Premium Essay

The Development of Culture

In: People

Submitted By anjhelica
Words 1600
Pages 7
The Development of Anthropology * Anthropology (Anthropos = “Man”, Logy = “Study of”) * The study of humankind in all times and places * The discipline of Anthropology is a European invention, but the study of people has a long history…

Early Anthropology * Herodotus * Greek Historian (5th century B.C.E.) * The Histories – collections of Herodotus’ encounters with peoples of the Mediterranean world. He often emphasized how he faithfully recorded stories told to him, but would often add embellishments/emphasis to endear his Greek readers to the peoples he met abroad. * Napoleon Bonaparte and Egypt * Self-proclaimed Emperor of France (1769-1821)

In Western History…
European Exploration/Colonialism
Columbus, Napoleon, and…
Western Society’s past attempts at getting to know other cultures * Modernism: Began with the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. * A reaction to the superstition and hysteria of Europe’s “Dark Ages” (The Witch hunt era that we will get into later).
Rationality, objectivity, reason can discover knowledge and truth and lead to progress
We can understand everybody/thing everywhere if we adhere to these principles of logic. * Empirical knowledge: Based on observations of the world rather than on intuition or faith. * Hypothesis: A tentative explanation of the relation between certain phenomena
Theory: In science, an explanation of natural phenomena, supported by a reliable body of data * People are now freed from the restraints of superstitious nonsense and can now grow as logical, rational and evolved beings. * This is where our modern thoughts of linearity come from. In Western Society, time is like an arrow, experienced as breach, innovation and change – we are seen to always improve on what came before. The Europeans of the Enlightenment…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Culture

...Chapter 5: Culture and history The Chapter 2, 3 and 4 have considered the important influences of the environment, internal capabilities and stakeholder expectations on the development of an organization’s strategic. However, it is danger that mangers only take into account relatively recent phenomena without understanding how those phenomena have come about or how the past influences current and future strategy. Many well-established organizations such as Mitsui Group are strongly influenced by their historical legacies that have become embedded in their cultures (JSW, 2008). The business environment cannot be understood without considering how it has developed over time. The capabilities of an organization, especially those that provide organizations with competitive advantage may have historical roots and hove built up over time in ways unique to that organization. Therefore, such capabilities may become part of the culture of an organization which is difficult for other organizations to copy. However, they may also be difficult to change. So understanding the historical and cultural base of such capabilities also informs the challenges of strategic change. The powers and influence of different stakeholders are also likely to have historical origins that are important to understand. Thus, this chapter will explain the importance of history and culture in relation to strategy development in section 5.1 and 5.2; then followed by section 5.3 to address the......

Words: 1440 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

How Culture Promotes Development

...INTRODUCTION Culture, while cannot be specifically defined, is said to refer to the set of shared attitudes, values, goals and practices that characterizes an institution, organization or group. Development on the other hand refers to the desired positive change that is aimed at improving the socio-economic, political and cultural situation of a society, or nation at large. Development manifests itself through indicators such as the quality of healthcare services offered to the people, quality of education, basic infrastructural amenities available and the general poverty level of the people. In order to explain how culture promotes development, we have to appreciate the diversity that come with it and the contributions that it makes in the various aspects of development either socially, politically and economically. The world is composed of many diverse cultures which have greatly promoted development inform of tourist attraction, prevention of conflict as well as the reconciliation process, it also pays off in terms of jobs and growth among other means of development as discussed below. Thus culture can be termed as very crucial factor for development to take place. CULTURE PROMOTES TOURISM Cultural tourism has in a great way contributed to development. Cultural sites have become leading motivations for travel and tourists enjoy the diversity of culture in such forms as art, dance and music. Foreign income earned acts as a crucial form of revenue. It is used by......

Words: 1699 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Culture and Development

...Culture and Development EDU 305 University of Phoenix Culture is defined as “the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group.” (Merriam-Webster Dictionary) All of these factors play a role in contributing to a persons’ culture. Customary beliefs are beliefs that have always been in that group of people. Some might say that they are similar to superstitions. Some people have superstitions about ladders, or black cats, or stepping on cracks in the sidewalk. These beliefs are passed down from generation to generation and can go back to the beginning of that group of people. Material traits are traits that people have within themselves that usually relate to their racial, religious, or social group. These traits can be personality, behavioral, beliefs, etc. Every group has material traits that can be associated with them. Culture plays a big role in influencing people. Culture can start to influence people as young as infants and toddlers. The influence culture plays on infant and toddler development can vary depending on the sensitivities of the child. The three main influences that culture affects in development are security, education, and socialization. The physical and social surroundings of a child can attribute to a child feeling secure in their environment or insecure in their environment. If a child feels secure in their cultural environment, then they are more likely to venture out of their culture to...

