Free Essay

The Effect of Aquaculture on Mangroves in the Philippines

In: Social Issues

Submitted By Teyk
Words 2287
Pages 10
Philippine mangrove forests play a highly specialized and intricate role in tropical coastal ecosystems. Mangroves are characterized by a species of tree that have adapted to grow in tidal flats, bordering the ocean. Mangroves thrive in the salty coastal water, where other plant species would die. Aquaculture practices in the Philippines have had negative impacts on mangrove tracts, resulting in more than 337 000 hectares lost since 1925 (Samson and Rollon, 2008). The removal of mangroves for aquaculture creates exponential environmental backlash, as the role of mangroves is replaced with polluting aquaculture. The purpose of this paper is to compare the benefits of aquaculture to the negative effects on mangrove ecosystems. When considering the negative aspects of aquaculture it is also important to provide solutions to help mitigate mangrove damage and destruction. This paper has been organized to first provide a background on mangroves and Philippine aquaculture, specifically brackish water ponds. The second portion of this paper is to provide information on the damages caused by aquaculture unto mangrove ecosystems and the environment. The third portion provides solutions to the problems facing mangrove ecosystems because of aquaculture. This paper looks to inspire and educate on the relationship between aquaculture and mangrove ecosystems in the Philippines.

The Benefits of Mangroves

Mangroves provide countless benefits to coastal and inland ecosystems.
Acting as a boundary between ocean and land, mangroves help to buffer and dissipate wave energy. As sea levels rise, coastal erosion is degrading the shores and depositing sediment into the ocean. Mangroves work against erosion by providing a layer of protection against ocean waters. The physical nature of mangrove trunks buffers the force of waves, preventing the full strength of the wave from reaching the coast. Also, the roots of mangrove trees help stabilize shoreline sediments, holding soil and preventing erosion. Loss of mangrove vegetation leads to loss of coastal shore and total land area, as land is washed into the ocean.
The biodiversity of mangroves provides one of the most unique and specialized ecosystems in the world. The unique characteristic of rhizophora, mangrove trees, is that they thrive in salty water, creating a spawning and maturing area for countless fish species. Besides offering a physical enclave for fish habitat, the fallen leaves and dead plant material of mangroves provide rich sustenance for fish populations. Without the protection of mangroves infant fish would be easy prey and therefore be unable to reproduce.
The intense biodiversity of mangroves also helps to process wastes and pollution form the surrounding environment, especially aquaculture. Mangrove filters have been recommended as a solution for processing excess nitrogen waste from shrimp farms (Primavera, 2000; Baliao and Tookwinas, 2002).

The Benefits of Aquaculture

In 1994, the Philippines accounted for 2% of global aquaculture production (FAO, 1996), and in 2004 Philippine aquaculture contributed 1.8 percent of the GDP. Along with providing capitol to the Philippine economy, aquaculture employs over 1 million Philippinos (Rafael D. Guerrero III, 2008). Based on the growing contributions of aquaculture, the Philippine government has given it high priority in the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan (2004-2010), as it is expected to produce 842 674 metric tons annually by 2010. Aquaculture is invaluable to the Philippine economy, as 40% of the country lives in abject poverty (Mark Doyle, 2008).
A starving population that experiences food shortages and rising prices on a regular basis compounds Low GDP. Aquaculture helps remedy the problems of a food crisis, by providing access to an inexpensive and nutritious source of food. In 2003 aquaculture products provided 56% of the animal protein consumed by Philippinos (Rafael D. Guerrero III, 2008). In a third world country, aquaculture has a positive influence providing economic and nutritional benefits.

