Premium Essay

The Discovery of the Structure of Dna

In: Science

Submitted By alanaa
Words 621
Pages 3
The discovery of the structure of DNA

James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, Rosalind Franklin
What did they discover about DNA?
James Watson, along with Francis Crick, studied the molecular structure of DNA that had been extracted from cells and showed how it could serve as the chemical basis of inheritance. Although it is commonly known that everything they "discovered" they stole from Rosalind Franklin, who proceeded to obligingly die. That said they're incorrectly famous for discovering that DNA is composed of sequences of purines and pyramidines hydrogen-bonded together and held in place by two sugar-phosphate strands that form a double helix due to more hydrogen bonding.
Maurice Wilkins is not credited for the actual discovery of the structure of DNA rather that distinction goes to James Watson and Francis Crick and is known as the Watson-Crick model. Wilkins did share in the Nobel prize because his work in spectroscopic studies on nucleic acids led to the use of X-ray crystallography to define the Watson-Crick model of DNA.
Rosalind Franklin discovered the molecular structures of DNA, RNA, viruses, coal and graphite. She was a British biophysicist and X-ray crystallographer who was best known for her work on the X-ray diffraction images of DNA which led to discovery of DNA double helix. Rosalind Franklin's critical contributions to the Crick and Watson model include an X-ray photograph of B-DNA (called photograph 51), that was briefly shown to James Watson by Maurice Wilkins in January 1953. From this x-ray photograph Watson and Crick were able to determine that the structure of DNA was helical. When? * 1869 was a landmark year in genetic research; because it was the year in which Swiss physiological chemist Friedrich Miescher first identified what he called “nuclein” inside the nuclei of human white blood cells * Although 1953 was...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Watson and Crick

..."Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" was an article published by Francis Crick and James D. Watson in the scientific journal Nature in its 171st volume on pages 737–738 . It was the first publication which described the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA. This article is often termed a "pearl" of science because it is brief and contains the answer to a fundamental mystery about living organisms. This mystery was the question of how it is possible that genetic instructions are held inside organisms and how they are passed from generation to generation. The article presents a simple and elegant solution, which surprised many biologists at the time who believed that DNA transmission was going to be more difficult to deduce and understand. The discovery had a major impact on biology, particularly in the field of genetics, enabling later researchers to understand the genetic code . Origins of molecular biology The application of physics and chemistry to biological problems led to the development of molecular biology. Molecular biology is particularly concerned with the flow and consequences of biological information at the level of genes and proteins. The discovery of the DNA double helix made clear that genes are functionally defined parts of DNA molecules and that there must be a way for cells to make use of their DNA genes in order to make proteins. Linus Pauling was a chemist who was very influential in developing...

Words: 1944 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Why Is James Watson Important

...In 1962 James Watson along with Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins were awarded a Noble Prize for the paper that they published about the discovery of the double-helix model of deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA. The discovery of the helical structure of DNA is considered as one of the most important achievements in the field of the science history. However, James Watson does not deserve the recognition of discovering the helical model of DNA. Watson should lose his nobel prize, not only did he not give any credit to the person who was really the one responsible in discovering the helical shape of DNA he is also making rude and prejudiced opinions. Few people know Rosalind Franklin, a scientist who devoted herself in the scientific study of the structure...

Words: 601 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

James Watson, Maurice Wilkins, And Rosalind Franklin

...In 1950, the curiosity, innovation, and persistence of James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind Franklin all together led to a detailed and completed understanding of the structure of Deoxyribonucleic acid. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material found in all cells and is the stuff that genes are made out of. Their discoveries would come to answer one of the most impending questions in the science of life. How do living things pass on traits to their children? This is the question that sparked the want and need of exploration and discovery. James Watson and Francis Crick are the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953. Rosalind Franklin was collecting experimental data about DNA with Maurice Wilkins. Watson...

