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“the Effectiveness of Saccharum Spontaneum (Kans Grass) for the Production of Paper”


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“The Effectiveness of Saccharum spontaneum (Kans Grass) for the Production of Paper”
Chapter I
The Problem and it’s Setting

Introduction Paper is very important to every man’s life. It is used by all types of people mostly students for personal or general purposes. That is why production of paper increases dramatically every year. Paper is made from the cellulose fibres that are present in hard wood and softwood plants. Usually, paper trees are being processed to produce paper. However, due to the rapid increase of the demands in paper, the source of these is being lessen little by little. Paper trees which is the main source of paper were cut and almost extinct. These facts gave the researchers the idea of conducting a research study entitled “The Effectiveness of Saccharum spontaneum (Kans grass) for the Production of Paper” that will be an alternative source of paper. Kans grass are suitable for making paper because it’s structure is just the same with the fibres that is used to make paper.

Statement of the Problem This study was conducted to find an alternative source of paper making. It also aims to answer the following specific questions: 1. Is there a significa1nt difference on commercial paper and the paper made from Kans grass? 2. How may the paper made from Kans grass be described in terms of: 2.1) Cost 2.2) Availability 2.3) Efficiency
Based on the problems stated, the following hypotheses were formulated:
1. Hi: There is a significant difference on commercial paper and the paper made from Kans grass.
2. Ho: There is no significant difference on commercial paper and the paper made from Kans grass.

The researcher’s objectives is to use Saccharum spontaneum in order to make an alternative source of paper, to conserve the main sources of paper which is the tree, and to produce cheaper product but effective.

Significance of the Study This study will be a great help in making an alternative source of paper. It will also be significant in the following fields:
Academe: It will serve as a future reference for future studies regarding Kans grass and Paper Production.
Students: It will be affordable to the students.
Researchers: This will help the researchers to know more about Kans grass and Production of Paper grass.
Community: this will be an alternative source of paper that will lessen the needs of paper tree.

Scope and Delimitation: This study covers the production of paper through the use of Kans grass. It deals with the statistical reports and surveys that will determine the effectiveness of Kans grass. The study does not cover the other components of the Kans grass.
Conceptual Frame Work Production of paper increases drama1tica1ly every years. But it’s source is being lessen little by little. This study aims to make an alterna1tive source of paper that will be helpful to many people. Gathering of Kans grass.
Research Framework

Definition of Terms
Kans Grass- Talahib or Kans grass is a coarse, erect, perennial grass, usually more or less tufted, with stout underground rootstock, growing to a height of 1 to 3.5 meters.
Paper Tree-Melaleuca quinquenervia, commonly known as broad-leaved paperbark, the paper bark tea tree or niaouli, is a small- to medium-sized tree of the allspice family, Myrtaceae.
Production of Paper- The papermaker often mixes a range of wood pulps with different characteristics to create a particular type of paper or board. Recovered paper has become as important a source of new paper as wood - recovered paper now accounts for more than half of the fibres used in the production of paper
The papermaking process can be divided into three distinct elements:
• Pulping
• Papermaking and
• Finishing

