Premium Essay

The Economic Development of the American Indian


Submitted By samrosenblatt
Words 964
Pages 4
The Economic Development of the American Indian

When discussing the effect of colonialism on native economies, whether in terms of dependency theory, colonialism, or other factors, one interesting example lies very close to home: the economic fate of the American Indian.
Historically, American Indians were hunters and gatherers. These practices played a part in molding the culture of these people. When the white settlers came to America and began to force the American Indian people off of best parts of land, and killing many of the animals that they used for food, clothing and shelter, these military and economic challenges caused the hunting and gathering economic system of the American Indians to collapse, just like many of the other colonized nations discussed in Jefferey Sachs’s article Notes on a New Sociology of Economic Development. In this situation, the best thing for a society to do would be to industrialize, but a stigma for all things white made industrialization an unpopular idea for the American Indians. Even if they had wanted to industrialize, they had few natural resources to do so, and their only contact with international economy was through the people that were oppressing them. In addition, a written language was not part of their culture till fairly recently, and in many tribes mathematics beyond counting and record keeping was not widely used or taught. Both a written language and education of mathematics are cultural factors that contribute to a society’s ability to industrialize, and the lack of which further prevented the American Indians from doing so. It seems inevitable that such a people should fall into poverty, and that is exactly what happened.
“In 1989, about 603,000, or 31 percent, of American Indians were living below the poverty level [defined by the U.S. Government]. The national poverty rate was about 13 percent”(United

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Business Practices in Retail and Wholesale Firework Sales for the State of Washington Tribes

...are the Business practices in retail and wholesale firework sales for the State of Washington Tribes? Writing up your Topical Research and Doctoral Learning Plan Marjoree Corless Northcentral University The Business Practices in Retail and Wholesale Firework Sales for the State of Washington Tribes This paper examines the legal rights that American Indians/Tribes have on their tribal lands when they are attempting to promote and develop economic developments in their communities, with a particular emphasis on the sale of fireworks. The paper will examine the hierarchy and relationship of agencies involved in the economic development practices for Tribes, and how the small entrepreneurial businesses, such as fireworks is Indian Country can be achieved. This paper attempts to demonstrate and support the hypothesis that economic developments for tribes are essential for American Indian people to become self-sufficient. Background Tribes that are federally recognized and are exercising their governmental authority over their Tribal lands inside the states they reside in. Also, according to the 2010 Census, the American Indian population was at 5.2 million people which were a total 1.7 percent of the entire population, in the...

Words: 4140 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Research Paper: Native American Gaming in the U.S.

...Native American Gaming in the U.S. Sarah E. Wall TM 378 University of Southern Mississippi The casino industry is a large industry in the U.S. According to Business Insider, the gaming industry in the U.S. is worth over $240 billion dollars (Pierceall, 2014). In 2013, it employed nearly 1.7 million people (Pierceall, 2014). Gaming, gambling, is what the casino industry is made of. Gambling is to make a prediction of an uncertain outcome and the back the decision with money (Hashimoto & Fenich, 2007). Gaming was a tradition amongst the Native Americans long before the arrival of Christopher Columbus. Native American Gaming is still a huge part of gaming in the U.S. today. History of Native American Gaming: Long before the ships of Columbus brought playing cards to North America, the indigenous people engaged in gambling activities (“Native American Gaming”, n.d.). According to History of Native American Gaming, 2009: “Gaming is not new to Native Americans. In fact, it has been a part of our culture since the beginning of time.” Stewart Culin’s Games of North America Indians classifies the hundreds of Native games into two categories. These categories include (“Native American Gaming, n.d.): 1) Games of chance, including dice games and guessing games 2) Games of dexterity, encompassing archery, javelin and darts, shooting, ball games, and racing games These categories were found among all of the North American tribes when the Europeans invaded the North...

Words: 1683 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Native American Environmental Issues

...Essay on Native American Environmental Issues by David R. Lewis This essay is taken from Native America in the Twentieth Century: An Encyclopedia, edited by Mary B. Davis and published in 1994 by Garland Publishers of New York. The encyclopedia includes additional essays on mining, natural resource management, hunting and fishing rights, and economic development. It's a highly recommended resource. Reprinted without permission for educational purposes. Traditionally Native Americans have had an immediate and reciprocal relationship with their natural environments. At contact, they lived in relatively small groups close to the earth. They defined themselves by the land and sacred places, and recognized a unity in their physical and spiritual universe. Their cosmologies connected them with all animate and inanimate beings. Indians moved in a sentient world, managing its bounty and diversity carefully lest they upset the spirit "bosses," who balanced and endowed that world. They acknowledged the power of Mother Earth and the mutual obligation between hunter and hunted as coequals. Indians celebrated the earth's annual rebirth and offered thanks for her first fruits. They ritually addressed and prepared the animals they killed, the agricultural fields they tended, and the vegetal and mineral materials they processed. They used song and ritual speech to modify their world, while physically transforming that landscape with fire and water, brawn and brain. They did not passively...