Words: 697 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Culture: the Foundation for Technological Development

...Culture: The Foundation for Technological Development Since humans first walked the earth there has been a focus on the inventing of tools and technologies to better the quality of everyday lives, and a comparison of life through the different eras exemplifies the impact that new technologies have had on society. Delving into various “evolution timelines” of technologies provides us with important insight into how and why new technologies are developed, and the impact that these technologies have on society. Portable music devices are an example of a development that emerged from a social need, yet have had a significant cultural impact. Looking at this example and the perspectives of various theorists we aim to explore the initial impact that certain technologies have had on the development of society and ultimately how culture shapes new technologies and media forms. Different theorist’s definitions of the term “technology” need to be looked at collectively, as there is not one explanation that can wholly encapsulate a true definition. Theorists have opposing views on what technology is, therefore their individual perspectives will always shadow their definitions to some extent. For example, Lorenzo Simpson’s definition of technology suggests it is “a constellation of knowledge, processes, skills and products [that aim to] control and transform”, this comes from a culture shapes technology perspective as it highlights that technology comes from the “knowledge,......

Words: 2409 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Set of Reflections on Filipino Culture, Nationalism, Economic Development, and Philippine Politics and Democracy

...Set of Reflections on Filipino Culture, Nationalism, Economic Development, and Philippine Politics and Democracy By: Virgilio Angelo G. Gener A Review and an Overview – the Introduction As I begin to think on what I will write on my reflections on the significant lessons and insights that I have distilled in my readings for the past two months, I remember that American journalist and essayist Henry Louis “H.L.” Mencken once opined that: “A Historian by his nature, is an unsuccessful novelist.” If there is a commonality that I have noticed in the methodology of writing of the scholarly articles that I have read, it is the fact that majority of them was written in a narrative and historical standpoint. Thus, when I was brainstorming prior to the completion and formal writing of this essay, I deemed it necessary that the methodology or mode of presentation of my reflective essay should complement the style of writing the journal articles were presented. This was one of the things that I had in mind and served as my setback in finally commencing the writing of my reflective essay. The past two months of attending classes and racing through the pages of the assigned readings were, in my own personal opinion, a review of history as well as an overview of the opinions of scholars on certain social aspects, whether they be on the past, present, or the uncertain future of the Philippines. It is a review, since most of the readings discussed matters and happenings that......

Words: 3529 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Benefits as Motivational Factors for Increased Productivity and Development of Corporate Culture

... Benefits as Motivational Factors for Increased Productivity and Development of Corporate Culture Abstract Working environment and its conditions are one of biggest concerns nowadays. Having good business means having profitable and sustainable business. Neglecting its main components slows down or even hinders the whole process. Therefore, one of the most important tasks of one organization at first is to become sustainable inside itself. Just like any living organism; it has to be strong and consistent in order to survive the world outside. People are important because people generate ideas and build the concept. So it becomes obvious that the treatment of the people and motivation along with it plays huge role if the business wants to survive. Investing in the people became more profitable that investing solely in the business. Introduction Personal thoughts about corporate culture (in general) actually reached more serious approach last six months during the co-op. Working in a company (on a position of correspondent) many time the author realized that the weak corporate culture hinders or slows down some, if not all, business processes. We have been „forced” to think in the direction of a dominant corporate culture, without even being aware of that, in order to facilitate the business in many aspects. The conclusion was always the same; motivational factors in the form of benefits (which Maslow described for instance) have the effect that very few others have.......

Words: 6776 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Culture and Development

...Culture and Development Culture plays an important role in the development of a child. It can play a very beneficial part in their physical, cognitive and social development. Another important part of development is nature. Does nature play a more important role than nurture? A child’s culture is made up of different customs, practices and social behaviors that the child’s family is involved in. For example, religious beliefs, different rules the family has or activities they are involved in. Most likely if a child grows up in a Christian home they are going to follow those same values when they get older. If a family is active and involves their small children in the activities then the children are more likely to grow up with an active lifestyle. Culture has a big influence on the development of a child. Physically, a child can learn from their parents how to live a healthy lifestyle. How to eat healthy and take care of their bodies with healthy exercise. Culture can also affect a child’s cognitive development through how those that surround a child teach that child. Do they take time to work the child to develop different skills and knowledge? It affects their social development. Children who experience the security of loving parents and have strong attachments to their parents are better able to reach out to relate with others. (Seefeldt, 2010) Nature and Nurture both play a very important role in a child’s development. Many people argue over which one...