The Negative Effects of Brackish Water Ponds on Mangroves

Despite the beneficial economic aspects of aquaculture, there are many externalities associated with its operation. Aquaculture takes a heavy toll on mangrove ecosystems, as large swathes are deforested in order to create aquaculture environments. The proximity to the ocean is desirable for fish and shrimp farming, because of a large water supply. Effluent from aquaculture is also diluted in the ocean, during heavy rains. Mangrove areas provide perfect inlets for the construction of brackish and fresh water ponds, and marine pens.
Figure 1.shows brackish water ponds as the predominant source of aquaculture fish (Philippine Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, 2005) It is estimated brackish water ponds are responsible for 50% or 141 000 hectares of mangrove loss in the Philippines (Primavera and Agbayani, 1996). The environmental problems associated with brackish water ponds have ramifications on inland and coastal ecosystems. To maximize profit and economic viability, brackish water ponds can be stocked with Figure 1: Fish Production from Aquaculture by Culture System in the Philippines (Philippine Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, 2005) upwards of 1 400 fish per hectare (Rafael D. Guerrero III, 2008). The high density of marine life poses many health and environmental problems, as it is a breeding ground for disease and pathogens. The 1990’s saw unprecedented shrimp farm decimation due to self-pollution. The island of Negros Occidental saw decline in shrimp production, due to viruses, resulting in 20% of total shrimp ponds being operational (Rafael D. Guerrero III, 2008). A single bacteria, Vibrio Harveyi, was responsible for the economic decline of an entire island’s shrimp farm production. Yellow Head Baculovirus and White Spot Disease are also responsible for the decline in brackish pond productivity. As brackish water shrimp and fish farming intensify, the effluent and waste buildup increases the breeding of bacteria and pathogens. The waste from brackish water shrimp ponds has ramifications for inland and coastal ecosystems far away. Non-sustainable shrimp farming results in the eutrophication of fecal matter and nutrients. Intensive brackish water shrimp farming creates acid sulphate soils (NJ Stevenson). The high concentration of acid sulphate renders the aquaculture farm useless, as it becomes unbearable for any species. Mangroves cannot reclaim areas with high acid sulphate levels because the soil is too poisonous. Rehabilitation is an extensive process requiring the area to be flushed by the ocean. Flushing the unused ponds is a labour intensive process, as upwards of 150 flushes maybe required in order to remove the salts (NJ Stevenson). Flushing brackish ponds is a spatial displacement of the waste, diluting it in the ocean. Calatagan, a small town south of Manila, has been devastated by its mangrove loss. A wealthy lawyer and fish farm owner skirted the law against mangrove removal by damning off water to the thriving mangrove ecosystems. The mangroves died and were subsequently replaced by brackish water fishponds. As a result of the removal of mangroves for aquaculture purposes, the community suffered; their ground water became contaminated with salts, and their access to fishing areas was denied. The socioeconomic externalities associated with mangrove removal are often felt by the periphery of society, those without a voice. This case exposes one of the main reasons for mangrove loss, despite laws against mangrove removal, there is little enforcement. Government incentives for aquaculture and lax enforcement of environmental laws promote aquaculture as a means a survival for a country facing extreme poverty.

Solutions to Mitigate Damage

Despite the severe loss of the total mangrove area in the Philippines, there are many solutions to mitigate further damage. As awareness and understanding of mangrove ecosystems increases, there has been greater effort for their protection at every level. From grassroots initiatives to national policy changes, progress is being made.
Local grassroots initiatives are, collectively, making a national difference. The local communities around mangroves are quickly realizing their benefits and are making an effort to protect them. As seen in Figure 2: Initiatives of Mangrove Reforestation, the predominant driving factor behind replanting is local government and community based initiative. Local governments are funding the rehabilitation and planting of rhizophora, with mixed success. Planting mangroves species in a non-native area, or converting fishponds has limited success. Seedlings are exposed to wind and wave stress, which results in high plant mortality. The root systems of seedlings cannot negate wave erosion and the root systems are exposed. When flooding occurs on mangrove plantations, the entire canopy of the mangrove seedling is submerged, suffocating the plant. Although mangrove replanting can be very successful, it often results in monoculture, lacking the original biodiversity. Replanted mangrove stands are also less efficient at trapping sediment and preventing erosion (Samson and Rollon, 2008).
The National government has both positive and negative effects on the protection of mangrove ecosystems. The Philippine Fisheries Code of 1998, calls for the protection and conservation of aquatic resources, specifically it bans mangrove destruction for aquaculture development. While mangrove removal is now illegal this law is not regularly enforced. The Fisheries Administrative Order of 2001 called for a Code of Practice for Aquaculture. It guidelines “aquaculture must be of environmentally sound design and operation, for sustainable development”. While the specific guidelines are vague, it is another step toward better environmental practices.

