Free Essay

The Debate of Medicating Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

In: Social Issues

Submitted By coppskidd2
Words 2880
Pages 12
Over the past several decades, highly skilled professionals have attempted to address several issues regarding antipsychotic drugs used to treat school-aged children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The distribution of these ADHD medications have steadily increased over the years, which has, on one hand, presented a possible solution to the escalating diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and on the latter, brought into question the ethics and effectiveness of these medications. Health officials, parents, and the children themselves struggle to come to an agreement when deciding whether or not medication is the best solution.
The Debate Over Medicating Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder In the spring of 2004, Jacqueline A. Sparks, an associate professor of family therapy at the University of Rhode Island, and Barry L. Duncan, a cofounder of the Institute for the Study of Therapeutic Change, investigated the ethics and effectiveness behind the distribution of ADHD medications as a modern treatment method for children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Even though, “appropriate identification and treatment of symptoms for psychiatric illnesses (such as ADHD) during childhood and adolescence is critical” (ScienceDaily). Sparks and Duncan note that, “ADHD is arguably the most controversial topic in recent mental health history. The ADHD diagnosis is not defined by a biological marker (Leo & Cohen, 33), but is rather subjective and not easily distinguished from the everyday behavior of children. Thus, the diagnosis lacks reliability and validity.” (Duncan, Miller, & Sparks, 31). This makes Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder more difficult to diagnose than most childhood disorders, but never less serious. “According to an IMS Health survey, between 1995 and 1999, the use of these drugs increased 151% in the 7-12 age group.” (Duncan, & Sparks, 25). Thus suggesting a growing need for ADHD medications. Understanding the benefits, risks, and limitations of these antipsychotic treatments are crucial components regarding the medication of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a worldwide condition, which affects children and adults alike. “It is a syndrome of disordered learning and disruptive behavior characterized primarily by symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior.” (WebMD, 2007) ADHD is often noticed during the early stages of child’s life and appears more often in boys than girls. Behavioral symptoms of ADHD in school-aged children may include, “failing to give close attention to details in schoolwork, has difficulty organizing tasks, becomes easily distracted, interrupts when other classmates are speaking”, (A.D.A.M Medical Encyclopedia, 2011) etc. According to the National Center for Biotechnology Information and the U.S. National Library of Medicine’s definition of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), “children who have been diagnosed with ADHD may be at risk for other medical illnesses such as bi-polar disorder and depression.” (A.D.A.M Medical Encyclopedia, 2011) Both bi-polar disorder as well as depression require medications of their own, dramatically increasing a child’s risk for side effects and other health complications. Prior to the 1990’s, children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder had been untreated. This was due to the “thought that children would eventually outgrow ADHD. However, recent studies suggest that 30–60% of affected individuals continue to show significant symptoms of the disorder into adulthood.” (Harpin). This makes Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in children a very serious matter and in need of early treatment.
Implications of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medications The most popular form of treatment for children and young adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is the use of antipsychotic drugs. These drugs such as, Adderall, Concerta, and Ritalin aid those with ADHD by calming their inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms. However, many antipsychotic drugs pose serious mental and physical health risks for children. “Antipsychotics have shown efficacy in various pediatric mental disorders, but the use of these medications in children and adolescents merits careful scrutiny as this is a vulnerable population that has more side effects that adults” (Science Daily). The three main types of side effects seen in children utilizing antipsychotic drugs and other ADHD medications are metabolic/hormonal inconsistencies, cardiovascular risks, and abnormal involuntary movements.
