Free Essay

The Effects of Mentoring at-Risk Youth

In: Social Issues

Submitted By jlspencer
Words 2280
Pages 10
James Spencer

HUS345

THE EFFECTS OF MENTORING AT-RISK YOUTH

Abstract:

Mentoring has arguments both for and against its effectiveness in relation to at-risk youth. These programs have been known to help in areas of self-esteem, attitudes toward drugs and alcohol, grades, attendance and disciplinary problems in school. Although, the scope of at-risk youth can be quite narrow, if administered correctly it can be inclusive of all teens with emotional and behavioral problems. These programs should not be considered a quick fix to such a large problem, but it can be used as a means to an end.

Mentoring programs for youth and teens considered to be at-risk have begun to grow throughout the country. Not all programs agree on a generalized approach, but it is fair to say the concept is the same when dealing with this group of youth. The term mentor is basically described as a trusted counselor or teacher. The term at-risk, for purposes of this study, relates to youth from single parent households, who exhibit emotional and behavioral problems. The overall consensus is to pair a responsible and caring adult with a troubled adolescent youth. The ultimate goal is for a relationship to form and to build a bond of trust with an adult who can in turn, help them deal with the troubles that often arrive in life.

Unfortunately, many adolescents are never given the opportunity to build relationships with caring adults. Nearly a quarter of all American children will live in single-parent homes, and half of the current generation of children will live in a single-parent household during some point in their childhood (Dryfoos, 1998). There are a host of factors that contribute to this situation such as changing economic, social and cultural conditions have increased the vulnerability of negative life outcomes for adolescents’ (Dryfoos, 1998). Natural mentors are described as close family members such as father, mother, uncles, aunts, brother’s, sister’s and/or grandparents. In order to address the problems that have come to light as a result of the diminished availability of natural mentors, volunteer mentoring programs have multiplied in recent years (Freedam, 1993; Rhodes, in press). Just as natural mentoring, volunteer mentoring involves building a relationship between the youth and adults, as to off support in meeting the youth’s academic, social, career, and/or personal goals (Dubois, et al., in press). It is estimated that as many as five million American youth are involved in some type of mentor program being it in school or community based. They range from such programs as the renowned Big Brothers/Big Sisters to other less structured programs.

Without such programs to assist these youth, once they are adults, they are more likely candidates for divorce, high unemployment; physical and mental problems, drug and alcohol abuse, and quite often become involved in more criminal activity (Patterson, Debaryshe, & Ramsey, 1989). If left unchecked, these problems could prove costly both to society and the individual. Whereas the approximate average cost of a well organized and operated mentoring program is estimated at around $1,000, taking into account a per child per year projection, it could eliminate or at least marginalize the need for future social services (Grossman & Gary, 1997).

Youth without the proper social support framework or low levels of social support, has a tendency to be withdrawn, and show a lack of concern about their future. They are negligent, and more likely to harm others than were youth who had the privilege of being exposed to a proper social support system (Kashani, Reid, & Rosinberg, 1989). Although only a vice mentoring could provide some social support and could improve the way these youth function in society. Some theorize that youth develop deviant behavior because they lacked the opportunity to interact and or relate with positive role models within their community (Hawkins & Weis, 1985). Mentors can at times be that beacon of hope or the voice of reason which would allow these youth to see and appreciate appropriate social behavior and could in turn curve their delinquent behavior. Most mentoring programs are forced to rely on the kindness of the community for support and this usually comes in the form of volunteers and donations (Keating, Tomishima, & Foster, 2002).

Even though the effectiveness of mentoring programs are often brought into question, the Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America organization has a proven track record of successful unions between caring adults and at-risk youth. This organization conducted a study of at-risk youth over the course of approximately one year to show the effects of a positive mentor to mentee relationship. The results revealed they were less likely to become involved in the following activities: 46% illegal drugs, 27% start drinking, 52% skip a day of school, and 37% to skip a class. The mentees were more trusting of parents, and not as prone to lie to them, they also felt more support from their friends. High intensity programs can be effective, especially those with more one-on-one interaction in the form of frequent meetings throughout the month, meeting between 2-4 hours at each visit along with frequent phone contact (Tiernay and Grossman, 1995) (Keating, Tomishima, & Foster, 2002).