Words: 2425 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Native American Environmental Issues

...Native American Environmental Issues Traditionally Native Americans have had an immediate and reciprocal relationship with their natural environments. At contact, they lived in relatively small groups close to the earth. They defined themselves by the land and sacred places, and recognized a unity in their physical and spiritual universe. Their cosmologies connected them with all animate and inanimate beings. Indians moved in a sentient world, managing its bounty and diversity carefully lest they upset the spirit "bosses," who balanced and endowed that world. They acknowledged the power of Mother Earth and the mutual obligation between hunter and hunted as coequals. Indians celebrated the earth's annual rebirth and offered thanks for her first fruits. They ritually addressed and prepared the animals they killed, the agricultural fields they tended, and the vegetal and mineral materials they processed. They used song and ritual speech to modify their world, while physically transforming that landscape with fire and water, brawn and brain. They did not passively adapt, but responded in diverse ways to adjust environments to meet their cultural as well as material desires. The pace of change in Indian environments increased dramatically with Euroamerican contact. Old World pathogens and epidemic diseases, domesticated plants and livestock, the disappearance of native flora and fauna, and changing resource use patterns altered the physical and cultural landscape of the New World...

Words: 2359 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Federal Tax Provisions for Tribes

...PROVISIONS AND ANALYSIS OF SELECTED ISSUES RELATING TO NATIVE AMERICAN TRIBES AND THEIR MEMBERS Scheduled for a Public Hearing Before the SENATE COMMITTEE ON FINANCE on May 15, 2012 Prepared by the Staff of the JOINT COMMITTEE ON TAXATION May 14, 2012 JCX-40-12 CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY I.  1  GENERAL RULES REGARDING THE TAXATION OF INDIAN TRIBES AND TRIBAL MEMBERS AND THE TAXING POWERS OF INDIAN TRIBES ................. 3  A.  Income Taxation of Indian Tribes and Wholly Owned Tribal Corporations................ 3  1.  Federal income taxation of Indian tribes and wholly owned tribal corporations ... 3  2.  State taxation of Indian tribes ................................................................................. 4  B.  Tax Treatment of Enrolled Members of Indian Tribes ................................................. 7  1.  Federal tax............................................................................................................... 7  2.  State tax................................................................................................................... 7  C.  Taxing Powers of Indian Tribes .................................................................................... 9  D.  Alaska Native Settlement Trusts................................................................................. 10  II.  SELECTED FEDERAL TAX RULES AND ISSUES RELATING TO INDIAN TRIBES AND THEIR MEMBERS ......................................

Words: 17292 - Pages: 70

Free Essay

Age of Jackson

...private freedom, South Carolina and Nullification, Calhoun’s political theory, the Nullification crisis, Indian removal, the Supreme Court and the Indians, Biddle’s bank, pet banks, the economy, and the panic of 1837. Although winning the most electoral and popular votes during the presidential election of 1824, Andrew Jackson lost the race to John Quincy Adams. The election of 1824 laid the ground work for a new system of political parties. In 1828, Van Buren, established the political apparatus of the Democratic Party, complete with local and state party units overseen by a national committee and network of local newspapers devoted to the party and to the election of Andrew Jackson. During the election, Jackson’s supporters made few campaign promises, relying on their candidate’s popularity and the working of party machinery to get the vote out. Nearly 57 percent of the eligible electorate cast ballots, more than double the percentage four years earlier. Jackson won a resounding victory, carrying the entire South and West, along with Pennsylvania. His election was the first to demonstrate how the advent if universal white male voting organized by national political parties, had transformed American politics. Andrew Jackson had little formal education and was a man of many contradictions. He held a vision of democracy that excluded any roles for Indians and African-Americans. Jackson believed that the states, not Washington, DC should be the focal point of governmental activity...

Words: 1775 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Criminal Justice Stsyem

...countries. This person is Romesh T. Wadhwani, one of the richest Indian American globally and who plays an active role in the communication between the US and India. He states that the two countries needs to communicate better with each other. Mr. Wadhwani is chairman and founder of the Wadhwani Foundation and founder of the Symphony Technology Group, a private equity firm investing in software, internet and technology- enabled service companies, the California native invest a significant amount of his personal wealth towards philanthropic activities in India. The Indian and US dialogue is not the best. The two countries could really use a lot of help when it comes to them communicating with each other. They started a policy program three years ago, there was a sense of much greater promise particularly in the areas of economic development, putting aside geopolitics. But, now there is a feeling of frustration on both sides. On the American side, the feeling is that the Indian policies are too inconsistent in a variety of ways, such as one ministry doesn’t talk to another ministry and nobody steps in to end the confusion or the issues at hand. They are even inconsistency in a way that when the cabinets agree on something it doesn’t last long it gets overturned six months later or reinterpreted over time. That makes it very difficult for Americans to relate to having any type of dealings with India on an economic development. The second thing is that the quality of communication...