Words: 531 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Developing a Culture for Leadership Development

...Developing a Culture of Leadership Development Preamble Leadership has been defined as “the process of influencing people by providing purpose, direction, and motivation while operating to accomplish the mission and improve the organization” (Sewell, 2009, p. 93). Arguably, it is this type of effective leadership that is the requirement of every high functioning organization. In order for an organization to achieve high levels of leadership success, an organization must foster and sustain the correct environment, provide the correct tools and supports, and ultimately ensure that culture supports the development of future leaders from within. It is the focus of this paper to provide an overview of the valuable elements and techniques supporting cultural development that will lead to effective leadership development for any high functioning organization. The Leadership Environment In developing a culture for leadership development, an organization must understand its inner workings, specifically the existing culture of the organization. “A culture can be defined as the norms, practices, history and values of an organization — in other words: ‘how things are done around here.’” (Osak, 2014, p. 1) These subtle nuances will help to share the thoughts, values and behaviours of organizations employees. Values “Values are what support the vision, shape the culture and reflect what the company values.  They are the essence of the company’s identity – the......

Words: 5287 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Develop the Argument That Certain Kinds of Cultures, Political and Economic Systems Are, by Their Nature, Resistant to Economic Development Through International Trade

...that certain kinds of cultures, political and economic systems are, by their nature, resistant to economic development through international trade. In this modern age of globalization, where capital can cross the national borders so easily and the investment funds can be pulled from one country to another in order to respond to new business opportunities, economic development is attainable in the most of the countries. However, the economic development depends on the certain kinds of cultures, political and economic systems. In general for any country to reach an economic development there are few conditions to be met such as stable government, no corruption and friendly culture. In other words, economic development is “affected by those intangibles that are collectively known as culture” (Francis & Hezel). Max Weber in the early 20th century offered a different view on how cultural and even religious values impact the economic output. “He argued that the Protestant work ethic, supported by Reformation teachings that the pursuit of wealth was a duty, inculcated the virtues needed for maximum economic productivity. For this reason, Protestants were more productive than Catholics throughout Europe-just think of Germany and Great Britain, for instance, compared to Ireland, Spain, Portugal and Italy in his day.” (Francis & Hezel). The question is why some countries do very well, while others fail to develop, even when there are help to support their development? For example......

Words: 532 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Culture is all of the behaviors and beliefs representative of a specific social, ethnic, or age group. I have always been fascinated with the Chinese culture. I am amazed with their rich history and sense of tradition. On the surface Chinese culture seems very different from American culture. The cultural views between the two differ when it comes to intelligence, identity development, morality, gender, time orientation, communication, and health and wellness. The United States of America is an individualistic society. In an individualistic society, it is “every man for himself”. An individual’s success is more important than that of the entire society. China is a collectivistic society. The people value the success of the entire society over that of an individual. In order to maintain a sense of harmony, they behave with decorum at all times and will not do anything to cause someone else public embarrassment. The Chinese benefit from being a collectivistic society. Confrontation is avoided and harmony is maintained. Furthermore, when the society as a whole works together everyone benefits from the labor. For example, rice agriculture is extremely labor intensive. It takes between 1,000 and 2,000 man hours to raise a crop on 2.5 acres of land (Hays 2010). As rice is important for the economic growth of China, everyone in the community works to grow the rice, everyone also benefits from its growth. On the other hand, there are downfalls to being......

Words: 1929 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Influence of Culture on Parenting Practices and Child Development

...Influence of Culture on Parenting Practices and Child Development Gloria Moore MFCC 537 October 17, 2015 Professor Timothy Docheff Influence of Culture on Parenting Practices and Child Development Parenting practices and child development have a strong correlation. “Parents often like to think that children are immune to the stressful complexities and troubles of the rapidly changing adult world” (Henderson, 2011). Many adults underestimate the perception of children to the world and, therefore, believing concerns of the child do not matter. There are numerous factors involved in the developing child such as family constellation, home environment, peer pressures, and societal stresses. “The family, school, community, and many other variables enhance or impede a child’s well-being.” (Henderson, 2011). An examination of the effect of environmental stressors on a child's health and wellbeing is provided. A glance at how cultural differences in parenting influence a child's developments is mentioned. Additionally, how secure attachment and problematic family relationships affect a child's wellbeing. Equally important are the factors contributing to attachment concerns during the child development, such as newly formed blended family. Effects of Environmental Stressors “Crime, corrupt public figures, a world full of tension, war, and the threat of terrorism that may strike anywhere at any time also create an environment of uncertainty and fear” (Henderson, 2011, p. 9)...