In this age of technology there is a host of opportunities available for the tech savvy to capitalize on when it comes to mentoring. E-mentoring is the next step in mentoring programs. A program has been in existence for the past 11 years, created by a group of researchers from Drexel University called the “I Could Be” program, in order to study the effects of online mentoring. So far the results have been mostly positive. Online mentoring can be both an effective and viable option when compared to the traditional face-to-face method. Given the current nature of working conditions, organizations may seek to implement e-mentoring programs due to their ability to be both cost-effective and time saving compared to the traditional approach. The study showed that students who were comfortable using computers tended to get the most out of the program. Students with the lowest level of confidence at the beginning of the program saw the biggest gains. One of the major drawbacks is that, you’re not face-to-face. The major advantage is the ease of access to more than one mentor. Concerns regarding the overall security of children may have helped to slow the growth of this type of program.

Unfortunately high dropout rates and poor academic performance have seemingly became synonymous with the experience of African American male youth. Upon visiting just about any public school in the Country you are bound to find African American male youth almost aimlessly wondering the halls, as if they have been alienated from the educational process and left to their own devices to discover the American dream for them. Their presence is scarcely seen in the gifted and advanced academic classes, while at the same time they are highly represented in remedial classes.

When it comes to suspension and expulsion they dominate the list in comparison to their White male counter-parts (Bailey, 1996; Center for the Study of Social Policy, 1990; “Federal Report,” 1999; Ford, Grantham, and Bailey, 1999; Lee, 1992; Skiba, Michael, Nardo, and Preston, 2000; Trescott, 1990). They are often observed hanging out on street corners or in the malls, where they are viewed with both fear and contemptment. They often give up on the education process entirely because they feel as if the things learned there do not apply to them and they seek elsewhere for success. The educational system is often viewed as a way to place a label upon them and to stifle the potential for them to grow as individuals (Narine, 1992) (Bailey & Paisley, 2004).

Reports have stated that approximately 1 out of every 4 male African Americans have to report for court ordered supervision and that there are more African American men controlled by the court than there are enrolled in college (Bass & Coleman, 1997; Green & Wright, 1992; Mauer, 1990). Although only 15% of African American youth are represented in the juvenile population, they constitute approximately 43% of juveniles in public facilities and 34% in private custody (Bailey, 1999, FBI, 1996; Sickmund et al. , 1997). There is an apparently clear overrepresentation of African American male youth in juvenile facilities. This in turn makes for a negative self-image as well as creating an inherit distrust and disrespect of authority (Lee & Bailey, 1997) (Bailey & Paisley, 2004).

Minority and poor populations are grossly underserved within the educational system. As a result these students are less likely to be assigned to classes that would prepare them for college and they are quite often being taught by teachers working out of their field (The Education Trust, 1998). Unfortunately, the majority of most minority and poor populations have the least amount of qualified teachers.

The fact is most of these kids will not escape the confines of such experiences and thus will not seek higher education because of feeling an inability to perform in the college arena (Bailey & Paisley, 2004).

African Americans populate a mere 17% of the total school system, yet they account for 32% of suspensions and 30% of all expulsions (Skiba et al. , 2000). When it comes to graduating from college African American males have a devastating 1 in 12 chance and when it comes to high school dropout rates they have a 1 in 4 chance (Trescott, 1990). For those who realize the need for higher education and choose to pursue college and university enrollment in the United States, they will find what it means to be a true minority because African American males only account for 3.5% of the college population (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1998) (Bailey & Paisley, 2004).

Mentoring is viewed by some as an intervention for at-risk youth who need assistance and preparation for adult life as well as being a conduit of sorts to curb dropout rates, delinquency, unemployment and a host of other ill’s associated with troubled youth (Mech, Pryde, & Rycraft, 1995) (Blechman, 1992). The effects of mentors and mentor programs in general vary greatly and according to how the study is conducted it allows for objective to be set in order to quantify the study. Some studies suggest that mentors have no beneficial impact on the mentee, while they do note some changes occurred but some of the changes were outside the scope of the study (Royse, David, 1998).