According to the article, Risks and Benefits of Antipsychotics in Children and Adolescents, in Science Daily, “there is an increasing concern about antipsychotics having metabolic side effects such as mass weight gain (and loss), hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia in the pediatric population” (Science Daily). Traditionally, many parents may overlook possible weight gain, however, over the past few years’ obesity has become a prominent nation wide epidemic among children and young adults. One study, conducted by Dr. Christopher Correll of Zucker Hillside Hospital in New York, “led a team of researchers who studied 205 children newly prescribed antipsychotic drugs. And after about 10 weeks, their weight gain increased an average of 13 pounds compared with less than a pound gained in a comparison group” (Cooney). Findings such as these influence many parents as well as physicians to search for alternative treatments that have less health risks. Other health threats such as cardiovascular risks are also not uncommon when using Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder medications. “Drug-naïve adolescents, defined as adolescents with no prior antipsychotic treatment or total lifetime antipsychotic usage fewer than 30 days experience changes in duration of the QT c (one’s heart rate) interval before and after 6 months of treatment” (Science Daily). This could potentially cause serious health complications and in some cases death. The last of the rare yet severe side effects implicated by ADHD medications is known as “abnormal involuntary movements”. These uncontrolled muscle movements are “more common with old antipsychotics than new-generation antipsychotics, which lead to problems participating in normal social and educational activities” (Science Daily). Even though this particular side effect is rare and often only seen when children use the antipsychotic drug, Risperdone (used for the treatment of Schizophrenia), it is necessary that the general public be warned. Overall, the main concerns regarding ADHD medications stem from the possible side effects as well as the potential threat of long lasting damage. Little research provides positive feedback for the long-term use of antipsychotic prescriptions. “There is evidence that coincides with the use of neuroleptic and other psychotropic medications making long-term, if not permanent, changes in brain structure (Breggin & Cohen). Many health professionals fear physical outcomes of these medications as well as the mental toll the illness plays on the child and their family.
Affects of ADHD Medication on Family Relations According to the peer-reviewed journal, Archives of Disease in Childhood, “ADHD is a disorder that affects the daily lives of children, young people, and their families. Any thorough examination of the disorder should take into account the functioning and wellbeing of the entire family.” (Coles, Pelham, & Gnagy, 2010). Clearly, any medical condition, especially ones involving school-aged children, can place mental and physical strain on family dynamics. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) not only affects the child, but his or her family as well. The financial pressure alone can reach insurmountable costs. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder medications are not free and therefore place a financial burden on many households. In addition to these costs “the rise in use of substance abuse services and other outpatient facilities” result in additional medical bills. An independent study conducted from 1987 to 1995 showed “healthcare costs for individuals with ADHD in the USA over a nine year period averaged around $4,306, whereas non-ADHD medical costs averaged only $1,944” (Blader, Pliszka, Jensens, Schooler, & Kafantaris). These annual costs drive one to question whether or not there is a financial incentive for prescribing ADHD medications and other antipsychotic drugs. The article, Use of Antipsychotics in Children is Criticized, claims, “Prescription rates fir the drugs have increased more than fivefold for children in the past decade and a half, and doctors now use the drugs to settle outbursts and aggression” (Harris). Health professions such as Dr. Daniel Notterman, a senior health policy analyst at Princeton University said, “data shows substantial amount of (over) prescribing (medication) for attention deficit disorder, and I wonder if we have given enough weight to the adverse-event profile of the drug.” In other words, these overprescribed medications endanger not only the child’s health, but their families as well. Some studies have shown that many children who develop Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have parents with the same diagnosis. “Genetic factors cause AD/HD in about 80 percent of the children and youth who experience it. (Cook, 1999) Children who have a parent with AD/HD have a 40 percent to 57 percent risk of having AD/HD” (Barkley, Murphy, & Fischer; Wilens et al.). A build up of stress is added to the household when more than one individual has a disorder. Over the years, “family members of ADHD patients have shown increased stresses and demands of living (with an adult or child with ADHD). Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder related family stress has been linked to increased risk of parental depression and alcohol related disorders” (Harpin). Due to the immense stress, family members seek dangerous coping methods such as drinking and drug abuse instead of dealing with their child’s disorder in a healthy manner. Thus, many of these unsuitable behaviors negatively affect the children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. For example, “a study out of the University of Maryland found a mother's depression might be a risk factor for behavior problems in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD are at risk for substance abuse and criminal behaviors if they develop conduct disorders.” This is dangerous and risky behavior, which may negatively influence a child’s future. Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder are at high risk for future drug abuse. According to Kathleen Doheny of WebMD Health News, “the risk of behavioral problems in ADHD children, including their tendency to experiment with drugs and alcohol and to display delinquent behavior, was found higher than in other children.” (Doheney) If children observe family members under stress pursuing these activities, they are more like to be effected and influence to participate as well. Thus, it is necessary that parents provide proper examples for their children. However, many parents have considered other methods of treatment with or without ADHD medications. For example, in a recent 2007 study, 579 children ages 10-13, found “after 14 months, their families chose treatments available in their communities by adding (behavioral therapy counseling and continual community care) and sometimes eliminating the treatments (or medications) they first took in beginning of the study” (Doheney). This leads one to question whether or not disorders such as ADHD can be treated or cured via counseling without strong and often-dangerous medications. Studies on the safety and efficacy of Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) medications have raised serious concerns of whether these treatments are ethically the best solution for children. From an ethical viewpoint Duncan and Sparks urge that “people simply cannot be blasé about accepting the increasingly automatic medical response, but must demand high quality, untainted science and accurate, balanced information to inform critical decisions by child caretakers” (12). If warnings such as Duncan and Sparks’ are not taken seriously, will the general public and other organizations affiliated with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) condone the mass distributions of cheap over the counter medications? Many health officials often over look the rare cases in which patients experience the harm side effects of antipsychotic medications. For example, an online article by the New York Times claims, “powerful antipsychotic medicines are being used far too cavalierly in children, and federal drug regulators must do more to warn doctors of their substantial risks” (Harris). One of the most known antipsychotics is Risperdal. Risperdal is a medication is used to treat schizophrenia. Gardiner Harris, a writer for the New York Times online writes “more than 389,000 children and teenagers were treated last year with Risperdal, one of five popular medicines known as atypical antipsychotics. But Risperdal is NOT approved attention deficit problems, and its risks-which include substantial weight gain, metabolic disorders, and muscular tics can be permanent” (Harris). These uncalled for prescriptions of Risperdal put close to 400,000 adolescents in danger of developing severe health impairments. It is necessary that people take into account the health risks of next generation, the future leaders of tomorrow. In 2007, a “panel of federal drug experts” met for a “routine review of the pediatric safety of Risperdal (and other drugs) made by Johnson & Johnson Co. and Eli Lilly & Company” (Harris). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) demanded that the panel focus specifically on the “efforts to highlight the risks for children”. However, the panel rejected the request stating “they had already placed strong worded warning on the drugs’ label” (Harris, 2008). Panel official such as, Dr. Thomas Laughren, director of the panels psychiatric drug branch, questioned by the labels were thought to be inadequate and in need of improvement. Later on the FDA stated that the purpose of the proposal was to endorse better awareness of the side effects rather than improving the drugs’ labels. Suggestions like Antipsychotic Drug Awareness urges researchers to find either alternate antipsychotic drugs with less harmful side effects or alternative forms of treatment. These advances would be economically and socially beneficial for all parties, including the researchers, drug distributers, and patients consuming the medications. Thus, in order to make an unbiased decision of whether or not a child with ADHD should treated using antipsychotic drugs it is necessary to understand the benefits, risks, and limitations of these medications. Via scientific research and ethical lobbying, it is clear that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder treatment drugs have limited efficacy and serious side effects leaving the disorder without a permanent cure. However, scientific research and awareness groups have shed light upon the underlying factors such as the health risks, efficiency, and the (mental and physical) costs of ADHD. Regardless, education and awareness of these ADHD medications are the best forms of action towards settling the debated over the use of antipsychotics drugs for medicating children with ADHD.