Figure 2: Initiatives of Mangrove Reforestation (Samson and Rollon, 2008)

The Philippine government also controls brackish water ponds through 25-year lease agreements. In the mid 80’s to 1990’s it provided several lease agreements to boost economic potential that cleared the way for mangrove deforestation. Owners of lease agreements are unlikely to revert their aquaculture farms back to mangroves due to loss of income (Samson and Rollon, 2008). The easiest and most effective solution to mitigate aquaculture damage on mangrove, takes place before the aquaculture infrastructure is built. Selecting the most appropriate type of aquaculture best suited for the environment, often results in decreasing environmental damage. Off shore marine pens are a way to raise and contain fish without mangrove destruction. Holding nets are placed off shore, where fish are raised in captivity. There is less convenience compared to fishponds, but no mangroves need to be deforested. Mangroves can also be integrated into aquaculture design as to produce more yield and profit. Mudcrabs have been successfully raised in mangrove pens. Stocked pens with 5-7 mudcrab / sq m. at a weight between 150-200g resulted in a higher yield. After 10-15 days the mudcrabs weighted between 200-250g at a net income of 80 cents per kilo (Guerrero, 2000). This lucrative business utilizes mangroves for protection of mudcrabs and as a fertile feeding ground.
Integrating agriculture and aquaculture is another solution to the environmental damage of brackish water ponds. In several cases rice paddies have been stocked with ammonia producing fish such as tilapia. Rice greatly benefits from the ammonia rich excrement of tilapia, which results in less pesticide and fertilizer use. The raising of tilapia and rice is a common practice in China and Vietnam that is now taking hold in the Philippines. Inland rice and tilapia operations require no destruction of mangrove ecosystems, as they are fresh water. Consumer awareness can play huge role in the export of aquaculture products, as consumers become more environmentally engaged. Labeling fish products with their environmental sustainability can force producers to re-examine their aquaculture practices. As demand for more ecologically conscious food rises, aquaculture would take on more sustainable development. Conclusion

Mangrove destruction in the Philippines due to aquaculture is a serious problem. Aquaculture plays a large role in the destruction of mangrove ecosystems, as thousands of hectares of mangroves are deforested to create space for ponds. The removal of such a delicate and specialized ecosystem poses many environmental problems. Mangroves help to anchor coasts against the powerful forces of the ocean and provide a unique habitat for countless fish species. Comparing the socioeconomic benefits of aquaculture with the removal of mangroves is a difficult balancing act. One must consider the externalities and environmental ramifications associated with losing a valuable ecosystem.
Improvements to aquaculture design and infrastructure along with rehabilitation efforts have helped reduce damage to Philippine mangrove ecosystems. The best solution to prevent mangrove destruction is to create an appreciation for the important role mangroves play. Figure 2 shows an increasing appreciation of local communities towards mangroves, which has resulted in communities taking an active role in mangrove rehabilitation. By re-analyzing aquaculture practices to best suit the environment, sustainability can be achieved. Sustainability is key, to ensure continually viable aquaculture production and everlasting mangrove ecosystems.
Hopefully future generations will be able to absorb the beauty and diversity contained within mangroves.

Works Citied

Baliao, D.D., and S. Tookwinas. Best Management Practices for a Mangrove-Friendly Shrimp Farming, Aquaculture Extension Manual No. 35. Philippines. Aquaculture Department. Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre. 50-50.

