Free Essay

The Effect of Selective Attention on the Academic Development of the Nigerian Student

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By Palmer101
Words 1752
Pages 8
THE EFFECT OF SELECTIVE ATTENTION
ON THE ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE
NIGERIAN STUDENT

BY

GODWIN EIGBE

A PAPER PRESENTED AT
THE INSTITUTE OF OPENCAST MINING AND TECHNOLOGY
BENIN CITY

23RD AUGUST, 2013

Introduction

The poor performance of Nigerian students in both internal and external examinations have been decried in many quarters across the country and many have blamed the society, the schools and parents for their role in the deteriorating level of academic performances. Not many have questioned the role of the students themselves in the dilemma that has befallen them. The search for a permanent cure to this menace has been on for decades. However with every new dawn the case seems to go worse.

There are many who blame the poor economy as a result of high level corruption being perpetrated in government and political circles. Others believe that the school system is failing and is not doing enough to ensure that students get the maximum attention necessary for excellence. And there are others who believe that neglect on the part of parents is responsible for poor performances in schools.
However true these factors are, no independent factor can be singled out to be more responsible for the problem of poor performance by students in schools. More recently, many researchers have identified lack of seriousness, laziness which leads to procrastination and corruption and examination malpractices in schools as some of the major factors limiting the performances of students especially those in institutes of higher learning.
Owing to the fact that even children who are labelled “bright” have been found to have done poorly in certain academic environment and situations, one is forced to ask why especially in situations where there are others who are excelling from the same measure of learning and exposure. The ban here is individual attention.
Eigbe (2005) propounded that selective attention will give rise to selective retention which in turn shapes perception. Research has shown that many children who dislike certain teachers, in many cases, do not perform well in the subjects taught by such teachers. Their dislike translates to lack of attention and eventually they dislike the subject. The much you know is the much you give.

ATTENTION
Attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things. Attention has also been referred to as the allocation of processing resources. Many psychologists and neuroscientists have studied attention to determine the source of the signals that generate attention, the effects of these signals on the tuning properties of sensory neurons, and the relationship between attention and other cognitive processes like working memory and vigilance.
According to William James (1890), attention is the taking possession by the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought. Focalization and concentration of consciousness are of its essence. It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others, and is a condition which has a real opposite in the confused, dazed, scatterbrained state which in French is called distraction.
James differentiated between sensorial attention and intellectual attention. Sensorial attention is when attention is directed to objects of sense, stimuli that are physically present. Intellectual attention is attention directed to ideal or represented objects; stimuli that are not physically present. James also distinguished between immediate or derived attention: attention to the present versus to something not physically present. According to James, attention has five major effects. Attention works to make us perceive, conceive, distinguish, remember, and shorten reactions time.
The relationships between attention and consciousness are complex enough that they have warranted perennial philosophical exploration. These investigations have been on for a long time and are continues. A renowned psychologist John WatsonJuan Luis Vives was the first to recognize the importance of empirical investigation into the problem of attention and retention. In his work on memory, Vives found that the more closely one attends to stimuli, the better they will be retained. A student who pays attention is certainly going to harness more facts that one that is constantly distracted.
In order to respond appropriately to a question, Franciscus Donders discovered that time was required to identify a stimulus and to select a motor response. This was the time difference between stimulus discrimination (when you have to select among severally communication reaching you) and response initiation (replying to the one that gets your attention).
It was also discovered that it is possible to focus on one stimulus and still perceive or ignore others. An example of this is the fact that some people in a seminar can give their ears to the lectures while their eyes are busy on other things.
A more modern research on attention is the analysis of the "cocktail party problem" by Colin Cherry (1953). At a cocktail party how do people select the conversation that they are listening to and ignore the rest? This problem is at times called "focused attention", as opposed to "divided attention". The Broadbent's Filter Model of Attention on the other hand, states that information is held in a pre-attentive temporary store, and only sensory events that have some physical feature in common are selected to pass into the limited capacity processing system.