Chapter II
Review of Related Literature This chapter deals with the related projects and literatures related to the study. This chapter includes the comparison of the previous studies to this project.
The Composition of Fibre on Napier grass, Pineapple leaf and Corn stalk For Pulp and paper making Based on the researcher (Batu Pahat) this study is to analyze the chemical compositions and to give a comprehensive overview by analyzing the fiber morphology of paper produced from pineapple leaves, corn stalks, and napier grass. Wood makes up about 90% of the conventional raw material used for pulp and paper production in the world. However, depleting forests to obtain the wood has made an impact on the environment. As this issue becomes a crucial one, alternative fibers from non-wood sources will provide a good solution to limiting the destruction of the environment. Many paper industries have applied the kraft process as their main pulping process. Previous studies have compared non-wood and wood materials for the suitability of their fibers in paper making. Stenius reported that the composition of wood and non-wood material can be quite similar. Such findings suggest that non wood species can provide a good solution to the need for alternative fiber. “Agro waste as alternative fiber” Overview of the paper making process. A fiber bundle from pineapple leaves can be separated from the cortex, and the pineapple leaf fiber has been shown to be multi-cellular and lignocellulosic. The crucial paper properties depend on the chemical compositions of the pineapple leaf fiber, which consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The pineapple leaf has a ribbon-like structure and is cemented together by lignin and pentosan-like materials, which bind together with a cellulosic composition. Apart from the lignin, both cellulose and hemicelluloses will lead to the high strength of the fiber produced. As shown by Tran, pineapple leaf fiber from Japan shows a greater cellulose content than that from wood fiber. This result confirmed the cellulose content of pineapple leaf fiber and showed how the composition could affect the properties for paper production. The corn plant is from the Poaceae family and the Zea genus. Lignocellulose from cornstalk is composed of single cells of cellulose that are only about 0.5 to 3.0 mm in length. Cornstalks are a cheap and annually renewable resource suitable for producing natural cellulose fibers. Napier grass is in the Poaceae family and the Pennisetum genus. This grass has high yielding fodder, giving dry matter yields that surpass most other tropical grasses. These raw materials were used as alternatives to wood fibers in the paper production carried out this study. Holocellulose is a combination of cellulose and hemicellulose content. The greater the holocellulose inside the material is, the better will be the quality of the paper produced. In this study, pineapple leaves have the highest cellulose content (66.2%), followed by corn stalk (39.0%) and napier grass (12.4%). Cellulose is the component that makes the fiber of the non-wood materials stronger. Higher content of cellulose can provide stronger fibers, hence increasing the quality of the paper produced. However, for hemicellulose, napier grass has the highest content (68.2%), followed by corn stalk (42.0%) and pineapple leaf (19.5%). Therefore, the quality of the fiber produced from a non-wood material depends on the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and holocellulose. This result suggests that pineapple leaves have an acceptable chemical composition of their fibers when compared to wood mater and therefore have the potential to be an alternative fiber source for use in the paper making industry.
1. Pineapple leaf fiber is more favorable as a potential substitute for wood fiber in paper production in comparison to fiber from corn stalk and napier grass. 2. The high cellulose content and low lignin content could lead to high-quality pulp and paper produced from pineapple leaf fiber. Corn stalk and napier grass fibers can also be alternatives for pulp and paper making.
3. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis shows the condensed arrangement of fiber, which forms a stronger structure in pineapple leaf than in corn stalk and napier grass.
4. This study therefore confirms the suitability of pineapple leaf waste as an alternative pulp that can be further processed in preparation for its use in papermaking.
Batu Pahat, Mohd Zainuri Mohd Hatta, December 18, 2013
Saccharum spontaneum (Kans grass) Kans grass is a perennial grass, native to South Asia and occurs throughout India along the sides of the river. It grows up to three meters in height, with spreading rhizomatous roots. In the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands, a lowland eco region at the base of the Himalaya range in Nepal, India, and Bhutan, Kans grass quickly colonyses exposed silt plains created each year by the retreating monsoon floods, forming almost pure stands on the lowest portions of the floodplain. It is self-seeding, resistant to many diseases and pests, and can produce high yields with low applications of fertilizer and other chemicals. It is also tolerant to poor soils, flooding, and drought; improves soil quality and prevents erosion due to its type of root system. It uses less water per gram of biomass produced than other plants. These characteristics makes Kans grass biomass a novel substrate with great potential for the production valuable products. Kans grass (Saccharum spontaneum) having chemical component % Cellulose 43.78±0.4 , Hemicellulose 24.22±0.5 , Acid insoluble lignin 23.45±0.3, Acid soluble lignin 2.85±0.4, and Ash 4.62±0.2.
Lalit K.Singha, Gaurav Chaudharya, C.B Majumderb, March 2, 2011.
How Do You Make Paper From a Tree? If you look at a tree, you might have a hard time imagining how something so tall and strong could be turned into something as thin and weak as a sheet of paper. The process begins with the raw wood, which is made up of fibers called “cellulose.”The cellulose fibers are stuck together with a natural glue called “lignin.” When the lignin is removed and the cellulose fibers are separated and reorganized, paper can be made. It’s also possible to make paper from a variety of other types of plant fibers, such as cotton, flax, bamboo and hemp. For example, cotton fibers are often used to make the paper that money is printed on. The overwhelming majority (about 95 percent) of the raw material used to make paper, though, comes from trees. Wood can be turned to pulp in a couple of different ways. Mechanical pulping involves using machines to grind wood chips into pulp. To make paper from trees, the raw wood must first be turned into pulp Wood pulp is a watery “soup” of cellulose wood fibers, lignin, water and the chemicals used during the pulping process. The resulting pulp retains most of its lignin, though. The short fibers created by grinding leads to weak paper most suitable for newsprint, phone books or other types of low-strength papers. The more commonly used method is chemical pulping, also known as “kraft.” Chemicals are used to separate lignin from the cellulose fibers, leaving a pulp mixture that can make stronger papers. Depending on what type of paper is desired, the pulp mixture might need to be bleached to create whiter paper. Papermakers use a variety of chemicals to bleach pulp to the color they want. Once the pulp is ready, it is then used to make paper in a process that is quite similar (in the basics) to the process first used by the ancient Chinese more than 1,900 years ago. Because the pulp mixture is so watery the cellulose fibers need to be separated from the watery mixture. Huge machines spray the pulp mixture onto moving mesh screens to make a layered mat. The mat of pulp then goes through several processes to remove water and dry it out. Finally, the mat is run through heated rollers to squeeze out any remaining water and compress it into one continuous roll of paper that can be up to 30 feet wide. When the paper has the desired thickness, it may be colored or coated with special chemicals to give it a special texture, extra strength or water resistance. As a last step, the paper rolls are cut to size and packaged for shipping to other facilities for additional processing to turn it into all sorts of specialized papers.
Sanjoy Ghosha A. 2013,January
History of Paper Formed from wood pulp or plant fiber, paper is chiefly used for written communication. The earliest paper was papyrus, made from reeds by the ancient Egyptians. Paper was made by the Chinese in the second century, probably by a Chinese court official named Cai Lun. His paper was made from such things as tree bark and old fish netting. Recognized almost immediately as a valuable secret, it was 500 years before the Japanese acquired knowledge of the method. Papermaking was known in the Islamic world from the end of the eighth century a.d. Knowledge of papermaking eventually moved westward, and the first European paper mill was built at Jativa, in the province of Valencia, Spain, in about 1150. By the end of the 15th century, paper mills existed in Italy, France, Germany, and England, and by the end of the 16th century, paper was being made throughout Europe. Paper, whether produced in the modern factory or by the most careful, delicate hand methods, is made up of connected fibers. The fibers can come from a number of sources including cloth rags, cellulose fibers from plants, and, most notably, trees.
Modern papermaking methods, although significantly more complicated than the older ways, are developmental improvements rather than entirely new methods of making paper.