Doyle, Mark. "Philippines suffers poverty divide." BBC News. 4 Sept. 2005. BBC. 30 Oct. 2008 .

Guerrero III, Rafael D. "A Fisheries School Where Students Learn to Earn." Agriculture IV (2000): 18-19.

Guerrero III, Rafael D. Eco-Friendly Fish Farm Management and Production of Safe Aquaculture Foods in the Philippines. Philippines. Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development. Laguna, 2008.

Primavera, J.H. "Integrated Mangrove-Aquaculture Systems in Asia. Integrated Coastal Zone Management." 121-30.

Primavera, J.H., and Agbayani, R. F (1996) Comparative strategies in community based mangrove rehabilitation programs in the Philippines. Page 34 In Proceedings of the ECOTONE V Regional Seminar: Community Participation In Conservation, Sustainable Use and Rehabilitation of Mangroves In Southeast Asia, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 8-12 January,1996. Mangrove Ecosystem Research Centre (MERC), Vietnam National University, Vietnam

Samson, Maricar S., and Rene N. Rollon. "Growth Performance of Planted Mangroves in the Philippines: Revisiting Forest Management Strategies." Ambio 37 (2008): 234-40.

The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. PublicationNo. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), United Nations. Rome: FAO, 1996. 12-12.

Stevenson, N.J. "Disused Shrimp Ponds: Options for Redevelopment of Mangrove." Coastal Management 25: 423-25.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Living Coastal Resources

...LIVING COASTAL RESOURCES OF THE ASEAN REGIONAND DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR THEIR MANAGEMENT SIGNIFICANCE OF LIVING COASTAL RESOURCES Living coastal resources are found within major coastal ecosystems consisting of coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds, benthic systems, and estuaries or lagoons. Coastal ecosystems, particularly estuaries and inshore marine waters have the highest rate of primary production as compared to terrestrial and oceanic regions. Daily gross production rate in terms of grams of dry organic matter per square metre area for the narrow coastal band ranges from 10 to 25, with all other regions having substantially lower values (2). The coastal band conveniently thought of as the transition area between land and sea, holdsthis great diversity of ecosystems, each characterized by its own unique ecological feature. Conditions here may be harsh with wide fluctuations in temperature and salinity, but because of the abundance of food supply, these areas can and do support a high diversity of species which have become efficiently adapted to the widely fluctuating environmental conditions. These ecosystems remain productive because of tidal action which circulates food and nutrients rapidly and efficiently and at the same time washes away waste materials. They also serve as efficient nutrient traps of the continuous nutrient input washed down from land. Within these ecosystems, the autotrophic and heterotrophic layers are maintained in close contact so that energy......

Words: 3308 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Fishing

...Ahmed, M. 1997. Fish for the poor under a rising global demand and changing fishery regime. Naga—The ICLARM Quarterly (supplement). July–December: 4–7. Ahmed, M., and M. H. Lorica. 2002. Improving developing country food security through aquaculture development—lessons from Asia. Food Policy 27: 125–141. Ahmed, M., C. L. Delgado, S. Sverdrup-Jensen, and R. A. V. Santos, ed. 1999. Fisheries policy research in developing countries: Issues, priorities and needs. Manila: International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management and International Food Policy Research Institute. Allan, G. 1998. Potential for pulses. International Aquafeeds 2: 17–20. Alston, J. M., G. W. Norton, and P. G. Pardey. 1995. Science Under Scarcity: Principles and practice for agricultural research evaluation and priority setting. Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.A.: Cornell University Press. Anderson, J. L. 1985. Private aquaculture and commercial fisheries: Bioeconomics of salmon ranching. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 12 (4): 353–370.   '(/*$'2 (7 $/ Anderson, J. L., and Q. S. W. Fong. 1997. Aquaculture and international trade. Aquaculture Economics & Management 1: 29–44. Asche, F., and S. Tveteras. 2000. On the relationship between aquaculture and reduction fisheries. Paper...