The first thing we should mention is that the study conducted by Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America was conducted over a 15 month period. It is believed that more relevant changes might have taken place had the study been conducted over a 24 or 30 month period.

Longer matches between mentor’s and mentee’s were believed to be more productive by parents than shorter ones. It is important to note while mentoring does have positives effects, it is not and should not be considered the quick fix to our at-risk youth, problems (Frecknall & Lurks, 1992) (Royse & David, 1998).

The second thing to consider is although most mentors kept accurate logs concerning time spent with mentee’s, some did not. This in turn made it difficult to accurately account or report the times of volunteers since these logs were incomplete. With that being said, it made accounting for actual time of contact between mentor’s and mentee’s difficult, to say the least. If the mentor is not consistent when meeting the mentee, the overall objective could be hindered significantly (Roaf, Tierney, & Hunte, 1994).

It is vital to keep records in regard to the relationship between the mentor and mentee. This can be difficult because mentee’s are sometimes concerned about their image among peers so they are reluctant to explain the presence of a mentor. Even though some results say mentoring is ineffective, the fact remains that the lives of at-risk youth are substantially affected by a caring adult (Garmezy, 1985; Rutter, 1987; Werner & Smith, 1992; O’Sullivan, 1991). This should be evidence enough as to the need for even more mentoring projects to be formed, refined, and applied to those in need of such services. These programs may not always have immediate tangible results. They have proven to be not harmful while at the same time, having potential to catapult mentee’s into their destiny (Royse & David, 1998).

In conclusion, I’ve often heard it said that children are the future and we should teach them well and let them lead the way. Although they are the future, yet and still, America is letting a minority segment fall by the way. One thing is sure, if people are not given hope and allowed to see themselves as viable members of society; they will abandon all morals and rules that govern the land. Although mentoring can be a key element in getting at-risk youth back on track, it should not be the only source to help these youth. This must be done with all due diligence in order to insure the future survival of all Americans. If something is not put in place soon, America will have alienated an entire generation. This will have created a third world society within the borders of the land of the free and the home of the brave.

References:

Bailey, D.F., Paisley, P.O. (2004). Journal of Counseling and Development v.82 no.1 p. 10-17

http://www.icouldbe.org/csewi/public/pg_evaluation.asp

http://www.infed.org/learningmentors/youth_mentoring_in_perspective.htm

Keating, L.M., Tomishima, M.A., Foster, S. (2002). Adolescence v. 37 p. 717-34

Royse, D. (1998). Adolescence v. 33 no 129 p. 145-58

Similar Documents

Free Essay

The Impact of School-Based Mentoring on Youths with Different Relational Profiles

...School-Based Mentoring on Youths With Different Relational Profiles Sarah E. O. Schwartz, Jean E. Rhodes, and Christian S. Chan University of Massachusetts Boston Carla Herrera Public/Private Ventures, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Associations between youths’ relationship profiles and mentoring outcomes were explored in the context of a national, randomized study of 1,139 youths (54% female) in geographically diverse Big Brothers Big Sisters school-based mentoring programs. The sample included youths in Grades 4 –9 from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds, the majority of whom were receiving free or reduced-price lunch. Latent profile analysis, a person-oriented approach, was used to identify 3 distinct relational profiles. Mentoring was found to have differential effects depending on youths’ preintervention approach to relationships. In particular, youths who, at baseline, had satisfactory, but not particularly strong, relationships benefited more from mentoring than did youths with profiles characterized by either strongly positive or negative relationships. Implications for research and practice are discussed. Keywords: youth mentoring, parent relationships, teacher relationships, latent profile analysis Youth mentoring programs such as Big Brothers Big Sisters (BBBS) pair youths with volunteers who are trained to provide support and guidance. Such programs have experienced tremendous growth in the past 2 decades. Millions of volunteer mentors are involved in......