SELECTIVE ATTENTION
Selective attention allows individuals to select or focus on one process while tuning out others. Donald Broadbent's "filter theory of attention" explains this phenomenon by stating that attention is a "bottleneck through which information passes", which then allows individuals to focus on the important. Related to these phenomena's is the "cocktail party effect". This refers to one's ability to hear something significant or important to them in a conversation that they are not directly involved in. Most of society would not realize why or how they heard their hometown come up in a conversation across the room. Most of society does not realize why we actually do have selective hearing. But psychology opens up our brains and makes sense of things that we encounter daily.
Selective attention theories have suggested that individuals have a tendency to orient themselves toward, or process information from only one part of the environment with the exclusion of other parts. There is an abundant amount of evidence which supports that selective attention is governed by our arousal level. The most persistent question in the literature has been whether the shifts in attention that accompany changes in the arousal level are automatic, or deliberate. One segment of the research community has dealt with this issue via the capacity models. These theories propose that we all have a limited amount of mental capacity to allocate to various tasks, at any given time. The number of tasks referred to here can also be named chunks. Chunks are units which have already been stored in long term memory, items which we are familiar with, or are structurally similar to items we are familiar with. It is difficult to normalize the number of items or chunks any individual can store in short term memory, or retrieve from long term memory. There are many individual differences due to prior experience and perception of the material being handled.
The initial evidence for this phenomenon was derived from the work of a Dutch psychologist named De Groot during the 1940's. His experiments required chess players of different abilities to reproduce chessboards mid-game. Each participant was given 5 seconds to view the board, after which all the pieces were taken off the board. The participant was then asked to reconstruct the game. The initial findings showed that the more proficient players could reproduce 90% of the pieces on their first attempt, while the weaker players only reproduced 40% of the pieces. To assess whether the findings were due to each player's ability or familiarity with the board, the players were then exposed to a board with various pieces placed randomly upon it. In this experiment the position of each piece did not hold a personal meaning to the player, since the participants had not been stopped playing a game of chess. This experiment showed no significant differences between the strong players and weaker players.
The models proposed by Broadbent (1957), Treisman (1960), Deutsch and Deutsch (1963), and Norman (1968), were the more prominent theories in the field, to elaborate on De Groot's memory model. All of these models attempted to explain the process by which we attend to certain information, but not all information available to us. One may identify one's environment by means of sound, smell, taste, visual and tactile stimuli as the information referred to above. The issue all of these theories had to resolve was the location of selection to the stimuli. More specifically, the models had to explain the process by which we are able to make sense of our environment, given that we are constantly bombarded with information.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
Philosopher Nicolas Malebranche in his work "The Search After Truth" held that we have access to ideas, or mental representations of the external world, but not direct access to the world itself." Thus in order to keep these ideas organized, attention is necessary. Otherwise we will confuse these ideas. Malebranche wrote that "because it often happens that the understanding has only confused and imperfect perceptions of things, it is truly a cause of our errors.... It is therefore necessary to look for means to keep our perceptions from being confused and imperfect. And, because, as everyone knows, there is nothing that makes them clearer and more distinct than attentiveness, we must try to find the means to become more attentive than we are". According to Malebranche, attention is crucial to understanding and keeping thoughts organized.
Philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz introduced the concept of apperception to this philosophical approach to attention. Apperception refers to "the process by which new experience is assimilated to and transformed by the residuum of past experience of an individual to form a new whole." Apperception is required for a perceived event to become a conscious event. Leibniz emphasized a reflexive involuntary view of attention known as exogenous orienting. However there is also endogenous orienting which is voluntary and directed attention.
The panacea therefore to the effect of selective attention is endogenous orientation which prescribed for a conscientious effort at paying attention to that which is necessary and important whether it’s something we like or not. A deliberate and purposeful effort is required that the student set aside every distraction in order to be attentive and successful.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

An Investigation of Factors Responsible for Mass Failure in Biology in 2013/2014 Neco Examination (a Case Study of Selected Secondary Schools in Oshimili South Local Government in Delta State

...coping with life’s problem. For Afe (2000), Education is considered as a tool to be used for the integration of the individual into the society to achieve self-realisation, develop national consciousness, promote unity, and strive for social, economic, political, scientific, cultural and technological progress. Education in science and mathematics therefore becomes bedrock and indispensable tools for scientific, technological and economic advancement in any nation. It gives the nation the capacity to apply technology for the exploitation of the resources of nature. Such exploitation will depend greatly on mathematics for laying the foundation for political, governmental, military, civil, scientific, technological advancement, economic development, socio-cultural and environmental peace. The importance of mathematics transcends all the definitions and the prosperity of any country depends on the volume and quality of mathematics offered in its school system. Obe (1996) conceptualises mathematics as the master and servant of most disciplines and thus, a source of enlightenment and understanding of the universe. He further opines that without it, the understanding of national problems would be superficial. Greaber and Weisman (1995) agree that mathematics helps the individual to understand the environment and to give accurate account of the physical phenomena around every person. To this end, Setidisho (2001) submits that no other...