Words: 4402 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Mangrove Forests

...Mangroves are ever green forests between land and sea, found essentially in the intertidal zone and occupying large tracts along the shallow coasts, estuaries and in the deltas where they are influenced by tides, widely differing conditions of saline and rainfall regimes. The coastline of Pakistan is 1,050 km long and 40-50 km wide shared by the provinces of Sindh (350 km) and Balochistan (700 km). In the Sindh province, mangroves are found in the Indus Delta which occupies approximately 600,000 ha extending from Korangi Creek in the north to Sir Creek in the South. Indus Delta comprises 17 major creeks, numerous minor creeks and extensive mudflats and constitutes 97% of total mangrove forests found in Pakistan. Mangroves of Indus delta are unique in being the largest arid climate mangroves in the world. The survival of these forests is largely associated with perennial freshwater supplies from the River Indus, which flows through the delta before reaching the Arabian Sea. An area of 344,845 ha of the Indus delta has been declared as protected forests and is under the control of Sindh Forest Department. The Indus Delta is believed to have had as many as eight mangrove species in the past. However at present, only four species have been left. Nearly 95% of the mangroves located in the Indus Delta comprise the species Avicennia marina. Very small patches of Ceriops tagal and Aegiceras corniculatum are found near the mouth of the Indus at Keti Bunder. Rizophora mucronata......

Words: 5170 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Development Paper

...BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Im Cliffe Whitney Paug Lapiz, 22 years old, presently residing at Purok1 North Poblacion, Medina, Misamis Oriental. I am currently 3rd year student taking up Bachelor of Science in Business Administration major in Financial Management at Bukidnon State University-Medina External Studies. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We thank almighty God for successful completion of this Development Paper this would not be possible without him. I have taken efforts in this requirement. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. We are really grateful to our subject instructor MR. EDMUND P. VOSOTROS, for all kinds of informative information and valuable advice. To our preeminent head MA’AM FLORENCIA BAANG, to all our deans named; MA’AM MARIETTA T. ASPRIL, MA’AM LARSENEY OBEMIO, MA’AM CICILE ALLOYON let me extend our over whelming thanks giving and our deepest gratitude and appreciation. I would like also to express my gratitude towards to my parents who gave us a support, of giving us money to work on this assignment. Let me give my greatest and deepest gratitude to all of my Classmates, Sir, Ma’am, thank you very much. INTRODUCTION Why do we need to borrow money? There a numerous reasons for the borrowing of money but common ones are; home loans, purchasing of cars,......

Words: 5047 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Lease.Doc

...Graduate School of Development Studies A Research Paper presented by: Fariba Alamgir (Bangladesh) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for obtaining the degree of MASTERS OF ARTS IN DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Specialization: [Environment And Sustainable Development] (ESD) Members of the examining committee: Prof. Dr Max Spoor [Supervisor] Dr Bram Buscher [Reader] The Hague, The Netherlands November, 2010 Disclaimer: This document represents part of the author’s study programme while at the Institute of Social Studies. The views stated therein are those of the author and not necessarily those of the Institute. Inquiries: Postal address: Institute of Social Studies P.O. Box 29776 2502 LT The Hague The Netherlands Location: Kortenaerkade 12 2518 AX The Hague The Netherlands Telephone: +31 70 426 0460 Fax: +31 70 426 0799 Contents List of Maps v List of Acronyms vi Abstract vii Chapter 1: Research Context and Setting 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Theoretical Framework 6 1.2.1 Understanding Water Scarcity 6 1.2.2 The Political Ecology Approach 7 1.3 Research Methodology: Data Collection, Analysis and Fieldwork 10 Chapter 2: Changing water regimes and livelihoods in South-Western Bangladesh 14 2.1 Introduction 14 2.2 Changing Water System in Coastal Region in Bangladesh 14 2.2.1 Impact of Poldering and Water Control 14 2.2.2 Reduced Flow of Water and Shrimp...