Works Cited
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD. (n.d.). In A.D.A.M Medical
Encyclopedia Online. Web.
Blader, J. C., Pliszka, S. R, Jensen, P. S., Schooler, N. R., & Kafantaris, V. (2010)
Stimulant-Responsive and Stimulant-Refractory Aggressive Behavior Among Children With ADHD, Pediatrics, 126, 796 - 806. Print.
Brinkman, W. B., Hartl, J., Rawe, L. M., Sucharew, H., Britto, M. T., & Epstein,
J. N. (2011) Physicians' Shared Decision-Making Behaviors in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Care Archive of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 165, 1013 - 1019. Print.
Cartwright, K. L., Bitsakou P., Daley, D., Gramzow, R. H., Psychogio, L., Simonoff, E.,
Thompson, M. J., Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2011). Disentangling Child and Family Influences on Maternal Expressed Emotion Toward Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.Journal of the American Academy Of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 1042-1053. Print.
Coles, E. K., Pelham, W. E., & Gnagy, E. M. (2010) Parental Attributions for Success in
Managing the Behavior of Children With ADHD. Journal of Attentions Disorders, 14, 138 - 146. Print.
Cooney, E. (2009). Antipsychotic Drugs Tied to Weight Gain in Children. The Boston Globe Newspaper Company Online. Web. Retrieved from http://www.boston.com/lifestyle/family/articles/2009/11/02/antipsychotic_drugs_tied_to_weight_gain_in_children/ Correll CU. (2008) Monitoring and management of antipsychotic-related metabolic and endocrine adverse events in pediatric patients. International Review of Psychiatry. 20, 195-201. Print.
Doheney, K. (2007). Treating ADHD: Drugs or Therapy Work. WebMD Online. Web.
Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/add-adhd/news/20070720/treating-adhd-drugs-or-therapy-work
Elias, M. (2006). New Antipsychotic Drugs Carry Risks For Children. USA Today
News Online. Web. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2006-05-01-atypical-drugs_x.htm Epstein, J. N., Langberg, J. M., Lichtenstein, P. K., Altaye, M., Brinkman, W. B., House,
K., & Stark, L. J., (2010) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Outcomes for Children Treated in Community-Based Pediatric Settings
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164, 160 - 165. Print.
Falissard, B., Coghill, D., Rothenberger, A., & Lorenzo, M., (2010) Short-Term Effectiveness of Medication and Psychosocial Intervention in a Cohort of Newly Diagnosed Patients With Inattention, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity Problems, Journal of Attention Disorders, 14, 147 - 156. Print.
Harpin, V. A., (2005) The effect of ADHD on the life of an individual, their family, and community preschool to adult life. Archives of Disease in Children, 90, 2-7.
Harris, G. (2008). Use of Antipsychotics in Children Is Criticized. The New York Times
Online. Web. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/19/health/policy/19fda.html Jensen P, Arnold L, Richters J, (1999) 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry. 56:1073-1086. Web.
LeFever, G. B., Arcona, A. P., & Antonuccio, D. O. (2003). ADHD Among
American School Children Evidence of Overdiagnosis and Overuse of Medication. The Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice 2, 5-15. Print.
Litton, P. (2005). ADHD, Values, and the Self. American Journal of Bioethics, 27, 65.
McLeod, M., Laubscher, T., Regier, L., & Jensen, B. (2009) Taking the stress out of individualizing ADHD drug therapy Canadian Family Physician, 55, 895 – 898. Print.
Science Daily (2008). Risks and Benefits of Antipsychotics in Children and
Adolescents. Science Daily News Online. Web. Retrieved from
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080901205624.htm