Words: 12031 - Pages: 49

Free Essay

Hris Module

...Practice for Mentoring™ Newly revised edition, which includes evidenced-based operational standards Sponsored by Introduction As a strategy for helping young people succeed in school, work and life, mentoring works. It helps give young people the confidence, resources and support they need to achieve their potential. But, the fact is this: these positive outcomes are only possible when young people are engaged in high-quality mentoring relationships. The Elements of Effective Practice for Mentoring holds the key to success in producing high-quality relationships. The new edition of the Elements provides six evidence-based standards for practice that incorporate the latest research and best-available practice wisdom. It also reprises advice that appeared in earlier editions on program design and planning; program management; program operations; and program evaluation. We believe adherence to the Elements will ensure that mentoring relationships thrive and endure. They include measures that any mentoring program in any setting can implement, as well as measures that any agency can incorporate within the mentoring element of broad-based, positive youth development programming. This means that community-based, corporate-based, school-based, faith-based and Internet-based mentoring programs can use the Elements to meet the specific needs of the young people they serve and the milieu in which they operate. And, it means that afterschool and other positive youth development......

Words: 7208 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

Effects of Intervention Programs on the Dropout Rate in High School

...Strayer University The effects that the Intervention Program will have On High School Dropouts Male and female A directed study project submitted to the faculty of the Graduate school of business candidacy For the degree of masters of Education Definition of terms………………………………………………………………8 Significance of the study………………………………………………………...9 Organization of the study………………………………………………………..9 II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Current Literature…………………………………………………………………….13 III. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODLOGY Research methodology……………………………………………………………….16 IV. FINDINGS Results………………………………………………………………………………..17 V. CONCLUSION Introduction………………………………………………………………………….30 Summary and Conclusion……………………………………………………………31 Recommendations……………………………………………………………………32 REFERENCES References………………………………………………………………………...33 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Context of the problem Every year the statistics reveal that more high school students are dropping out of school at an alarming rate. There are many factors that contribute to the high school dropout rate such as: teen pregnancy, substance abuse and socio-economic standards, peer pressure and familial factors. Three-quarters of state prison inmates are high school......

Words: 4137 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Classifications of Law

...EN COU CIL OF THE EUROPEA U IO Conclusions on promoting youth entrepreneurship to foster social inclusion of young people EDUCATIO , YOUTH, CULTURE and SPORT Council meeting Brussels, 20 May 2014 The Council adopted the following conclusions: "The Council: ACK OWLEDGI G THAT 1. The economic crisis that started in the second half of the last decade has created a particularly fragile situation for today's young generation. Youth unemployment rates remain historically high, at 23.2% in the EU-28 and 23,8% in the Euro area (December 2013). 2. As a result of such high youth unemployment, young people are experiencing increased levels of poverty and social exclusion and increasing numbers feel compelled to leave their home countries, and sometimes Europe entirely, to look for better opportunities. This is generating a brain drain effect in some Member States which could be difficult to reverse. 3. The European Union, via the Europe 2020 and its flagship initiatives on “New skills and jobs”, “Digital Agenda for Europe”, “Innovation Union”, “Youth on the move” promotes entrepreneurship, by fostering entrepreneurial mindsets and related knowledge, skills and competences that can boost competitiveness and growth that will be smart, sustainable and inclusive. PRESS Rue de la Loi 175 B – 1048 BRUSSELS Tel.: +32 (0)2 281 6319 Fax: +32 (0)2 281 8026 press.office@consilium.europa.eu http://www.consilium.europa.eu/Newsroom 1 E 4. Entrepreneurship is an important driver of......

