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The Euro-Zone Crisis – Causes, the Crisis and Reformation Policies (with Special Reference to Greece)

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the euro-zone crisis – causes, the crisis and reformation policies
(with special reference to greece)

the euro-zone
‘The Eurozone’ is the nickname commonly used to describe the member states that use the EU’s single currency, the Euro. The idea of creating a single currency for the European Community was first mentioned in the 1970 Werner report, which led to the establishing of the European Monetary System (EMS), the forerunner of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). The Maastricht Treaty (1992) made EMU a part of EU law and set out a plan to introduce the single currency (the Euro) by 1999. The Maastricht Treaty also established certain budgetary and monetary rules for countries wishing to join the EMU (known as the convergence criteria). In 1998, 11 member states (Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Ireland, Austria and Finland) undertook the final stage of EMU when they adopted a single exchange rate, which was set by the European Central Bank (Britain, Sweden and Denmark negotiated an opt-out from this final states of EMU). The new Euro notes and coins were launched on 1 January 2002. There are currently 16 EU states in the Eurozone. Greece joined the initial 11 members in 2001, Slovenia joined in 2007, Cyprus and Malta in 2008, and Slovakia joined in 2009. Estonia is due to join the Eurozone in 2011. All future members of the EU must adopt the Euro when they fulfil the convergence criteria.

Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)
Step 1: a country loses a degree of economic sovereignty when it enters a trade bloc or single market as a necessary step towards being part of an EMU. Stage 2 – Joining a trade bloc or single market: to join a single market, or a trade bloc, a country must give up a degree of power over trade. Such powers can include: import and export tariffs, product regulations and free movement of...

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