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The Development of Modern Finance

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The Development of Modern Finance
"A Short History of Value"

David Roubaud & Jean-Charles Bagneris 10/2011
The Main Steps of the Theory Building • Portfolio Selection (Markowitz, 1952) • CAPM (Sharpe, 1963) • Financing and Dividend Decisions Neutrality (Modigliani et Miller, 1958, 1961,1963) • Efficient Markets (Fama, 1965, 1970) • Options Pricing Theory (Black & Scholes, 1973, Myers, 1977) • Agency Theory (Jensen, Meckling, 1976) • Efficient Markets II (Fama, 1991) • Behavioural Finance (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979, Shiller, 1981, 2000) Portfolio Selection • Investors are rationals and risk averse • Diversification lowers specific risk • Any portfolio is a combination of the market portfolio and the riskless asset The CAPM Capital Asset Pricing Model • Systematic risk of an asset is measured by its beta coefficient • The model calibrates the risk-return relationship • Simple, elegant and linear model => big success • Low explaining power (strong assumptions) • Alternative models are difficult to use 1 The Development of Modern Finance 2 Financial Markets Efficiency "At any given point in time, assets prices on financial markets account for all available information." • Strong assumptions on: – markets organization – investors behaviour • One consequence of EMH is Random Walk Hypothesis • Assumptions are not always true: 3 forms of efficiency (strong, semi-strong, weak) The irrelevance of financing and dividends decisions In a world without taxes and with perfect financial markets, financing and dividends decision are irrelevant (they have no impact on the firm value).

• Really strong assumptions (no taxes...) • But yields a formal and rigorous basis for financing decisions study • Gave birth to the literature on Security Design Option pricing theory • Options developed on derivative markets • Options give the right to buy or sell an asset for a given price •...

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