Words: 19400 - Pages: 78

Premium Essay

Local Government Code

...THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES BOOK I GENERAL PROVISIONS TITLE ONE. − BASIC PRINCIPLES CHAPTER 1. − THE CODE, POLICY AND APPLICATION SECTION 1. Title. − This Act shall be known and cited as the "Local Government Code of 1991". SECTION 2. Declaration of Policy. − (a) It is hereby declared the policy of the State that the territorial and political subdivisions of the State shall enjoy genuine and meaningful local autonomy to enable them to attain their fullest development as self−reliant communities and make them more effective partners in the attainment of national goals. Toward this end, the State shall provide for a more responsive and accountable local government structure instituted through a system of decentralization whereby local government units shall be given more powers, authority, responsibilities, and resources. The process of decentralization shall proceed from the national government to the local government units. (b) It is also the policy of the State to ensure the accountability of local government units through the institution of effective mechanisms of recall, initiative and referendum. (c) It is likewise the policy of the State to require all national agencies and offices to conduct periodic consultations with appropriate local government units, non−governmental and people's organizations, and other concerned sectors of the community before any project or program is implemented in their respective jurisdictions. SECTION 3.......

Words: 19893 - Pages: 80

Free Essay

Master Plan Indonesia

...MASTERPLAN ACCELERATION AND EXPANSION OF INDONESIA ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 2011-2025 R EPUBLIC OF I ND ON ES IA Doc. Wijaya Karya Masterplan for Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia Economic Development © Copyright Coordinating Ministry For Economic Affairs, Republic of Indonesia Published by Editor Design by : Coordinating Ministry For Economic Affairs : Deputy Minister for Coordinating Infrastructure and Regional Development, Coordinating Ministry For Economic Affairs : IndoPacific Edelman First Published 2011 All Rights Reserved Coordinating Ministry For Economic Affairs, Republic of Indonesia Masterplan for Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia Economic Development Jakarta: Coordinating Ministry For Economic Affairs, 2011 212 pages; 28 x 30 cm ISBN 978-979-3754-14-7 Masterplan aCCeleratIOn anD eXpansIOn OF InDOnesIa eCOnOMIC DeVelOpMent 2011-2025 Coordinating Ministry For Economic Affairs Republic of Indonesia 6 Masterplan P3EI Abstract Doc. Astra Otoparts Doc. Wijaya Karya Doc. Wijaya Karya Table of Contents Preface from The President of Republic of Indonesia Abstract Historical Breakthrough in the Making of MP3EI 1. The Self-Sufficient, Advanced, Just, and Prosperous Indonesia A. Preface B. Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia Economic Development C. Indonesia’s Position Within The Regional and Global Dynamics D. Indonesia’s Potential and Challenges E. ......

Words: 70148 - Pages: 281

Free Essay

Eia Tools

...GREEN GUIDE TO 3 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES GREEN RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTION: TRAINING TOOLKIT FOR HUMANITARIAN AID The Green Recovery and Reconstruction Toolkit (GRRT) is dedicated to the resilient spirit of people around the world who are recovering from disasters. We hope that the GRRT has successfully drawn upon your experiences in order to ensure a safe and sustainable future for us all. GREEN GUIDE TO 3 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Jonathan Randall, World Wildlife Fund Emma Jowett, Consultant A NOTE TO USERS: The Green Recovery and Reconstruction Toolkit (GRRT) is a training program designed to increase awareness and knowledge of environmentally sustainable disaster recovery and reconstruction approaches. Each GRRT module package consists of (1) training materials for a workshop, (2) a trainer’s guide, (3) slides, and (4) a technical content paper that provides background information for the training. This is the technical content paper that accompanies the one-day training session on environmental impact assessment tools and techniques. Cover photo © Brent Stirton/Getty Images/WWF © 2010 World Wildlife Fund, Inc. and 2010 American National Red Cross. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171......