Words: 1895 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Solution Revised

...Minors and Violent Crimes ENG 215 August 27, 2014 Minors and Violent Crimes Juvenile crime has been a national crisis for quite some time. Research from 2010 showed that there were approximately 225 arrests for violent crime offences for every 100,000 youth between the ages of 10 and 17. The violent crimes committed by juveniles has been reported to be at its highest during the after school hours. Research has also shown that approximately 8% of all homicides in the U.S. were committed by juvenile offenders (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention). These alarming statistics prove that minors should be held accountable and be tried as adults in the judicial system. Some may argue that minors have a better chance of being rehabilitated but at the same time minors could become “career criminals”. Steinberg (2001) remarks with the following: Variability among individuals older than 12, but younger than 16, requires that some sort of individualized assessment of an offender's competence to stand trial, blameworthiness, and likely amenability to treatment be made before reaching a transfer decision. The U.S. judicial system should treat minors who commit violent crimes as adults to enforce accountability, to prevent repeat offenders, and to deter others. Factoring Accountability Holding teens accountable for the violent crimes they commit by punishing them as an adult is a social complexity but it is incumbent. Some may view a minor being......

Words: 2190 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Prevention and Treatment of Aggression

...the school, home and the community. Preventing and treating aggressive behaviors in children and youth encompasses a combination of cognitive, behavioral interventions, and parental training and increased school involvement and is targeted to the reduction of dysfunctional cognitive, behavioral, and problem-solving patterns of aggressive youths. Keywords: aggression, antisocial behavior, children, adolescence, conduct disorders, behavioral problems, development and intervention. Introduction The display of aggressive behaviors by children and youths in Trinidad and Tobago is one of the most pressing concerns facing parents and teachers today. As a result, students with significant behavioral concerns or educational disabilities are clustered together into alternative educational programs. As a result, increased inclusion of disturbed and socially maladjusted students, including those with histories of aggression and violence, is related to an overall increase in school aggression and violence. Aggressive antisocial behavior appears to be a developmental trait that begins early in life and often continues into adolescence and adulthood. For many youths, stable manifestations of antisocial behavior begin as early as pre-elementary school (Emond, Ormel, Veenstra, & Oldehinkel, 2007). Research into the nature of aggressive behavior in youths has shown that many aggressive youths are also often the victims of abuse, exhibit aggressive behavior in early childhood, and......

Words: 4167 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

A Pedagogy of Belonging

...A Pedagogy of Belonging Mitchell Beck and James Malley ABSTRACT: The psychological sense that one belongs in a classroom and school community is considered a necessary antecedent to the successful learning experience. In an era when traditional sources of belonging have diminished due to changing family and community demographics, the school plays an increasingly important role in meeting this need. There is evidence that conventional classroom practices fail to engender a sense of belonging, especially among at-risk students. Indeed, conventional practices may exacerbate feelings of rejection and alienation and place these students at higher risk for dropping out, joining gangs, or using drugs. Schools can increase the sense of belonging for all students by emphasizing the importance of the teacher-student relationship and by actively involving all students in the life of the classroom and the school community. Specific examples of programs that promote a sense of belonging for students are discussed. To Belong: To have a proper, appropriate, or suitable place. To be naturally associated with something. To fit into a group naturally — Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary Can children succeed in a school in which they do not feel they belong? Most children fail in school not because they lack the necessary cognitive skills, but because they feel detached, alienated, and isolated from others and from the educational process. When children feel rejected by......

Words: 3465 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

The Foundation...

...within a school setting. The easiest way to remedy the issues of poor performance in school due to adversity at home is to implement mentorship programs into school districts across America. Teachers can greatly impact a student’s life by giving much needed praise for what students do right, and much sought after guidance when something may be wrong. Through mentoring, counseling and teaching martial arts to at risk youth throughout the South Bay with the California Youth Karate Club, I’ve seen first hand the effects of the absence of parental figures and violent surroundings at home can have on a child’s psyche. Mike Rose, who wrote the book Lives on the Boundary, also found the traces of instability that students grew up around through stories they had written in his after school program. Rose, on reading reviewing the stories, said “If I look at the world through these stories, held them to the light like a prismatic lens, the courage and hope of the working class El Monte grew dim, and anger and quite despair came into focus” (111). Like Rose, I worked as an after school program coordinator and began teaching/mentoring 4th and 5th grade students after school. During the first couple a sessions, my interaction with the kids was positive. From all accounts it seemed like most of the kids were happy and enjoying school, they also seemed like your average elementary school students. Well, there were many reasons that these students were placed in my program after school,......