Words: 5105 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Audience Perception of Broadcast Media Influence in the Fight Against Youth Restiveness in Nigeria

...INTRODUCTION Restiveness among youths globally and those in Nigeria has become a behaviour pattern which has degenerated into a topical global issue. Youth restiveness portrays man’s negative side of social development. This negative development is rather unfortunate and has become one of the many security challenges facing man in the contemporary society. In many occasions, lives and properties worth millions of naira have been lost or vandalized and some razed down by restive youths. As observed by Chukwuemeka and Agbara (2010), human society and in fact the entire universe is simply and squarely a complex entity. In view of this, individuals and groups have their complexities, needs, aspirations, hopes, goals, opinions, views and values which could be social, economic, religious, psychological or political. Consequently, there is bound to be restiveness among different groups of people especially youths who are at their prime age. The term youth has been variously defined. Ndu (2000) and Yusuf (2001) saw youths as neither adolescents nor children characterized by excessive energy that needs to be exerted, which if not guarded, is channeled into negative tendencies. The United Nations General Assembly and World Bank cited in Adewuyi (2008) defined the youth as people between ages 15 to 24 years. In Nigeria, the people within the age limit of 30 years are considered as youths hence they are allowed to participate in the National Youth Service Scheme (NYSC). For this paper...

Words: 5667 - Pages: 23

Free Essay

Micro Economics, Game Theory

...Education in Africa, Held at Crowne Plaza Hotel, Johannesburg, South Africa, from 12 th-13th October, 2012 1 Abstract With the dire need for technological development occasioned by the need to move with the trend of globalization the Nigerian government in early 1980 introduced what is now popular referred to as the 6-3-3-4 educational system. Under this system a student is expected to spend six years for primary education, three years for junior secondary education, three years for senior secondary education and four years for tertiary education. The focus of this policy is to build technical capacities of students right from their secondary school level which will prepare them for engaging more in engineering and technological related courses in higher institution. To achieve this, the government was expected to equip secondary schools with modern technological equipments, so that the first three years of students in Junior secondary is concentrated in the teachings of technological related subjects. Students are therefore expected to be exposed to practical application of engineering machines and tools at this level. Those students who are seen to have talent in technical areas were expected to be sent to technical colleges established by the government for further practical trainings, while the remaining set of students were expected to continue their three years senior...

Words: 7871 - Pages: 32

Free Essay

Influence of Home Video on Youths in Nigeria

...TITLE PAGE TRENDS OF NEGATIVE THEMES IN NIGERIAN HOME MOVIES (A STUDY OF FOUR HOME MOVIES) BY OGBONNIA CHINAZA. C MC/2006/118 A PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION, CARITAS UNIVERSITY, AMORJI-NIKE, ENUGU. IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE IN MASS COMMUNICATION JULY, 201 DEDICATION I dedicate this work to God Almighty for his unfettered love. He is the only guide to my life and studies and he dispenses his grace freely. Also to my parents Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Ogbodo Ogbonnia and my brothers Arinze, Nnamaka, Chukwunonyerum, I remain grateful for their moral and financial support. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to acknowledge and appreciate all who fired the flame in one way or the other. First, I thank God, the almighty father who has given me life, knowledge, wisdom and strength to accomplish my work. My special gratitude goes to my head of Department, Damian. U. Agboeze who despite his crowded daily programme as the HOD would readily attend to his students and his fatherly advice. My immense gratitude also goes to my supervisor Justina Obi who devoted her time to supervise, correct and criticize this research work to make it a reality. I can never forget the service of my lecturer, Ferdinand Obasi, who made......

