ์ และระเบียบแบบแผน มีลักษณะเป็นเหตุเป็นผลและสอดคล้องกับสภาพความเป็นจริง สภาพแวดล้อม เป้าหมายขององค์การโดยส่วนรวมและเป้าหมายของสมาชิกทุกคนในองค์ก

าร โดยมีข้อสมมติฐานว่า องค์การที่เหมาะสมที่สุดคือ องค์การที่มีโครงสร้างและรูปแบบที่สอดคล้องกับสภาพแวดล้อมของสั

งคมนั้น ๆ ซึ่งรวมถึงสภาพภูมิศาสตร์ วัฒนธรรม ค่านิยม ความเชื่อ การสนับสนุน และความต้องการของสมาชิกในองค์การนั้นด้วย บุคคลที่กำหนดชื่อทฤษฎีองค์การตามสถานการณ์ และกรณีคือ Fiedler นอกจากนั้นก็มี Woodward, Lawrence และ Lorsch ได้ทำการวิจัยศึกษาเรื่องนี้ [2]การบริหารตามสถานการณ์ เป็นแนวคิดที่ว่าไม่มีทฤษฎีหรือวิธีการทางการบริหารวิธีใดที่จะ

นำไปใช้ได้ทุกสถานการณ์หรือไม่มีรูปแบบการบริหารแบบใดดีที่สุด การบริหารแต่ละแบบและแต่ละวิธีจะก่อให้เกิดผลแตกต่างกันตามสภาว...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Contingency Approach of Management

...I think a theory is one's opinion. If you had two people, each with a different approach they could use the same theory and have two different outcomes of the theories. Depending upon the individual them self. I base my decision on the contingency approach. The contingency approach to management clearly states that there are no "one best way" to do something. More than likely two managers are not going to deal with a problem the exact same way. Although any theory or practice may work much of the time, none works all the time. Then, how is a manager to decide what theory to use? The most effective management theory or idea depends on the kinds of problems or situations that managers or organizations are facing at a particular time. The best way depends on the situation or the severity of the dilemma they are in. This means that management is much harder than it looks. I think theories are good to have. If it be in the work place or your home. I may have the same problem on my farm two different times, but the approach in which I deal with would be different each time. Simply because the weather is not always the same or something new is going on with the equipment. Or the Co-Op has a new driver and delivers the wrong feed. Depending on the situation at the particular time, is how I manage with it. If management practices had not been researched as much, we would not be where we are today. I think without research, it would have been a lot of......

Words: 309 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Contingency

...John Child, have enlarged on this perspective and identified contingencies, such as environmental conditions, ownership patterns, strategies, and leadership, as important in assessing the appropriate approach to use in a given situation. One attraction of the contingency approach among theorists and practitioners alike is its situational perspective. Those interested in research issues regarding organization and management can use the contingency perspective to explain why some factors influence situations in one setting but have virtually no influence in another setting. Indeed, one objective of research within the contingency framework is to specify those dimensions and conditions that do affect a situation and those that do not. For the manager, the requirement from the contingency perspective is to identify which technique will, in a particular situation, best contribute to the attainment of organizational goals. For instance, under some circumstances, an authoritarian leadership style may be more appropriate than a leadership style that tries to get workers internally motivated. While the contingency approach is useful in recognizing that the complexity involved in understanding human and organizational systems makes it difficult to develop universal principles of management, there have been several criticisms of the approach. For one, it has been pointed out that the logical extension of the contingency approach is that all situations are unique. If this is true,......

Words: 758 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Contingecy Theory

...Contingency theory is perceived by some scholars as a fragmentation of various ideals patched together into a theory of management accounting, nevertheless, it should be recognised that it provides a wealth of knowledge into contemporary management accounting practices. Contingency theory provides enhanced information to the individual which ultimately improves decision making and assists in achieving organisational objectives (Hamas and Lääts, 2002, p. 379). This theory has invaluably provided research evidence that are attributable to contemporary management accounting knowledge and designs. It has provided a profound method to adjust to ever changing external environments and the need for changes in internal factors (Otley, 1980, p. 413). Strengths of contingency theory style research Challenging the criticisms of contingency theory for being fragmentary and contradictory due to its methodological limitations, it is the failure of critiques in realising the many different forms of management accounting designs under the contingency approach and the relationships between those design which have perpetuated this idea (Gerdin and Greves, 2004, p.303). Attention should be shifted to the concepts under which contingency theory has been applied. Contingency theory in its simplest form highlights that an organisation’s structure is conditional upon contextual factors such as environment, strategy and size. One of its key strengths is a congruence approach that it......