Words: 1153 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Culture and Development

...According to Webster (2015) culture is defined as, "a way of thinking, behaving, or working in a particular society". A culture could be as close as your own town or as far away as New Zealand, but does our culture affect a persons development? According to Berry, Poortinga, and Pandey (1997) The culture an individual is raised in does indeed affect a persons development. Berry (1997) says as "humans we are all ethocentric" in that we grow up in a specific culture, we learn the ways and behaviors of that culture and expect all other cultures to be that same way. When we view the cultures of other countries we clearly see that there are a great many different cultures throughout the world in which we live. Cross-Cultural observations were conducted during theses studies to compare two or more cultures over a series of numerous topics. According to Super and Harkness (1986) these tests are generally conducted with a "decontexualized universal child" (placing a child in a controlled setting). Super (1986) says the "developmental niche" has been set into three different components; the physical and social settings in which the child lives, the customs of child care, and the psychology of the caregivers. Other features the interviewers may look at could include; the social, and cognitive rules of the particular culture, the individuals characteristics, or even how independent the child may or may not be. Jean Piaget was one of the most influential researchers of the 20th......

Words: 562 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Culture Development

...Discuss the anthropological view that culture is a resource for development. In my personal opinion culture is the way things are done and it refers to people’s learned and shared behaviours and believes and Humans in turn use culture to adapt and transform the world they live in. Therefore, in anthropological view, culture or Cultural Anthropology is basically studies the different cultures of humans and how those cultures are shaped or shape the world around them. The goal of a cultural anthropologist is to learn about another culture by collecting data about how the world economy and political practices effect the new culture that is being studied. One of example of culture would be the Ashanti culture. Although, Ashanti is an African tribe located in central Ghana. In the Ashanti culture, the family and the mother’s clan are most important. A child is said to inherit the father’s soul or spirit which is called (ntoro) and from the mother, a child receives flesh and blood (mogya). This relates them more closely to the mother’s clan. The Ashanti live in an extended family. The family lives in various homes or huts that are set up around a courtyard. The head of the household is usually the oldest brother that lives there. He is chosen by the elders. He is called either Father or Housefather and everyone in the household obeys him. On the other hand, the anthropological study of culture can be organized along two persistent and basic themes: Diversity and Change. An......

Words: 503 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Organizational Culture and Employee Development Survey

...Organizational Culture and Employee Development Survey Review Information | | Your Name: |                 | Date: |       | Position:       | | | Introduction and Guidelines | You have been invited to participate in an Organizational Culture and Employee Development survey. In this survey, employees from each department within the team will answer questions about different areas of the organization’s culture and how employees are prepared and supported to perform their jobs and progress in the company. This is a completely voluntary survey, there are no risks involved for participating. It is very important for us to gather honest and accurate information to learn from your opinions and take them into consideration to implement an action plan. Complete the survey, using the following scale: NA = Not Applicable1 = Needs Work (Unsatisfactory)2 = Gets By (Marginal)3 = Meets Requirements4 = Exceeds Requirements5 = Exceptional | Communication | | | (5) = Exceptional | (4) = Exceeds Requirements | (3) = Meets Requirements | (2) = Gets By | (1) = Needs Work | Information and knowledge are shared openly | | | | | | Communication is encouraged in this organization | | | | | | Effective communication | | | | | | Verbal communications | | | | | | Written communications such as reports | | | | | | Supervisor/Employee communication is encouraged | | | | | | I can communicate with no fear of prejudice | | |...

Words: 708 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Culture and Development

...Culture and Development Paper Tiffany Arthur EDU/305 University of Phoenix Instructor Cari Cephus April 9, 2012 Culture and Development Paper In today’s world, there are many different cultures. Culture is part of an infant/child’s development. The infant/child’s culture helps them develop into who they become when they are adults. A person’s culture has influence on their eating, sleeping, and everyday activities. In this paper, the factors that make up a person’s culture, how the culture influences infant and toddler development, and whether nature or nurture has a stronger influence will be discussed. There are many factors that make up a person’s culture. Culture is not just a person’s race or ethnicity. Some factors that make up a person’s culture can include a combination of thoughts, attitudes, feelings, values, beliefs, behavioral patterns, class, physical abilities, mental abilities, age, foods, clothing, music, and holidays just to name a few. Racial, religion, ethnic, sexual orientation, and social groups of people are also other facts that contribute to a person’s culture. A person does not have to be born into a certain culture but can also make the choice to belong to a certain culture. Culture shifts can happen with any individual and at any point of their lives. An individual can pick and choose which customs they want to change and which ones they want to retain and which ones they want to adapt to. (Zion, Kozleski, & Fulton,......

Words: 606 - Pages: 3