Words: 1846 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Male Mentors in School

... Male Mentors in Schools Kaplan University Tracy Lindsey Male Mentors in schools “Men make up ninety percent of the prison and local jail population, and they have an imprisonment rate fourteen times higher than the rate for women.” (Tsai and Scommegna, 2012). Ernesto isn’t a part of this jaw dropping statistic, but he is a mentor success story. Ernesto is a kid from urban Los Angeles that was having a rough time at home and performing at school. Due to his difficult home life, he was at risk of not graduating, which his teachers recognized and made him aware. He was then admitted into the HBO Mentoring Program in which he began to improve. Shortly thereafter his work ethic began to slip due to home issues as well as other factors. In return all program members provided him “extra support and encouragement” along with his mentor being there every step of the way building his confidence. With this support Ernesto began getting great reports from the teacher and he went on to take the GED pre-test receiving a sixty-two in writing and a sixty-one on social studies, which is outstanding. After all the time and effort invested Ernesto graduated. (Lore, 2002). This one success story can speak for many and really paints that picture that many children need support, encouragement and motivation to empower them to want to succeed in the end. Ernesto is just one I speak of but, troubled young men are prevalent in countless communities and many households, which across the U.S. the......

Words: 1263 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Causes of Truancy in Primary Schools and Its Educational Implication

...examining the multifaceted implications of student truancy. After a review of the far-reaching effects of truancy, research-based interventions aimed at alleviating truancies will be explored. Truancy 3 Student truancy: Why should I go to school? Introduction to Truancy Truancy defined Without explanation it is not entirely clear what is meant when a student is said to be “truant.” For purposes of clarification, it is important to distinguish the term truant from the term absent. According to Teasley (2004), absenteeism can be defined as any event when a student does not attend school. Absenteeism can be affected by any number of factors such as lack of community support, dysfunctional family life, severe weather, personal illness, family illness, physical limitations or any other reason why a student may not attend school on a given day (Teasley). Truancy on the other hand, can be defined as unexcused and unlawful absence from school; typically without parental knowledge or consent. According to Lee and Miltenberger (1996), students that are truant typically spend the time they are out of school away from their home and tend to conceal the absences from his or her parents. Truancy then, is a form of absenteeism that is unexcused and without guardian consent. Implications of truancy According to Fantuzzo, Grim, and Hazan (2005) truancy is a multidimensional problem with far-reaching effects. When students are truant from school, they are not only hurting themselves but also......

Words: 2393 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Family Dysfunction and Juvenile Delinquency

...constant contact between parent and child” (p.131). Family problems are no longer relieved by the extended family that lives around the corner and because of this the nuclear family unit is falling apart. Research suggests that “Families are the most important socializing tool in one’s life. The family teaches a child how to behave, how to talk, respect others, and to have moral values. The family also teaches them how to be negative, such as being anti-social, aggressive and violent” (Doggett, n.d. par.4). How a child behaves socially starts at home with the parent’s. Family behavior alone can explain how a child may become a juvenile delinquent. According to Hoeve, et al. (2001), “Negative parental behaviors have been known to have an effect on children which will lead to larger levels of delinquency” (par. 5). Parents who show love and support toward their children, and have control over them in a non-evasive way are more likely to raise children who do not commit delinquent acts. Children, who are afraid of their parents, will not talk to them about their problems or anything for that matter; these children will eventually participate in illegal activities. “Poor parent child communications have been related to dysfunctional activities such as running away from home and living in homeless shelters” (Hay, et al. 2001, p. 36). Children who have been rejected or have grown up in a hostile, unsupervised home are more apt to becoming delinquent. Thornberry, (1999),......