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

...Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder John Mooney 412 Psychology Dr. Jim Spencer West Virginia State University 4 May 2012 Abstract Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) is a developmental disorder that is believed to affect about 3 to 5 percent of children globally and diagnosed in about 2 to 16 percent of school aged children (National Institute of Mental Health). Also, 30 to 50 percent of those diagnosed will continue having symptoms into adulthood and it is estimated that 4.7 percent of American adults live with AD/HD (NIMH). Although most healthcare providers accept AD/HD as a genuine disorder, there still remains controversy regarding diagnosis and treatment which is being debated in the scientific community. Although it found controversy in the lack of sufficient data on long-term use of medications, the US National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) supports the validity of the AD/HD diagnosis and the efficacy of stimulant treatment. Introduction Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is becoming the highlight of many controversial debates. Each year more children as well as adults are being diagnosed with these medical conditions. Despite the fact that many doctors question the authenticity behind its diagnoses, AD/HD can have a negative effect not only on the patients themselves, but to the families and loved ones who have to endure the behavior produced by the patients. According to the Diagnostic and statistical......

Words: 2555 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Persuasive Research Essay

...Overprescribing ADHD is a familiar and often used term in today’s society. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Ritalin is the medication most-often mentioned when looking at the treatment of ADHD patients. “First synthesized in 1944, Ritalin is a stimulant drug and was first approved for use in adults during the mid-1950s” (Mayes, et al). According to Dr. Matthew Smith, Ritalin wasn’t even considered for use in children with behavioral issues until many years after its introduction. It was originally marketed as a “pep” pill. Advertisements were aimed towards the elderly, and housewives whom lacked the energy to get all their work done around the house. The pharmaceutical company Ciba, whom created Ritalin, did not receive approval to market the drug to underachieving school children until 1962 (Smith). ADHD later became the diagnosis for both children and adults who were observed as having concentration and behavioral issues. Whether or not too many people are being diagnosed and medicated for ADHD has certainly been a hot topic of debate for many years now. Research does show that medical professionals are overprescribing ADHD medications. Trends have indicated a rise in diagnosis along with drug treatment, the ADHD drug industry is booming, and ADHD prescriptions are easily obtained by those seeking them. Today, ADHD drugs are prescribed to both children and adults who have been diagnosed with the disorder. Many of us had friends, or at least knew of......

Words: 1758 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

...Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder According to Merriam Webster Dictionary (2013), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is defined as a syndrome that consists of disruptive behavior and disordered learning. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is not caused by a physical or mental disorder but by symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsive behavior and inattentiveness. The debate of whether or not children are being over diagnosed has been ongoing for years. As a parent do you medicate your child and follow the physician’s advice? Only if you have studied up on the medications that are being used to treat this condition and the side effects associated with each drug. There are also many alternative solutions to try before starting your child on medication. I believe that too often parents have a normal child, perhaps a little curious or hyperactive and since this child isn’t like their other children the parents determine that something must be wrong with them. A quick trip to the doctor and discussion can quickly confirm ADHD and the child are then placed on medication. We know that an increase of commercials ad on television relating to medications to treat disorders has caused an increase in people seeking treatment for various conditions and I believe the same has happened for ADHD. Petrochko (2013), state that the rate of ADHD diagnosis has increased nearly 25% over the past decade. The biggest increase was in white, black and Hispanic groups and......

Words: 1708 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Understanding Adult Adhd

...SUMMARY……………………………………………………………………………………….9 REFERENCES……………………..……………………………………………………………11 ABSTRACT Childhood ADHD receives a lot of media attention. From opinions of faulty diagnoses to general disagreements regarding types and amounts of medication used to treat the symptoms, there is a running dialogue in the media and annals of schools and homes. However, little is known about adult ADHD. This paper will analyze current research to glean a clear idea of what exactly is Adult ADHD, symptoms and prescribed treatments and will discuss current trends and changes in the field of psychology as it relates to ADHD. UNDERSTANDING ADULT ADHD Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been a topic of media, parents, educators and the community for years. Debates range from those curious about the actual definition of ADHD to those concerned with medications prescribed for its treatment. Primarily seen as a disorder that affects school aged children, little is known about ADHD as it progresses into adulthood. However, it is the ever evolving definition of ADHD that creates the disagreements of medical professionals on effective treatment. Definition of ADHD The current definition of ADHD as defined by the Mayo Clinic states, “Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (adult ADHD) is a mental health condition that causes inattention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Adult...