Words: 1966 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Pople Organisations

...Question 3 The contingency approach showed renewed concern with the importance of structure as a significant influence on organisational performance? The contingency approach believes that it is impossible to select one way of managing that works best in all situations like promoted by Taylor. Their approach is to identify the conditions of a task (scientific management school), managerial job (administrative management school) and person (human relations school) as parts of a complete management situation and attempt to integrate them all into a solution which is most appropriate for a specific circumstance. Contingency refers to the immediate (contingent or touching) circumstances. The manager has to systematically try to identify which technique or approach will be the best solution for a problem which exists in a particular circumstance or context. An example of this is the never ending problem of increasing productivity. The different experts would offer the following solutions: Behavioral scientist: create a climate which is psychologically motivating; Classical management approach: create a new incentive scheme Contingency approach: both ideas are viable and it depends on the possible fit of each solution with the goals, structure and resources of the organization. . The contingency approach may consider, for policy reasons, that an incentive scheme was not relevant. The complexity of each situation should be noted and decisions made in each individual......

Words: 530 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Contingency Theory

...Administration in Canada, (pg 70) contingency theory is one of the most recent theories in organizational structure, it argues that there is no "one best way" of structuring an organization. Instead contingency theory suggests that the best way to structure a particular organization is contingent(dependent) on a number of factors such as the attitudes of the managers and employees, the nature of the task performed by the organization and the nature of the environment. The basic premise of Contingency Theory is that there is no one best way to organize a corporation, to lead a company, or to make decisions. There are too many external and internal constraints that will alter what really is the best way to lead is in a given situation. In other words, it all depends upon the situation at hand as to what will be the best course of action. An organizational / leadership / decision making style that is effective in some situations, may be not successful in other situations because organizations, people, and situations vary and change over time thus, the right thing to do depends on a complex variety of critical environmental and internal contingencies. The contingency approach to organizational design tailors the design of the company to the sources of environmental uncertainties faced by the organization. The point is to design an organizational structure that can handle uncertainties in the environment effectively and efficiently. The contingency theory approach to the study......

Words: 1903 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Leadership

...leadership approaches: Trait approach, Situational & Contingency approach and Transformational approach. These approaches have their similarities and distinction. Compare and contrast these three research strands and critically discuss what they contribute to our understanding of leadership effectiveness. Discuss with example to indentify how I understand about these approaches by using real organization and how they work and help the organizations more efficiency. II. Three Leadership Approaches 1. The Trait Approach As one of the earliest theories of leadership, Trait approach suggests that certain individuals have special inborn characteristics or qualities which support people to be leaders, and that it is these qualities that differentiate them from non-leaders. (Northouse P.G 2013) Personal attributes or characteristics of leaders, such as physical and personality trait, competencies and values are the key ideas of trait approach. (Gardner. J.W 1989) Self-confidence, intelligence, ambition, perseverance, assertiveness, emotional stability, creativity, and motivation such a list of characteristics is the main factors to be successful leader. The lists are not exhaustive and typically omitted some important leadership traits. * Strengths of The Trait Approach The first strength is that the trait approach is intuitively appealing. It clears to seeking that leader who are out front and leading the way in our society. The trait approach is consistent those......

Words: 3256 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

No Subject

...Sophal, Number: 44505 5. Mr. Nou Ratana, Number: 44502 Discussion Questions. 1. Apply contingency theory to the practice of job descriptions. How can contingency theory explain the current situation in which some organizations use job descriptions and others choose not to use them? 2. Which contingencies might affect the use of job description? Describe a specific situation that would be favorable for the use of job descriptions. Now describe another situation that would be unfavorable for the effective use of job descriptions. 3. Do you think job description support or hinder the goal of learning organization approach? Group Discussion 1. Contingency theory is a class of behavioral theory that claims that there is no best way to organize a corporation, to lead a company, or to make decisions. Instead, the optimal course of action is contingent (dependent) upon the internal and external situation. Several contingency approaches were developed concurrently in the late 1960s. They suggested that previous theories such as Weber's bureaucracy and Taylor's scientific management had failed because they neglected that management style and organizational structure were influenced by various aspects of the environment: the contingency . CONTINGENCY THEORY (STRUCTURAL) Contingency theory states that the most effective organizational characteristics are those that fit the contingency variables. For instance, specialization in an organization produces highest......