Words: 1521 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Professional Learning in Education

...practices embedded in student learning opportunities. Professional development and mentoring of staff is a vital component in order for all staff to stay abreast of the latest pedagogy. Professional development should be purposeful, ongoing and reflective and it takes many forms depending on the individual needs and the needs that are influenced by the context of the school. Individual, target groups, whole staff, pedagogy and practice, content specific and faith formation are a selection in which teachers choose in order to improve their knowledge and practices. The leadership team must be supportive of teachers and encourage them to seek to improve and personally grow in their craft of educating our youth and providing improved educational opportunities for students. The notion of development is evolving along with society. This report will briefly look into forms of professional development and mentoring and the role it plays within educational settings. One area of consideration when allocating funds for the development of teachers is in line with raising student academic achievement. Hayes and Noonan (2009) focus on whole school development centred on pedagogical improvement. Increasing teacher knowledge of the subject matter being taught is an effective strategy in enhancing student achievement, while also developing understandings around how students learn (pedagogy). The flow on effect from this will be an increase in student engagement. It is vital for the......

Words: 2676 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

The Seeds of Discouragement

...irresponsibility” and to understand how youth cultures are able to contribute to such learned helplessness and rebellion through things like social exclusion and street gangs. Next, nearing the end of this essay I will offer my opinion as to how the child and youth care worker should approach the young person differently during the assessment as to avoid the young person becoming discouraged during the transaction. Before the conclusion I shall offer my self reflection as well as sharing the impact that this topic of “the seeds of discouragement” has had on me. Climates of Futility The climates of futility refers to those environments which may cause young people to experience feelings of deficiencies and that are able to contribute to their fears of failure. The negative transactions between the young person and others within these hostile environments can become “an ecological hazard in the lives of youth at risk” (Brendtro, Brokenleg and Van Bockern 2002, p. 8). There are a number of factors that can lead to climates of futility, one such important factor to investigate is that of negative expectations. The expectations that teachers have about a young persons level of ability, performance and normative behaviour has huge implications on the child (Jussim and Eccles 1992, p. 950). Negative expectations held by teachers within the school milieu has been shown to be able to produce underachievement as well as futility in the youth of today (Brophy 1983, p.......

Words: 1992 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Case Study

...Case Study BSHS/325 December 8, 2014 Maria Perrotta Case Study Human services provide help to many in need. Human service professionals need to be able to be provided with general information, the case information, about an individual, and understand the needs of the client. This case study involves Michael and his relationships, his roles, and the effects of his unhealthy habits. Michael’s Basic Information and Relationships Michael is a single 45 year old male with no children and he is a practicing attorney. He volunteers for a youth mentoring program for male youths. He is currently dating Tina, whom he is considering marrying. Tina has three adult children. He seems to be unable to confront Tina about whether or not she loves him and would accept an offer of engagement. Michael is 200 pounds overweight, eats high-fat and high calorie foods, and is currently on high blood pressure medication. His recent visit to his physician has encouraged slight and immediate changes to his diet. Michael has no desire to go to the gym or to exercise. Exercising would allow him to feel better and may help with the psychological problems of not talking with Tina or Taylor, his sister. He lives with his sister, who is HIV positive. They are very close. Taylor does not work, although she is physically capable of working. She does help Michael with cooking and cleaning. Michael and Taylor no longer discuss each other’s health issues because of the problems......

Words: 956 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Foster Care

...The history of foster care in the United States started with orphan trains and the Children’s Aid Society founded by Charles Loring Brace. Recent research describes the child welfare system as an organization that provides service to helpless children in need. This paper will discuss foster care as it is relates to safety, permanency, and wellbeing of children in need The role of a foster parent and the process of loss, and grief after a child leave their biological parents will be discussed. Research suggests that Courts has the final decision whether a child will stay in foster care or return home. This paper will describe the developmental impact that foster care has on children after losing their biological family. There are several risk factors associated with poverty. This paper will discuss the significance of children reuniting with their biological parents and/or being adopted for permanency. Empirical evidence from recent research confirmed that hard times during childhood was related to health problems later in life. Foster care reform, educational outcomes, economic incentives for adoption, mentors and home visitation programs should be implemented to improve the foster care system. Keywords: foster care, developmental, health problems, orphan trains Foster Care in the United States The prevalence rate is high for foster care in the United States. The history of foster care began with orphans and abandoned children traveling......

Words: 4211 - Pages: 17