Words: 10702 - Pages: 43

Premium Essay

Banking Reforms

...BANKING REFORMS IN NIGERIA AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT A CASE STUDY OF ZENITH BANK PLC CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study For more than two decades after independence, the Nigerian financial system was repressed, as evidenced by ceilings on interest rates and credit expansion, selective credit policies, high reserve requirements, and restriction on entry into the banking industry. This situation inhibited the functioning of the financial system and especially constrained its ability to mobilize savings and facilitate productive investment. In Nigeria, we have eighty-nine banks many of which have a capital base of less than US$ 10 million. This section will set out some of the factors that necessitated the need for major banking sector reforms. Through financial intermediation, banks are supposed to facilitate capital formation and promote economic growth by operating in a safe and sound manner. In the past, some financial institutions showed glaring inability to maintain an efficient flow of funds within the economic system. The sharp practices of some Banks together with the unsoundness of others led to a wide spread of financial sector distress and losses to depositors. It has been seen as a paradox that despite the size of the economy, the country’s reserves are still deposited in foreign Banks due to the low capacity of the local Banks. The sector has been highly concentrated structurally as the ten largest Banks account......

Words: 13391 - Pages: 54

Free Essay

Jhshj

...The Effects of Romantic Relationships on the Academic Performance of University of the Philippines – Cebu College Students (A.Y. 2011-2012) A Research Paper Submitted to the Humanities Division University of the Philippines Cebu College Lahug, Cebu City In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Course Communication II Researchers: Alma Mae J. Bernales Fretzy Colonia Adviser: Ms. Crina Tanongon October 2011 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We, researchers would like to express our sincere appreciation to the following people who offered their untiring support and help to make this research complete. To, Ms. Crina Tanongon, for her constructive criticism, patience in checking the grammatical errors, untiring effort in sharing us new ideas, and encouragement which inspired us to make this study a success. To our parents, Mr. & Mrs. Alberto Bernales and Mr. & Mrs. Efren Colonia who sustained and motivated us throughout this whole semester, for willingly giving us the moral and financial support for this study, and for the patience in understanding us when we have our sleepless nights while making this study. To our fiends, who were really there to make us smile when things gone wrong, and for their cheers and inspirational comments when we were so down. To our respondents, the BSCS-II students, for their participation in this study and for their time and effort in answering the questionnaires sincerely. Most of all, to the Almighty God who......

Words: 15477 - Pages: 62

Free Essay

Xxxxxx

...HOW TO Prepare Your Curriculum Vitae Revised Edition Acy L. Jackson and C. Kathleen Geckeis Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 0-07-142626-4 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-139044-8 All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please contact George Hoare, Special Sales, at george_hoare@mcgraw-hill.com or (212) 904-4069. TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and......

Words: 31831 - Pages: 128

Premium Essay

Effective Use of Instructional Materials in the Teaching of Basic Sciences

...outputs are the goals and outcomes of the educational process. Both the inputs and outputs form a dynamic organic whole and if one wants to investigate and assess the educational system in order to improve its performance, effects of one component on the other must be examined. Instructional resources which are educational inputs are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. Wales (1975) was of the opinion that the use of instructional resources would make discovered facts glued firmly to the memory of students. Savoury (1958) also added that, a well-planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to banish apathy, supplement inadequacy of books as well as arouse student’s interest by giving them something practical to see and do, and at the same time helping to train them to think things out themselves. Savoury (1958) suggested a catalogue of useful visual aids that are good for teaching history i.e pictures, post cards, diagrams, maps, filmstrips and models. He said that selection of materials which are related to the basic contents of a course or a lesson, helps in-depth understanding of such a lesson by the students in that they make the lesson attractive to them, thereby arresting their attention and thus, motivating them to learn. He suggested a catalogue of aids which could be used to teach history. He advocated the use of pictures which will help children in grounding their thoughts and feelings. He said that......