Words: 1964 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Unks 2

...Abstract “The contingency approach to management is based on the idea that there is no one best way to manage and that to be effective, planning, organizing, leading, and controlling must be tailored to the particular circumstances faced by an organization. Managers have always asked questions such as "What is the right thing to do”? Discuss three (3) best practices for managing teams faced with significant unk-unks Planning and Triggering Contingencies Murphy’s Law says it all, “If anything can go wrong it will, no matter how great a project may be going. Because of Murphy’s Law there should always be a contingency plan put in place even when there is a lot of unk-unks taking place. A contingency plan is usually done at the beginning, but may happen in the middle of the project. When contingency planning is done right a Project Manager and team can identify certain things: such as critical activities, triggers, alternatives, roles and responsibilities. After brainstorming and the team has identified the critical activities and milestones, they will need to specify the contingency trigger. What will trigger the Project manager and team to go into plan B and implement the contingency plan that is in place? It should always have a measureable or observable component, tied to a specific time line. The trigger is an indicator that the activity is not going to be completed as planned. The action a Project manager takes at that point will either implement an alternate......

Words: 689 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Week 5 Knowledge Check

...1. The main objective of the contingency theory of leadership is to choose a leadership approach which matches the characteristics of the employees and A. attitude towards their company B. work setting C. need to make more money D. willingness to perform the desired tasks Correct : The contingency theory of leadership occurs when a leader approaches his or her responsibilities by matching the characteristic of his or her employees with the work setting. Materials The Contingency Theory of Leadership 2. Based on the contingency theory of leadership, the leadership approach a manager should choose is contingent on two factors. Which of the following is one of these factors? A. The need for attention B. The need for friendship C. The need of achievement D. The need of understanding Correct : The need of achievement is one of two employee contingencies and relates to the employee’s desire to excel at a certain activity. The other need is the skills and knowledge an employee needs to accomplish their job (Jones, 2007, p. 183). Materials Types of Contingencies 10. Which of the four leadership approaches would incorporate employee involvement with scheduling and the daily operation? A. Directive approach B. Supportive approach C. Participative approach D. Achievement-oriented approach Correct : The participative approach incorporates in work schedules, encourages suggestions and consulting with employees, encourages proactive...

Words: 1088 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Business

... Janette Hurst Module Leader Singapore: Jasmine Puah Table of Contents Introduction 3 Trait Approach to Leadership Theory 3 Advantages of Trait Approach 4 Disadvantages of Trait Approach 4 Situational and Contingency Approach 6 Fiedler’s Contingency Theory: 7 Advantages of Fiedler’s Contingency Model 9 Disadvantages of Fiedler’s Contingency Model 9 Harsey-Blanchard Situational Leadership 10 Advantages and Disadvantages of Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model 12 Transformational Approach to Leadership 13 Advantages and Disadvantages of Transformational Approach to Leadership 15 Similarities of different approaches 15 Differences of Different Approaches 16 Conclusion 17 References 19 Appendix 22 Appendix 1: Zaccaro’s Model to Trait Approach 22 Appendix 2 : LPC Scale 22 Appendix 3: Fielder's Contingency model 23 Appendix 4: Harsey and Blanchard Situational Model 23 Appendix 5: Transformational Approach to Leadership 24 Introduction The purpose of this essay is to discuss different approaches to leadership. Different approaches to leadership have been described using different models along with charts and tables to provide a better understanding on each model. It also states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach and how the disadvantage of one approach gave emergence to another approach. Then it discusses about the similarities and differences between different approaches considering the models,......

Words: 5191 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Project Delivery at Autodesk, Inc

...Project Delivery at Autodesk, Inc. Project Management Leadership BUS 518 26 February, 2012 As project leader for the office building construction project, formulate a vision statement for the team project. According to Gray and Larson (2008) a vision is unlike a project scope statement, which includes: budget, end dates, and performance requirements, a vision involve the less tangible aspects of project performance. It refers to an image a project team holds in common about how the project will look upon completion, how they will work together and/or how customers will accept the project (p. 361-362). A simple level of a shared vision will answer the question, what do we want to create? Not everyone will have the same vision, but the images should be comparable. Additionally, vision comes in a variety of shapes and forms such as: in a slogan, a symbol and/or written as a formal vision statement (p.362). A vision can also inspire members to give their best effort. However, shared visions bring together experts with different skills and agendas to a mutual objective. Shared visions also help motivate members to subordinate their individual agenda and do what is normally best for the project. Finally, a shared vision for a project fosters obligations to the long term and discourages expedient responses that collectively dilute the quality of the project (Grey & Larson, 2008). Developing a vision statement is a chance for members of the organization and or......

