Free Essay

The Film Industry in Europe

In: Film and Music

Submitted By juli1du56
Words 1086
Pages 5
The Film Industry in Europe

Mass media as a whole are diversified media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience by mass communication. There are many mass media such as broadcast (radio, television), print media (newspapers, magazines, and books), recorder music, digital media (internet) and outdoor media (billboards). But we will be particularly interested in the media of cinema and films which is one of the most famous.
That’s why at first we will have a look on the film industry in Europe. Thereafter we will interest ourselves on the threats of the European film industry, like principally the US market of films.

The film industry and the film industry in Europe
The film industry is composed by the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., film production companies, film studios or cinematography. The film industry has a complex consumption because the creation of a movie need to take in consideration many features. Indeed, it is required to analyse the time allocation you want; the product characteristics such as actors that you want, the music, the plot, the scenario, the budget; people you attend with, and many other features that you have to take in consideration if you want your movie will become a success. The producer has pressure because the first week of release of his film is a strong indicator of success/failure. It will lead to the decision of whether or not to pull off the film from the circulation.
Unfortunately for the film industry, there are many substitutes for this industry such as television, mass spectator sports, music or video games. This impact is difficult to measure. Moreover, cause of high costs of production, large length of production and high cost of production, there is an extreme degree of riskiness.
After the first screening of the Lumière brothers Cinematograph at the Salon Indien of the Grand Café in Paris in 1895, the operators of the Lumière brothers took to the streets of major European capitals. Film was used to highlight the historical events, literature and theatrical traditions. For this reason, the film industry in Italy and France pointed to the splendour of staging as well as to traditional everyday life. If Hollywood is considered the pioneers of a spectacular cinema, in Europe films became a formal language and a new kind of art, rather than just a technical innovation.
Before the First World War, European film companies produced the great majority of films shown in Europe. Europe was considered as the pioneer of both technological and content innovation in cinema. In 2010, the European film industry was quite dynamic and assembled over 75.000 companies, employed more than 350.000 people and the turnover was around €60 billion. Within the European Union, the Big Five – France, Germany, Italy, Spain and United Kingdom – account for around 80% of releases, industry turnover and persons employed.
It is difficult to get a detailed overview of the number of companies and staff employed in the European film industry. The reasons for this seem to reside in its more volatile nature because a number of European groups such as Pathé (France), Constantin Film (Germany) and Kinepolis (Belgium) are active at various levels of the film value network (e.g. production, distribution, and/or marketing). However, the core of the EU film industry consists of nationally based companies, many of which are relatively small and focused on one segment of the value network. Some of them may be set up to produce only a single project. Due to their lower budgets, some European films remain profitable even with a relatively small number of admissions. However, research shows that the great majority of European films do not recoup their costs, which makes it difficult for EU companies to remain in the industry and grow.

The threats of the European firm industry As I told before, cinema was born in Europe. In the beginning of the 20th century, European film companies dominated international film’s market and had not only the largest market share in Europe but also in the United States of America, reaching at times 60%. European pioneered technological innovations (projection, colour processes, sound films) and content innovations like the weekly newsreel, cartoons, serial and feature film.
However, after the First World War, in 1920, the situation was the reverse and the emerging Hollywood studios started to supply many of movies shown in Europe. Nowadays, it is still the case with the European films landscape characterised by the important presence of Hollywood companies like Walt Disney, Warner Bros and News Corp. Even if American companies have produced around 620 movies in 2013; compared with 1.546 European productions at the same time; they account for more or less 70% of the EU market. Whereas European companies hold only 26%. What drives these majors so powerful is the fact that they are very well integrated because six of the ten media groups worldwide have a film subsidiary which are US majors.

Moreover, European film industry has to face up to American blockbusters (movie production with big advertising budget to produce record profits) like Harry Potter, X-Men or Iron Man. On the table below, you can see the five films which needed the highest costs of production. Each of them were produced in Hollywood.

Place | Title | Costs | Year | 1 | Avatar | 300.000.000$ | 2007 | 2 | Pirates of the Caribbean | 300.000.000$ | 2006 | 3 | Superman returns | 270.000.000$ | 2010 | 4 | Raiponce | 260.000.000$ | 2007 | 5 | Spider-Man 3 | 258.200.000$ | 2009 |

My conclusion To conclude, it is possible to say that European film industry is still working but it has to find solutions in order to “stay alive” against the US industry firm which gain more and more market shares thanks to its big budget movies. I think it’s difficult for European film industry to find adapted solutions because Hollywood’s studios have a greater control on the films’ production.
On the other hand, if we consider that film industry is only used to create blockbusters which generates huge revenues, we can ask ourselves if the cinema is still the seventh art, as described by Ricciotto Canudo, or if it’s becoming only a way to make business.