Words: 14971 - Pages: 60

Premium Essay

Innformation and Knowledge Management

...machines, without the written permission of the publisher 1 MANCOSA: POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. WELCOME 1.1 MESSAGE FROM THE PRINCIPAL 1.2 MESSAGE FROM THE OFFICE OF THE DEAN 3 4 INTRODUCTION TO MANCOSA 2.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF MANCOSA 2.2 PROGRAMME OFFERINGS 2.3 ACADEMIC MANAGEMENT 4 5 5 3. THE MANCOSA VISION 6 4. THE MANCOSA MISSION 6 5. POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME STRUCTURE 5.1 OVERALL PROGRAMME OBJECTIVES 5.2 PROGRAMME FOCUS 5.3 MODULE DESCRIPTIONS 2. 6. PROGRAMME ADMINISTRATION 6.1 PROGRAMME MANAGEMENT 6.2 FINANCE 6.2.1 FEE PAYMENT 6.2.2 PAYMENT OF FEES AND OTHER DUES 6.2.3 PAYMENT PLANS 6.2.4 ADDITIONAL FEES/CHARGES 6.2.5 REGISTRATION SPECIFIC/INCOMPLETE MODULES 6.2.6 CANCELLATION OF REGISTRATION/FEE LIABILITY 6.2.7 MISCELLANEOUS COSTS 6.2.8 PAYMENTS 6.2.9 ACCOUNT DETAILS 6.2.10 FOREIGN PAYMENTS 6.3 ASSESSMENTS 6.3.1 METHOD OF ASSESSMENT 6.3.2 MARKING CRITERIA 6.4 STUDENT SUPPORT 6.4.1 STUDENT SUPPORT DEPARTMENT 6.4.2 REGIONAL OFFICES/REPRESENTATIVES 6.5 ACADEMIC SUPPORT 6.5.1 REGIONAL TUTOR SUPPORT (ACADEMIC FACULTY MEMBERS) 6.5.2...

Words: 24199 - Pages: 97

Premium Essay

Music

...Burch, L. M. (n.d.). Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. Retrieved March 24, 2016, from http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/hbem20#.VvS04RasIlI Introduction- In the critical analysis “Kissing in the Carnage: An Examination of Framing on Twitter During the Vancouver Riots” by Lauren M. Burch, Evan L. Frederick & Ann Pegoraro; it was certain that the biggest hockey game of the National Hockey League season had been occurring, but the riot it has spawned in Vancouver makes it look like something far more politically charged may be the cause. In the introduction of the text it states “On June 15, 2011, more than 150,000 fans assembled on the streets of Vancouver to watch game seven of the Stanley Cup Finals between the Vancouver Canucks and the Boston Bruins. Within minutes of the Canucks loss, a riot began. One aspect that made this event unique was that it was documented on Twitter” this would clearly indicate that there was a relationship between the fans knowledge of the current affair which was the hockey game and the Literary review-RQ- 1. Is there a relationship between social media use and KNOWLEDGE of current affairs? 2. What is the relationship between social media use and knowledge of stand your ground law? 3. What is the relationship between social media use and attitude toward stand your ground law? Methodology- In the text it is stated that Twitter is a fairly new medium within the sport communication scenery; a growing body of literature...

Words: 6731 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Internal Control and Organisation Performance

...THE EFFECT OF INTERNAL CONTROL ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF ECOBANK NIGERIA PLC) BY AMOO TEMITOPE GRACE ACT/2009/0036 ADEYIGA ADEBAYO ECN/2009/0005 BEING A RESEARCH PROJECT CARRIED OUT AND SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTING, FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES OSUN STATE UNIVERSITY, OSOGBO NIGERIA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCES (B.Sc) DEGREE IN ACCOUNTING JULY 2013 1 CERTIFICATION It is certified that this research project, written by Amoo Temitope Grace with matriculation number ACT/2009/0036 was supervised by me and submitted to the Department of Accounting, Faculty of management sciences. Osun State University Osogbo, Okuku Campus. Mr J.O Oyewole Project supervisor Date PROF. Temi Ologunorisa Head of Department Date 2 DEDICATION This research work is specially dedicated to Almighty God in Heaven, the one who loves me dearly, unconditionally and eternally, the source and the strength with which I have been able to pull through the challenges that came with this work, for his protection and guidance over my life right from the inception and towards successful completion of this academic programme. Also, to my beloved parents; Mr and Mrs AMOO for their supports both financially and morally to accomplish the great task of passing through this practical project. My prayer to you is that you will eat the fruits of your labor in Jesus name......

Words: 27747 - Pages: 111

Premium Essay

Counselling for Career Choices

...UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION, WINNEBA DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION FACTORS INFLUENCING CAREER CHOICE AMONG THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE SOUTH TONGU DISTRICT OF VOLTA REGION, GHANA DANIEL KWASI GAMELI AVUGLA JULY, 2011 UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION, WINNEBA DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION FACTORS INFLUENCING CAREER CHOICE AMONG THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE SOUTH TONGU DISTRICT OF VOLTA REGION, GHANA DANIEL KWASI GAMELI AVUGLA (B.ED BUSINESS EDUCATION, ACCOUNTING OPTION) A Thesis in the Department of Psychology and Education, Faculty of EDUCATIONAL STUDIES Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies, University of Education, Winneba, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for award of the Master of Philosophy (M. Phil Guidance & Counselling) degree JULY, 2011 DECLARATION STUDENT’S DECLARATION I, DANIEL KWASI GAMELI AVUGLA declare that this Thesis, with the exception of quotations and references contained in published works which have all being identified and duly acknowledged, is entirely my own original work, and it has not been submitted, either in part or whole for another degree elsewhere SIGNATURE: ............................................................................. DATE: ......................................................................................... SUPERVISOR’S DECLARATION I hereby declare that the preparation and presentation of this......