Words: 270 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Unit Three Aha Thesis: Genetics

...for centuries have been studying genetics on how they pass traits, how their structure matches their function, and generally how they work. How Living Organisms pass Traits Genetics are how the next generation of a species is formed. There are two different ways a new generation is formed and traits are passed, asexual and sexual reproduction. With sexual reproduction is requires two partners and leads to genetic diversity. Asexual and sexual reproduction are both very different strategies of reproduction. Sexual reproduction requires two parents, and gives the child a unique combination of genes from both parents. Sexual reproduction is typically used by more complex organisms, leading to the parents most likely raising their offspring. Asexual reproduction requires only one parent, and the offspring is an exact copy of the parent through a process called mitosis (ISN pg. 93). Mitosis is a part of the cell cycle division process that occurs when...

Words: 751 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

In What Way Has Science and Technology Advanced Medicine Since 1750 (12 Marks)

...because of the discovery of DNA. James Watson and Crick started working together on studying the structure of DNA whilst at the same time Maurice Wilkins and Rosland Franklin in London were using X-ray diffraction to study DNA. Crick and Watson used their findings on their own research and in April 1953 they published the news of their discovery, a molecular structure of the DNA based on all of its features. Their model served to explain how DNA replicates and how hereditary information is coded on it. This set the stages for rapid advances in molecular biology which continues until this day. In the other partnership with Rosland and Franklin, Franklin produced an X-ray photo that allowed Crick and Watson to work out the 3D structure of DNA. The structure of the DNA was found to be a double helix. Watson, Crick and Wilkins shared a Nobel peace prize in medicine in 1962. Franklin had died in 1958 and despite her hard work the prize could not be received posthumously. Another way in which science and technology advanced medicine since 1750 was the development of penicillin. In 1928, Alexander Fleming whilst studying influenza noticed that mold had developed accidently and completely by chance on a set of culture petri dishes used to grow staphylococci germ. The mold on the petri dishes created a bacteria free circle around itself. He then experimented further and made the mold into some sort of medicine and named the substance penicillin. Fleming wrote down his discovery and......

Words: 470 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Rosalind Franklin

...Rosalind Franklin: Life through X-ray Crystallography and DNA Rosalind Franklin, the woman who contributed to scientist of the future understanding DNA structure. Scientist such as James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins benefited greatly from her findings. They received a Nobel Prize based off of her findings. Rosalind was also an X-ray crystallographer. X-ray crystallography is used for looking at atomic and molecular structures of crystal. This work contributed to her discovering the structure of DNA. Franklin was born in London, England, July 25, 1925. She attended an all girls school, which was one of the only schools that offered physics and chemistry. Clearly Franklin excelled at chemistry, as well as all of her other academics. In 1938, franklin attended Newnham College in Cambridge and graduated in 1941. In her graduate year she started a fellowship but in 1942 she started working at the British Coal Utilization Research Association. During this time she studies the porosity of coals, and compared it to the density of Helium. She found that through the pores of coal, substances were expelled in molecular sizes as the temperature increased. These findings helped with coals performance for fuel purposes. Franklin’s work with coals helped with the earning of her doctorate in physical chemistry that she earned in 1945 from Cambridge University. From 1947-1950 Franklin worked in Paris at Laboratoire Central des Services Chimiques de l’Etat. Here Franklin...

Words: 868 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Key Word Outline for Speech on Dna

...Aditya Bhagirath Rev. Chux Okochi SPE1000c 12 October 2015 Key Word Outline I. Introduction A. DNA is a term we throw around so often in the science world B. What is it? How does its structure influence our lives? C. Who discovered it? Where did this happen? D. The structure of DNA is quite important to our somatic function E. Applications of DNA in our daily life, as well as man made functions that are incredibly important to our development in civilization * PCR and Gel Electrophoresis : Polymerase Chain Reaction with Gel Electrophoresis * Monoclonal and Polyclonal antibodies * DNA genotyping : Used in conjunction with PCR/Gel Electrophoresis to compare DNA for filial testing(maternity/paternity) as well as CSI for identification of potential suspects(forensics); can also be used to trace pedigree F. The structure of DNA is incredibly important to it’s function, and the discovery of this molecule, that is the basis of our life, has influenced the advancement of the human race because of it’s incredible structure and variability as well as its role in human side application. II. Body G. DNA is Deoxyribonucleic acid * It is also known as a polynucleotide * It is one of the 3 major macromolecules of life! * It is a complex molecule * It is a anti-parallel double helix – meaning its two opposite sides twirl around and form a parallel twisting molecule *......