Words: 1002 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Essay On South Asian Americans

... Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Immigrants from these countries from South Asia form the South Asian Americans. For many years, South Asia Americans have been trying to come together and form one community that will treat members from each South Asian country equally. According to the proponents of this formation, it will help them to address challenges that they face as one community and ensure that they all work towards their success as South Asian Americans. However, some member of South Asian Americans believe that they got raw deal in the formation of South Asian community as one or few countries have taken advantage of the term to refer to themselves and created different class status among the South Asian Americans instead of all being equal. According to the members of the South Asian Americans, the formation of class status has become a major impediment towards the achievement of success by the South...

Words: 676 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Indian Reorganization Act of 1934

...The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, also known as the Wheeler Howard Act or the IRA, had a major impact on the everyday lives of Native American Tribes that were scattered across the United states. The Indian Reorganization Act provided the means and tools for tribes to form their own governments and constitutions. The IRA stopped the general allotment act that was put into effect by the Dawes of 1887. The Indian Reorganization Act granted the Secretary of Interior a tremendous amount of power over Native American affairs ranging from land, livestock, employment, government, etc. According to the reorganization plan, after a tribe or nation voted to accept the IRA, it would draw up a constitution and bylaws, submit it to a referendum, have the Secretary of the Interior certify the results, and then start operating as a corporate tribal council. Of the 181 tribes accepting the Indian Reorganization Act between 1934 and 1945, only ninety-six adopted a tribal constitution, and only seventy-three tribes ever received corporate business charters. Seventy-seven tribes with a population of 86,365 members rejected the Act outright. Several of these were large reservation groups, such as the Klamath Indians of Oregon and the Crows of Montana. An especially bitter blow to Collier was the rejection of the IRA by the Navajo Nation. With 98 percent of the eligible Navajo voting, the tribe rejected the Act by 419 votes. The Navajo had not forgiven the Collier administration for its drastic...

Words: 1456 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Chapter 16

...Jenny Ulery 01/12/15 5th Ch. 16 Study Questions - America’s Gilded Age: 1870-1890 1. The American economy thrived because of federal involvement, not the lack of it. How did the federal government actively promote industrial and agricultural development in this period? BE SPECIFIC. The federal government actively promoted industrial and agricultural development. It enacted high tariffs that protected American industry from foreign competition, granted land to railroad companies to encourage construction, and used the army to remove Indians form western land desired by farmers and mining companies. 2. Why were railroads so important to America’s second industrial revolution? What events demonstrate their influence on society, politics, and the economy? Spurred by private investment and massive grants of land and money by federal, state, and local governments, the number of miles of railroad track in the US tripped between 1860 and 1880 and tripled again by 1920, opening vast new areas to commercial farming and creating truly national market for manufactured goods. The growing population formed an ever-expanding market for the mass production, mass distribution, and mass marketing of goods, essential elements of a modern industrial economy. The railroads created 5 transcontinental lines and 4 times zones throughout the nation. 3. Why did organized efforts of farmers, workers, and local reformers largely fail to achieve substantive change in the Gilded Age...

Words: 2336 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Indian Healthcare Improvement Act

...IHS Affirmative Observation One: Inherency 2 Advantage One: Health 5 Advantage Two: Indigenous Economy 9 Observation Two: Solvency 14 Only federal action can solve the case- denying Indian health care furthers an ongoing policy of American Indian genocide 17 Inherency – Lack of Funding 18 Inherency – Lack of Funding 19 Inherency – Lack of Funding 20 Inherency – Lack of Funding 21 Health Impacts – Disease/Death 22 Health Impacts – Disease/Death 23 Health Impacts – Disease/Death 24 IMPACT: Mental Health and Suicide 25 IMPACT: Mental Health and Suicide 26 Extensions to Genocide/Racism Impact 27 Extensions to Genocide/Racism Impact 28 IMPACT: Moral Obligation/Human Rights 29 Solvency Extension - IHCIA/IHS Solves 30 Solvency Extension - IHCIA/IHS Solves 31 Solvency Extension - IHCIA/IHS Solves 32 Solvency Extension - IHCIA/IHS Solves 33 Solvency Extension - IHCIA/IHS Solves for cultural sensitive health 34 Solvency Extension – Congress Key 35 Solvency Extension – Federal Government Key 36 A2: I.H.S. is Racist 37 A2: Transportation 38 A2: “Structural/Distribution Barriers” 39 A2: No Qualified Professionals 40 A2: Bureaucrats 41 A2: IHS has arbitrary eligibility standards 42 A2: Blood Quantum 43 A2: Medicaid Solves 44 AT: Medicaid Solves 45 AT: Medicaid Solves 46 A2: IHS doesn’t use traditional medicine 47 Tribal...