Words: 27516 - Pages: 111

Premium Essay

Research Student

...MASS MEDIA EFFECTS In partial fulfillment of the requirements of Theories of Communication (LAC 701) A paper prepared by Group Four John Fasisi (91817) Kalim Gazal (136615) Moyofade Ipadeola (95580) Nwachukwu Egbunike (147181) Oluwaseun Oti (168137) Seyi Bodunde (168139) Victor Eze (167521) And submitted to: Professor F. A. Adesanoye Department of Communication and Language Arts Faculty of Arts University of Ibadan November 27, 2012 ABSTRACT This literature-driven study examined mass media effects. The work peered into the history of the ‘powerful media’. An in-depth review of relevant theories of mass media effects was analyzed. Findings pointed towards both positive and negative impacts of mass media. However, there was no empirical evidence to substantiate a direct cause and effect relationship of mass media messages with the actions of the consumer of the information. Consequently we can only assert that the mass media impacts on society but does not necessarily have an effect since other factors also influence people other than information consumed from the media. As such, this study asserts that the mass media influences public opinion but does not necessarily cause it. Key words: powerful media, mass media effects, theories of mass media effects, impact of media messages INTRODUCTION The mass media involve organisations that are responsible for the dissemination of information to a large number of people. Basically, the mass......

Words: 13047 - Pages: 53

Premium Essay

Access to Library Materials; Challenges and Solutions

...THE TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF KENYA FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES FACED IN ACCESSING AND UTILIZING INFORMATION RESOUR RESOURCES IN LIBRARIES: A CASE STUDY OF THE TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF KENYA LIBRARY. BY KENNEDY LESHAN SANKALE 112P04744 A research project submitted to the school of Information and Communication Studies, Department of Information and Knowledge Management, in partial fulfillment for the requirements of the award of a Diploma of Technology: Library and Information Technology Technology. 2014 DECLARATION STUDENT I hereby declare that this is my original work and has never been presented in any other institution for an award of a diploma Name: Kennedy Leshan Sankale College Number: 112P04744 Sign: ……………………………………………………….. Date: ……………………………………………………….. SUPERVISOR This project has been presented to examination with my approval as the supervisor in The Technical University of Kenya. Name: Mrs. Tabitha Ndiku Sign: ………………………………………………………….. Date: …………………………………………………………. [i] DEDICATION This research project is dedicated to my friends and classmates whom I have been closely worked with them to accomplish this program. I thank them for the special ideas in terms of creativity, innovativeness and life in general that we have been sharing together. It has been a good time being with them and may the......

Words: 24655 - Pages: 99

Premium Essay

Motivation Fectors

...FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHER MOTIVATION IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THIKA WEST DISTRICT, KIAMBU COUNTY BY TERESA KEMUNTO NYAKUNDI A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE AWARD OF DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION IN THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION OF KENYATTA UNIVERSITY OCTOBER, 2012 DECLARATION This Research Project is my original work and has not been presented to any other university for a degree or any other award. Signature________________________________ Date__________________________ TERESA KEMUNTO NYAKUNDI REG. E55/CE/14342/2009 This Research Project has been submitted for examination with our approval as University Supervisors: Signature_______________________ Date ________________________ Prof. Grace Bunyi Associate Professor Department of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies, School of Education Kenyatta University Signature_______________________ Date ________________________ Dr. Libese Senior lecturer Department of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies, School of Education Kenyatta University ii DEDICATION I dedicate this study to my family. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I acknowledge my supervisors Prof. Grace Bunyi and Dr. L.I Libese for their guidance during the writing of this project. If it were not for their guidance, this work could not have been a success. I also acknowledge teachers and principals of public secondary schools in Thika West......

Words: 18947 - Pages: 76