Words: 1024 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Structure Of DNA In The Movie, Jurassic Park

...The Structure of DNA I read about the discovery of the shape of DNA. Anyone who has ever seen the movie Jurassic Park, knows that DNA comes in the shape of a double helix, but the way we came to that conclusion was a very interesting story. Several people were working very hard to find the shape of DNA. One of those people was Maurice Wilkins, who decided to use a new technology called X-Ray diffraction in order to see how light passed through the DNA structure. From that information he had more ideas of what it might look like, but we were still very far off from deciding it was a double helix. A few other scientists named Crick and Watson decided to take a slightly different approach. Since we knew the four elements that made up DNA,...

Words: 333 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Life Science

...Grantham University Instructor Brad Wells Introduction to Life Science 5/07/2013 For this assignment made me think a lot about the things that a lot of great men and woman have done scientifically before I start this assignment I want to tell you about some great people that I admire in the scientific world. Those are some of the scientist that I admire first one is Albert Einstein developed the special and general theories of relativity. In 1921, he won the Nobel Prize for physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect. Einstein is generally considered the most influential physicist of the 20th century. Another one is Gorge Washington Carver; Carver was born into slavery in Diamond, Missouri, around 1864. The exact year and date of his birth are unknown. Carver went on to become one of the most prominent scientists and inventors of his time, as well as a teacher at the Tuskegee Institute. Carver devised over 100 products using one of these crops the peanut including dyes, plastics and gasoline. Since I took this course science had made me think about my life a lot Science has improved my life in many ways. First, it's given me a safe and reliable means of controlling my reproductive choices. It's improved my understanding of the nutritional needs of my body and what I feed my daughter. Science has provided many of the modern day......

Words: 1263 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Hsc Biology, Blueprint of Life Module Notes.

...HSC Biology – Blueprint of Life 4. The structure of DNA can be changed and such changes may be reflected in the phenotype of the affected organism. The phenotype of an organism is its total appearance determined during development by an interaction between its genetic make-up (genotype) and the environment. A genome is all of the genetic material (DNA) within a cell and is specific to each organism. Genomes influence nearly all the traits or phenotypes. The phenotypic appearance is therefore directly affected by gene expression. The extent of phenotypic differences depends on how different the DNA sequences are in individuals, but may also be influenced by the environment. • Outline evidence that led to Beadle and Tatum’s ‘one gene-one protein’ hypothesis and explain why this was altered to the ‘one gene – one polypeptide’ hypothesis Beadle and Tatum carried out experiments with red bread mould. The normal variety of mould can manufacture certain substances that it needs for living, including vitamin B1, B2, B4 and B12. The normal moult possesses specific enzymes that catalyse the different reactions that produce these vitamins. Beadle and Tatum produced several varieties of the bread mould, each of which had a change in one of its genes. They tested these varieties and found that some had lost their ability to make vitamin B2 while others could no longer make vitamin B4 and so on. The results obtained by Beadle and Tatum showed that a change in......

Words: 5135 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

DNA In The 19th Century

...could never see before. They discovered chromosomes and found that they were made out of something called DNA as well as proteins. Further experiments led them to realize that DNA held the code of life. Soon enough scientists started asking what DNA was made of and why it is so important. What they discovered was that DNA consists of four nitrogenous bases called adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. Scientists still wanted to learn how all living things in this world could be created by...