Words: 29491 - Pages: 118

Premium Essay

Development of the Western Frontier

...Name: Tutor: Course: Date: Development of the Western Frontier Frederick Jackson turner developed a thesis called the frontier thesis where he conquers that the democracy of America was established by the Western frontier. He also stated that the democracy of America resulted from violence and the absence of interests in high culture. He continued to state that the Frontier land was acquired, and there was no need to establish institutions to attain it. His insistence on the frontier’s need to shape the country led to a pool of responses found in many articles. His works led to the use of social history as the underlying grounds for all socio-economic and political progress in the history of America. When Turner died, history departments were teaching frontier history based on his approach. For a long time, the history of America has been largely tied to the colonization history of the Great west. The presence of free land and the settlement of Americans to the west explain the progress of America. American institutions have been required to change with the increase of the diversity and population of people and facilitate the transformation from backward political and economic ways to civilization. Development in some nations has only taken place in some areas, but in America, development has been widespread. However, there is a frontier line still facing primitive conditions along the western part. Nevertheless, the history of America is not based on the western coast...

Words: 1116 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Last of Mohicans

...during the French and Indian War. All the characters have their role and development of their part in the story that is well supported, clothes, geographical location, vocabulary, it seems that was not spared anything in relation to research historical construction of the film. Of course we cannot forget that much of the film depicts the fictional part of the story between the hero and heroine, they end up together in the end despite all the tragedies that happened, but either way the historical basis on which this novel was created could be closer to the reality of American colonial epoch 1757. The film shows what happened in the French and Indian War from the viewpoint of the colonists who were eventually recruited as militia under the imposition of the British Empire who fought against French forces , who ended up getting support from certain Indian tribes , is not that settlers willingly accept that they needed to defend the British Colony against the Frenchmen invaders, but rather , a matter of imposition of British government that required the mobilization of these militia to reinforce the power of their troops that existed on American territory . One aspect that is clear in the film is the most of these families were not directly interested in the dispute between the English and French, their main concern was to take care of his own existence, taking care of their land and if possible away from these conflicts, but most with over the years the development of the war they saw...

Words: 1238 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Legalize Gambling

...43% of Nevada’s general fund is fed by gaming-tax revenue, which means casinos pump in $9 billion dollars of revenue annually for the state. California is no stranger to gambling, the Gold Rush set off a gambling boom in San Francisco where it replaced New Orleans as the center for gambling in the United States at that time. California must legalize gambling to raise revenue for its state deficit and to put that money back into its communities. California has always set new standards and exceeds expectations with its impractical views, but gambling has been left in gold dust. With billions of dollars to be made for the state, legalizing gambling in California and taxing it seems to be a more practical idea than to keep it illegal. With Indian gaming casinos and lotteries already here and flourishing, why wouldn’t California put a few casinos in cities to get itself out of debt? The state and its $19 billion deficit going into fiscal year 2012 needs a solution and a solution fast. The California state Legislature is in Sacramento playing the slots themselves, but the screen does not say bar-bar-bar but cuts-cuts-cuts. Money is won with...

Words: 2708 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Mr.Kedar borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest; Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana to the north The Ministry of External Relations is responsible for managing the foreign relations of Brazil. Brazil is a significant political and economic power in Latin America and a key player on the world stage.[1] Brazil's foreign policy reflects its role as a regional power and a potential world power and is designed to help protect the country's national interests, national security, ideological goals, and economic prosperity. Between World War II and 1990, both democratic and military governments sought to expand Brazil's influence in the world by pursuing a state-led industrial policy and an independent foreign policy. Brazilian foreign policy has recently aimed to strengthen ties with other South American countries, engage in multilateral diplomacy through the United Nations and the Organization of American States, and act at times as a countervailing force to U.S. political and economic influence in Latin America. Contents * 1 Overview * 2 Foreign policy * 2.1 Lula da Silva administration * 2.2 Rousseff administration * 3 Regional policy * 4 Diplomatic relations * 5 United Nations politics * 6 Outstanding international issues * 7 Foreign aid * 8 Participation in international organizations * 9 Bilateral...

Words: 11631 - Pages: 47