Words: 2126 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Our Children and Adhd

...OUR CHILDREN AND ADHD AMANDA WENTZEL COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY Abstract ADHD also known as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a condition that is near to my heart. My 15 year old daughter was diagnosed with ADHD at age 6. We have struggled with this since day one. I have researched ADHD, the protocol for diagnosing ADHD, coping with ADHD and of course treatment methods for ADHD. It has came to my attention that ADHD is becoming diagnosed more frequently and that children are sometimes misdiagnosed with ADHD and subsequently treated for the condition and it may be unnecessary. ADHD is becoming common yet the diagnosing method is pretty vague and the medications for this are sometimes harmful if not needed. There are other forms of treatments and there are also coping skills and lifestyle changes that can be beneficial for those who have ADHD and their families. I researched some of these other methods and the facts on ADHD. I have found some interesting information that I hope will help others that deal with this diagnosis. This paper states actual facts and it is my intention to help others understand ADHD and know the facts surrounding the diagnosis and treatments. People are becoming more and more familiar with ADHD and it seems to be being diagnosed more frequently. First things first, what is ADHD? ADHD is abbreviated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is diagnosed by symptoms. One of......

Words: 2558 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Adhd Misdiagnosis

...lots of money to be made off of people diagnosed with ADHD. More than that though, is that it's become sort of a trend. “Few topics have generated as much public concern as the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, outpatient visits for ADHD jumped from 1.6 million to 4.2 million per year from 1990 to 1993” (ADHD—Overcoming the Specter of Overdiagnosis. (2002). ADHD has become sort of a cat shot in terms of adolescent miss behavior. Many parents simply think that their child's not bad they just have a medical problem that has to be the reason. After a short drive to the doctor’s office and quick discussion with Dr. Don about how little Billy can never sit still long enough to do his homework and never listens to his parents when they talk to him. They walk out of the office with a giant ADHD labeled Band-Aid that they can slap over their child and all is well. However this isn't the biggest problem in the misdiagnosed use of ADHD. That’s not to say that ADHD isn’t an actual large scale problem. “Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most prevalent disorders of childhood and adolescence. Worldwide prevalence rates center around 5% and range from 1% to 20% among school-age children” (Cross-national 2016) ADHD has been on the rise and its only going to get worse.’ Before 1970, the diagnosis of ADHD was relatively rare for schoolchildren and almost nonexistent for......

Words: 1196 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Adhd

...Medicine & Therapy Abstract Attention deficient hyperactive disorder is a growing diagnosis among adolescents. Two main treatments are medication and behavioral therapy, or a combined treatment is also an option. Naturally there are debates on which treatment is more effective on treating the effects of ADHD. This report provides you with background information about ADHD, the types it’s broken down into, whom it affects, the percentage of adolescents taking medication. Also information on what behavioral therapy is provided. Two studies that have tested a group of children, affected by ADHD, and the types of treatments in order to find out which treatment provides the best results on reducing the effects of ADHD. Introduction Attention deficient hyperactivity disorder is a growing behavioral disorder among America’s adolescents. ADHD is a growing mainly among children from ages 4 through 17. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention 9.5 percent of children ages 4 through 17 have been diagnosed with ADHD as of the year 2007. The CDC also reports that on average the rate of ADHD diagnoses has increased 5.5 percent per year from 2003 to 2007. Boys are about twice as likely to have been diagnosed with ADHD than girls according to the CDC, and diagnoses increase among older teens than among children. ADHD was formerly referred to as Attention Deficient Disorder, ADD, but in 1994 the disorder was classified into three subtypes based on different......

Words: 1707 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Gmos: Truth vs. Myth

...and Truths 2 About the authors Michael Antoniou, PhD is reader in molecular genetics and head, Gene Expression and Therapy Group, King’s Cols: lege London School of Medicine, London, UK. He has 28 years’ experience in the use of genetic engineering technology investigating gene organisation and control, with over 40 peer reviewed publications of original work, and holds inventor status on a number of gene expression biotechnology patents. Dr Antoniou has a large network of collaborators in industry and academia who are making use of his discoveries in gene control mechanisms for the production of research, diagnostic and therapeutic products and safe and efficacious human somatic gene therapy for inherited and acquired genetic disorders. Claire Robinson, MPhil, is research director at Earth Open Source. She has a background in investigative reporting and the communication of topics relating to public health, science and policy, and the environment. She is an editor at GMWatch (www.gmwatch.org), a public information service...

Words: 78055 - Pages: 313