Words: 469 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

College

...Class: Biology CP Teacher: Mr. Liska Date: 1-22-13 Standards: B-4.1 Compare DNA and RNA in terms of structure, nucleotides, and base pairs. B-4.3 Explain how DNA functions as the code of life and the blueprint for proteins. B-4.4 Summarize the basic processes involved in protein synthesis (including transcription and translation). Essential Questions: What is genetic material composed of? What is the shape of the DNA molecule? How is information organized in a DNA molecule? What scientific investigations led to the discovery of DNA’s structure? How does DNA replicate, or make a copy of itself? What are the roles of protein in DNA replication? What is the process of gene expression? What is the role of RNA in gene expression? What happens during transcription? What are the major steps of translation? Learning Objectives: * Students will be able to synthesize the importance of DNA to life on earth. * After going through notes and activities on DNA properties, students will be able to analyze the 1components in the basic chemical structure and properties of DNA. * Students will be able to see visual components that DNA is contained in the order of bases, while the base-pairing structure allows information to be copied. * Given the structure of DNA, students will be able to investigate how the process of DNA replication occurs. * Students will evaluate how gene expression produces proteins by transcription and translation. * Given......

Words: 322 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

There Is No Hope of Doing Perfect Rearch

...(religion) but not the real one. People have no perfect brains, so one can’t expect them to deliver perfect work. As we all know, every discovery begins with a single brain which later develops to a certain creation. Each human being has their own understanding and views of certain phenomena. When someone discovers something, it acts as the source of other major discoveries to come. It has to undergo major changes and alteration for its perfection. Research involves experimental analysis either in the laboratory, field or on certain events. During the research experiments, the probability of getting false results is very high due to human, instrumental and other field errors. Let’s say a group of people are doing the same research on a certain topic. Their results will be very different when compared then everyone tries to modify them in different ways. This leads to different discoveries with time. Therefore research is dynamic and a continuous process. In order to clarify all these, let’s consider the DNA structure discovery. Miescher discovered nuclein in 1869. These gave way for further research to nucleic acid and later the double helix in 1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick (Murray, Rodwell, Lender, Botham, Veil, and Kennelly, 2009). In the initial stages of DNA discovery, no one knew that it had much impact to our lives. The discoveries lead to emergence of other scientists who brought their...

Words: 806 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Science

...Fortune, and DNA DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid a acidic compound that contains nitrogen and phosphorus Bacteriophages- only infect certain bacteria and were the viruses of choice for the early experiments • DNA functions as the cell’s treasure house of inheritance • The cumulative efforts of many scientists, building on one another’s work, resulted in the discovery of that function • Experimental tests that used bacteria and Bacteriophages offered the first solid evidence that DNA is the hereditary material in living organisms 13.2 The discovery of DNA’s structure Nucleotide- in DNA has a five-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base X-ray diffraction images- the images that form after a beam of x-rays is directed at a molecule, which scatters the x-rays in a pattern that can be captured on film • The pattern of base pairing between the two strands in DNA is constant for all species • A with T, and G with C • However, each species has a number of unique sequences of base pairs along the length of its DNA molecules • A DNA molecule consists of two nucleotide strands coiled together into a double helix; the bases of one strand hydrogen bond with the bases of the other 13.3 DNA replication and repair DNA replication- how the molecule of inheritance is duplicated before a cell divides Helicases- enzymes that unzip the hydrogen bonds which are individually weak and easy to break DNA......

Words: 484 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Rosalind Franklin Research Paper

...Utilization Research Association (BCURA), Franklin gave up her fellowship and took the job. BCURA was a young organization and there was less formality on the way research had to be done. Also it was established in 1938 by 2“Lord Rutherford to the Coal burning Appliance Maker’s Association on the need to establish research into coal use.” Many coal mine owners committed and support by making a tax for every ton of coal mined and this was supported by the UK government. Franklin worked for BCURA until 1947 and published a number of papers on the physical structure of...

Words: 1637 - Pages: 7