Raw Materials Probably half of the fiber used for paper today comes from wood that has been purposely harvested. The remaining material comes from wood fiber from sawmills, recycled newspaper, some vegetable matter, and recycled cloth. Coniferous trees, such as spruce and fir, used to be preferred for papermaking because the cellulose fibers in the pulp of these species are longer, therefore making for stronger paper. These trees are called "softwood" by the paper industry. Deciduous trees (leafy trees such as poplar and elm) are called "hardwood." Because of increasing demand for paper, and improvements in pulp processing technology, almost any species of tree can now be harvested for paper. Some plants other than trees are suitable for paper-making. In areas without significant forests, bamboo has been used for paper pulp, as has straw and sugarcane. Flax, hemp, and jute fibers are commonly used for textiles and rope making, but they can also be used for paper. Some high-grade cigarette paper is made from flax.
The Manufacturing Process
Making pulp Several processes are commonly used to convert logs to wood pulp. In the mechanical process, logs are first tumbled in drums to remove the bark. The logs are then sent to grinders, which break the wood down into pulp by pressing it between huge revolving slabs. The pulp is filtered to remove foreign objects. In the chemical process, wood chips from de-barked logs are cooked in a chemical solution. This is done in huge vats called digesters. The chips are fed into the digester, and then boiled at high pressure in a solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide. The chips dissolve into pulp in the solution. Next the pulp is sent through filters. Bleach may be added at this stage, or colorings. The pulp is sent to the paper plant.
The pulp is next put through a pounding and squeezing process called, appropriately enough, beating. Inside a large tub, the pulp is subjected to the effect of machine beaters. At this point, various filler materials can be added such as chalks, clays, or chemicals such as titanium oxide. These additives will influence the opacity and other qualities of the final product. Sizings are also added at this point. Sizing affects the way the paper will react with various inks. Without any sizing at all, a paper will be too absorbent for most uses except as a desk blotter. Paper that will receive a printed design, such as gift wrapping, requires a particular formula of sizing that will make the paper accept the printing properly.
Pulp to paper In order to finally turn the pulp into paper, the pulp is fed or pumped into giant, automated machines. One common type is called the Fourdrinier machine, which was invented in England in 1807. Pulp is fed into the Fourdrinier machine on a moving belt of fine mesh screening. The pulp is squeezed through a series of rollers, while suction devices below the belt drain off water. If the paper is to receive a water-mark, a device called a dandy moves across the sheet of pulp and presses a design into it.
The paper then moves onto the press section of the machine, where it is pressed between rollers of wool felt. The paper then passes over a series of steam-heated cylinders to remove the remaining water. A large machine may have from 40 to 70 drying cylinders.
Finally, the dried paper is wound onto large reels, where it will be further processed depending on its ultimate use. Paper is smoothed and compacted further by passing through metal rollers called calendars. A particular finish, whether soft and dull or hard and shiny, can be imparted by the calendars.
The paper may be further finished by passing through a vat of sizing material. It may also receive a coating, which is either brushed on or rolled on. Coating adds chemicals or pigments to the paper's surface, supplementing the sizings and fillers from earlier in the process.
Environmental Concerns The number of trees and other vegetation cut down in order to make paper is enormous. Paper companies insist that they plant as many new trees as they cut down. Environmentalists contend that the new growth trees, so much younger and smaller than what was removed, cannot replace the value of older trees. Efforts to recycle used paper (especially newspapers) have been effective in at least partially mitigating the need for destruction of woodlands, and recycled paper is now an important ingredient in many types of paper production. The chemicals used in paper manufacture, including dyes, inks, bleach, and sizing, can also be harmful to the environment when they are released into water supplies and nearby land after use. The industry has, sometimes with government prompting, cleared up a large amount of pollution, and federal requirements now demand pollution free paper production.
Berlow, Lawrence, February 8,2015