Words: 1725 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Study

...attitudes of individuals and groups toward one another and toward the organization as a whole, and its effect on the organization's functioning and performance.” Evolution of Management theory Behavioral science approach This Approach focuses on the psychological and sociological processes that influence the performance of workers. This approach focuses on the workers, not the job itself. The behavioral science was influenced to a large extent by the human relations movement, namely the Hawthorne experiments (e.g. influence of lightning on performance etc.) in the 1930s. Human relations approach The human relations approach evolved in the 1960s and included research from Herzberg, Maslow, and McGregor etc. They tried to find ways to motivate employees based on their needs. 1. McGregor X and Y theory McGregor stated the XY theory of management that says that there are two types of management approaches. A type Y manager sees people as individuals with intrinsic motivation to achieve the organizational goals. Therefore the job of the manager or leader is it to facilitate this motivation and to develop a working environment to nurture that motivation. A type X manager beliefs that people are lazy and work only if they are threatened by punishment. This approach has been proven counterproductive in management because it leads to an environment of mistrust, hostility and is likely to lead to diseconomies of scale....

Words: 862 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Google Case Study

...Table of Contents: Abstract 1. Introduction- statement of problem 2. Two perspectives on SHRM (i) Best Practices (ii) Best Fit 3. Best approach in different contexts 4. Summary – Google case study 5. Contingency perspective of organizational theory and Justification for application Conclusion References 1. Introduction: - This report is based on a case study of Google’s HR practices. Google Inc. is located at Mountain View, California is not simply known for its unique workplace culture but it also known for its advance innovation approach and HR programs. The HR practices at Google which are named as ‘people operations’ is intended to describe that HR is not merely an administration but rather it makes sure the strong relationship between employee and employer. The case encourages discussion on whether the company’s culture is truly emphasis on attracting and motivating the best employees or it is with a business motive. In order to present critical review of the case study , the concept of HRM as a new strategic approach to the management of people is discussed and two different approaches “best practices” and “best fit” is explained. In the end of the report, the case study is presented from “best fit” HRM perspective .Thus this case study helps us to analyze the two different HRM approaches are applied in the organizations. 2. Two perspectives on SHRM: - HRM has experienced a drastic change over the last few years....

Words: 2670 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Integrated Project Delivery at Autodesk, Inc.

...Assignment 4: Integrated Project Delivery at Autodesk, Inc. BUS 518: Project Management Leadership Strayer University, Washington DC December 1, 2011 Abstract Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) is a collaborative alliance of people, systems, business structures and practices that harness the talents and insights of all participants to optimize project results, increase value to the customer, reduce waste, and maximize efficiency through all phases of design, fabrication, and construction. Autodesk, Inc. used this approach when they built their LEED Platinum certified, award winning headquarters. The IPD approach was highly effective on this project, but it was not without its problems, especially with regard to changes in the project’s scope. The overall success of the project was due to several factors, including a clear vision for the project, identifying three types of scope changes in advance, and identifying what does not work. These topics will be explored in this paper. As project leader for the office building construction project, formulate a vision statement for the team project. Gray and Larson (2009) point out that the vision of a project is less tangible than the project scope. The vision is the image the team members hold in common about the project, such as, how will the project look when it is complete, how the team members will work together and/or how will the customers accept the project. They state that in its simplest terms, a shared......

Words: 2300 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Organizational Behaviour

... 25th of January 2016. Q#1: Do you think that most managers in real life use a contingency approach to increase their leadership effectiveness? Discuss. Contingency approach, also known as situational approach, is a concept in management stating that there is no one universally applicable set of management principles (rules) by which to manage organizations. Organizations are individually different, face different situations (contingency variables), and require different ways of managing. Contingency Approaches to leadership Effectiveness: Researchers using the trait and behavioral approaches showed that effective leadership depended on many variables, such as organizational culture and the nature of tasks. No one trait was common to all effective leaders. No one style was effective in all situations. Researchers therefore began trying to identify those factors in each situation that influenced the effectiveness of a particular leadership style. Taken together, the theories resulting from this research constitute the contingency approach to leadership. These theories focus on the following factors: 1. Task requirements 2. Peers’ expectations and behavior 3. Employees’ characteristics expectations and behavior 4. Organizational culture and policies In contingency theory of leadership, the success of the leader is a function of various contingencies in the form of subordinate, task, and/or group variables. The effectiveness of a given pattern of......

Words: 860 - Pages: 4