Words: 21593 - Pages: 87

Premium Essay

Phi93246

...REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7160 REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7160 - AN ACT PROVIDING FOR A LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE OF 1991 BOOK I General Provisions TITLE I. Basic Principles CHAPTER I The Code: Policy and Application SECTION 1. Title. — This Act shall be known and cited as the "Local Government Code of 1991". SECTION 2. Declaration of Policy. — (a) It is hereby declared the policy of the State that the territorial and political subdivisions of the State shall enjoy genuine and meaningful local autonomy to enable them to attain their fullest development as self-reliant communities and make them more effective partners in the attainment of national goals. Toward this end, the State shall provide for a more responsive and accountable local government structure instituted through a system of decentralization whereby local government units shall be given more powers, authority, responsibilities, and resources. The process of decentralization shall proceed from the national government to the local government units. (b) It is also the policy of the State to ensure the accountability of local government units through the institution of effective mechanisms of recall, initiative and referendum. (c) It is likewise the policy of the State to require all national agencies and offices to conduct periodic consultations with appropriate local government units, nongovernmental and people's organizations, and other concerned sectors of the......

Words: 95323 - Pages: 382

Premium Essay

Enterpreneurship

...ENTREPRENURESHIP SKILLS AND PRACTICES 1.0 Introduction Entrepreneurial skills and practices is one of the General Studies introduced in the curriculum for every undergraduate student in Osun state University regardless of the student’s course of study. The introduction of this course provides opportunity for the University to deliver on its vision and mission to students, national and international community. Specifically, the course help to challenge students to positively utilize the high quality teaching and learning experiences from other courses become entrepreneurial graduates capable of impacting on their environment while being globally competitive. Ideally, entrepreneurship education should be an off shoot of all disciplines. The primary discipline should provide skills capable of generating goods and services that would be demanded and create income. This education will thus help students to utilize learned skills to generate self employment thereby reducing the population of our graduate seeking jobs to the barest minimum. This will also reduce the level of unemployment nationally. The materials in the book are contributed by scholars from different intellectual backgrounds to produce a rich and highly stimulating compilation. The book gives a vivid background of the history of entrepreneurship from the rudimentary to the modern age. It provides ideas on principles and skills involved in sustaining entrepreneurship, potentials of businesses and......

Words: 57078 - Pages: 229

Premium Essay

Jared Diamond Collapse

...COLLAPSE HOW S O C I E T I E S CHOOSE TO FAIL OR S U C C E E D JARED DIAMOND VIK ING VIKING Published by the Penguin Group Penguin Group (USA) Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, U.S.A. Penguin Group (Canada), 10 Alcorn Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4V 3B2 (a division of Pearson Penguin Canada Inc.) Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England Penguin Ireland, 25 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland (a division of Penguin Books Ltd) Penguin Books Australia Ltd, 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) Penguin Books India Pvt Ltd, 11 Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi—110 017, India Penguin Group (NZ), Cnr Airborne and Rosedale Roads, Albany, Auckland 1310, New Zealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd) Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South Africa Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England First published in 2005 by Viking Penguin, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. 13579 10 8642 Copyright © Jared Diamond, 2005 All rights reserved Maps by Jeffrey L. Ward LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING IN PUBLICATION DATA Diamond, Jared M. Collapse: how societies choose to fail or succeed/Jared Diamond. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-670-03337-5 1. Social history—Case studies. 2. Social change—Case studies. 3. Environmental policy— Case studies. I. Title. HN13. D5 2005......

Words: 235965 - Pages: 944

Free Essay

Digital Bangladesh

...Final Draft PERSPECTIVE PLAN OF BANGLADESH 2010-2021 ____________________________ MAKING VISION 2021 A REALITY General Economics Division Planning Commission Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh April 2012 Contents ABBREVIATIONS ...............................................................................................................................v PREAMBLE of the Perspective Plan (2010-2021) ............................................................................ 1 I. ............................................................................................................... Context of the Perspective Plan .................................................................................................................................................................. 1 II. .......................................................................................... Current state and Development Perspective .................................................................................................................................................................. 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................................... 2 CHAPTER 1: VISION FOR A PROSPEROUS FUTURE........................................................................ 10 1.1 The Vision ..........................................................................................................