Chapter III

This chapter discuss about the methods used in the study. It also discusses the equipment and the ingredients also the process.
Colander (sieve machine optional)- is a bowl-shaped kitchen utensil with holes in it used for draining food such as pasta or rice. The perforated nature of the colander allows liquid to drain through while retaining the solids inside.
Knife- is a cutting tool with a cutting edge or blade, hand-held or otherwise, with or without a handle. Originally made of rock, bone, flint, and obsidian, knives have evolved in construction as technology has, with blades being made from bronze, copper, iron, steel, ceramics, and titanium.
Container- is a basic tool, consisting of any device creating a partially or fully enclosed space that can be used to contain, store, and transport objects or materials. Things kept inside of a container are protected by being inside of its structure.
Water- is a transparent fluid which forms the world's streams, lakes, oceans and rain, and is the major constituent of the fluids of living things. As a chemical compound, a water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at standard ambient temperature and pressure
Chlorine- is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17. Chlorine is in the halogen group (17) and is the second lightest halogen following fluorine. The element is a yellow-green gas under standard conditions, where it forms diatomic molecules. Chlorine has the highest electron affinity and the third highest electron gravity of all the reactive elements
Saccharum spontaneum (kans grass)- Kans grass is a coarse, erect, perennial grass, usually more or less tufted, with stout underground rootstock, growing to a height of 1 to 3.5 meters. Leaves are harsh and linear, 0.5 to 1 meter long; 6 to 15 millimeters wide.
1. The researchers cleaned the 1kg. Saccharum spontaneum (kans grass) leaves with water and drained.
2. The researchers cut Saccharum spontaneum leaves (kans grass) to uniform length approximately 2 – 3 inches.
3. The next step is boiling. The researchers boiled the Saccharum spontaneum (kans grass) leaves at 80-100 ºC for 3 hours resulting in kans grass fibre.
4. The researchers washed Saccharum spontaneum (kans grass) fibre in cool water 2 – 3 times.
5. The researchers mixed 20% chlorine (200g) per kans grass fibre (1kg) with 1 liter water.
6. Next is, the researchers soaked kans grass fibre in water with chlorine for 2 ½ hour. Then cleaned with pure water 2–3 times.
7. Lastly, the researchers place kans grass fibre in a colander and sieve in water for fibre uniformly.
The researchers used the Saccharum spontaneum (kans grass) as a alternative source of paper making that will be a great help in making an alternative source of paper. They used the process to make a paper.

Batu Pahat, Mohd Zainuri Mohd Hatta, A. Angzzas Sari Mohd Kassim, B. Halizah Awang, C. and Ashuvila Mohd Aripin B., December 18, 2013 , Napier grass, Pineapple leaf, Corn stalk, Composition, Green technology, Pulp and paper making,
Lalit K. Singha, Gaurav Chaudharya, C.B Majumderb and Sanjoy Ghosha A., March 2, 2011, Saccharum spontaneum (Kans grass), Pelagia Research Library Der Chemica Sinica, Bioprocess Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology,
Berlow, Lawrence, "Paper", How Products Are Made 1996 Retrieved:,February8,2015,
@wondropolis, How do you make paper,2011,

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