Words: 49012 - Pages: 197

Premium Essay

Hkhkhk

...lay_man Says @Cricaddict- By this point you mean that average age of population is less than 22 years or there is some typo mistake? Sorry to barge in but i could not understand this line Yes avg age of population, for yemen - 17.9, syria - 21.5, egypt - 22 or 23 yrs.. in general a very young population and umemployed, so frustration and anger.. thats why the uproar.. @layman updated.. S.P. Jain Institute of Management & Research PGDM Finance Class of 2014 | CAT'11 - 99.04%le QuoteReply. Like . Share   3 cricaddict Reply #22 03:44 PM, 10 Mar '12 Limits of Foreign Direct Investment in various sectors in India :: Non-Banking Financial Com-panies (NBFC) : 100% Petroleum Refining (Private Sector) : 100% Petroleum Product Marketing : 100% Oil Exploration : 100% Petroleum Product Pipelines : 100% Housing and Real Estate : 100% Power : 100% Drugs & Pharmaceuticals : 100% Road, Highways, Ports and harbours : 100% Hotel & Tourism : 100% Electricity : 100% Pharmaceuticals : 100% Transportation infrastructure : 100% Tourism : 100% Mass transit : 100% Pollution control : 100% Mining (Mining of gold and silver and minerals other than diamonds and precious stones) : 100% Advertising : 100% Films : 100% Mass Rapid Transport Systems : 100% Pollution Control & Management : 100% Special Economic Zones : 100% Air Transport Services (Domestic Airlines) : 100% for NRIs 49% for Others Single Brand...

Words: 26489 - Pages: 106

Premium Essay

Bal Sara R Ase Ki Ne Bal

...BANGLADESH TRADE POLICY SUPPORT PROGRAMME Comprehensive Trade Policy Of Bangladesh - Draft Final, 15.09.14 - Trade Policy Support Programme (TPSP) Project Task Force – HAK Tower (2nd floor) 3/C-1 Karwan Bazar, Dhaka 1215, Bangladesh 0 BANGLADESH TRADE POLICY SUPPORT PROGRAMME TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Abbreviations ........................................................................................................................ 6 Preamble ....................................................................................................................................... 10 Chapter 1: Rationale, Objectives and Constituents ..................................................................... 11 1.1 Rationale .............................................................................................................................. 11 1.2 Objectives ............................................................................................................................ 14 1.3 Constituents............................................................................................................... 16 1.3.1 Trade in Goods....................................................................................................... 16 1.3.2 Trade in Services and Investment.......................................................................... 17 1.3.3 Behind the Border Policies ....................................................................................

Words: 87571 - Pages: 351

Premium Essay

Promises Not Kept

...THE END of POVERTY Economic Possibilities for Our Time JEFFREY D. SACHS THE PENGUIN PRESS N E W YORK 2005 THE PENGUIN PRESS Published by the Penguin Group Penguin Group (USA) Inc.. 375 Hudson Street. New York, New York 10014, U.S.A. Penguin Group (Canada), 10 Alcorn Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4V 3B2 (a division of Pearson Penguin Canada Inc.) Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England Penguin Ireland, 25 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland (a division of Penguin Books Ltd) Penguin Books Australia Ltd, 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) - Penguin Books India Pvt Ltd, 11 Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi-110 017, India ' Penguin Group (NZ), Cnr Airborne and Rosedale Roads, Albany, Auckland 1310, NewZealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd) - Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South Africa Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England First published in 2005 by The Penguin Press, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. Copyright ©Jeffrey D. Sachs, 2005 All rights reserved Page 397 constitutes an extension of this copyright page, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING IN PUBLICATION DATA Sachs, Jeffrey. The e n d of poverty / Jeffrey Sachs. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-59420-045-9 1. Poverty—Developing countries. 2. Developing countries—Economic......

Words: 154314 - Pages: 618