Sources

* http://one-europe.info/cinema-in-europe

* http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3698694?uid=3737856&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21106348226911

* http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ricciotto_Canudo

* http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinema_of_Europe

* Lecture 4 of Culture & Mass Media Economics course

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Indie Films

...basically a combination of group of film companies which were Lubin, Vitagraph, Edison, etc. Edison trust also included the largest distribution company of that time which was owned by George Kleine and the top film stock supplier, Eastman Kodak. This company was created to monopolise the film industry. To break this monopoly, some filmmakers in 1908 started an independent film movement. These filmmakers believed that the Edison trust were trying to control the art form of filmmaking and wanted to preserve artistic side of filmmaking. It can be said that Edison through his company started the first Oligopoly in the film industry because he owned most of the film equipment’s patents such as projectors, camera and film stock. Filmmakers who used their own cameras and projectors because of budget constraints where prone to lawsuits from Edison. Despite of Edison’s negative attitude towards small filmmakers, an independent cinema movement began to save the artistic element of filmmaking. To stay away from lawsuits, independent filmmakers moved to southern California to continue their work. California in the early 1900’s provided perfect terrain such as the ocean, hills, desert and also great weather to shoot all year round. But the most important factor for Hollywood to lure these independent filmmakers was its district court supported them against Edison trust lawsuits. Many filmmakers moved to California and produced many small but creative films. But many who started as......

Words: 1021 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Waterfront Film Industry

...The Film Industry and the Homefront In the center of American isolationism and the era of cultural growth within the early 1900’s, the establishment of film revolutionized popular opinion in encouragement of the war effort. To a certain extent, the film industry during WWI aided in increasing productivity, rationalizing supplies, and building a strong war morale in the homefront; necessary for a victory. Under Woodrow Wilson’s presidency, isolation was more or less implemented along with a few other imperialistic endeavours; focusing mainly on the Spanish American War. As for the rising conflict in Europe, Wilson initially proposed to be the “counselor of peace” in his speech to Congress. Venturing off upon the Monroe Doctrine, American involvement...

Words: 725 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

American Film Industry; Oligopoly

...The American Film Industry - A Model of Oligopoly Kim R. Williamsbernard Virginia College, Online The American Film Industry - A Model of Oligopoly Introduction The American Film Industry or Hollywood refers to the successful oligopoly economy of the major Hollywood studios in the 1920s to the 1940s. The term implies that it studios, so the production of films constituted the decisive factor in the economic system. But the concept of system refers here to large companies, production, film distribution / sales and film screening at this time controlled. Vertical Integration The actual switching was indeed for most firms in New York City, but the company has production facilities in Hollywood grew up to be enormous. Mergers and acquisitions, was formed in 1920 out gradually a powerful oligopoly. The competition in the film industry in Europe has been weakened by the First World War and so many American studios took advantage of the opportunity, the demand for new films to cover most of themselves. The weakness of Edison's monopoly (MPPC) was the insufficient integration of the functional areas of the value chain. This is precisely what the new rendered large companies. Their economic power stemmed from the fact that they took over the production of films, the distribution and the distribution of films and the Exhibition or the operating theater itself, so the functional areas vertically integrated (Balio, 1985). The Oligopoly The......

Words: 1294 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Similarities and Differences in Caribbean and European Tourism

...Similarities and Differences in Caribbean and European Tourism The World Tourism Organization is a United Nations Organization that specializes in and oversees national tourism, serving as a mediator or consultant to fix or aid in tourism policies and as a practical source of tourism knowledge and statistics. The World Tourism Organization plays a positive central role in the promotion of tourism development nationwide. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes" (1). Tourism is found almost anywhere across the globe. With it being more popular in certain areas, the Caribbean and Europe are two that are visited by millions of tourists year round. Many countries use tourism as a source of income. Both the European and Caribbean regions require tourism to keep a steady flow of income streaming to their nations, and although they share many similarities, such as an increase in job market and pollution, European and Caribbean tourism differ in just as many ways; attractions, transportation, cost, and standard of living are several things that make both regions unique. Even though European and Caribbean tourism share a lot of differences, they possess a lot of similarities that are usually found between tourism in any region. Tourism has a positive effect on the country or area by increasing the local job market.......

Words: 1725 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Digital Camera Market

...video by digitally recording the images, without the use of film or production of negatives. Digital cameras show the image on a display screen imbedded in the camera immediately after the picture was taken. The recorded images are stored on a memory card that often allows for much more data storage than a roll of film. Digital cameras can be connected to computers to download the images, and sending the images out for development is not necessary in order to immediately view the pictures. While originally digital cameras were simply intended to be an innovative way to capture images as opposed to cameras that utilized film, their purpose has come to exceed imitation. Digital cameras have become a visual communication medium, as the images captured with them can be downloaded, edited and enhanced, printed at home or sent to a studio, used for a presentation, or to share with others via the internet, all within a matter of moments. Demand in this industry continues to grow, and is driven by individual consumers, as well as commercial businesses. This growth can be attributed to three specific sectors: digital cameras that are tethered for both home and desk communication, digital cameras overriding the functionality of standard cameras, and digital cameras for use in applications for which film cannot effective operate. Several other industries require photographic services that cannot always be accomplished with film cameras, such as insurance, security, diagnostic......

Words: 1810 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Can Bolly Go Global

...CASE ANALYSIS: Can Bollywood Go Global? Submitted By: Divyanshu Rastogi 0134/52 Abstract The case talks about the opportunities and problems that the Indian film makers face in reaching out to the international film business and market. It provides a historical view by detailing the journey of the cinema and how Hollywood emerged as the global leader in the film industry worldwide by the 1920’s. Although some movie industries were sustained in other regions including the United Kingdom and France, their films and offerings had restricted international appeal and audience. It also focuses on the rise and development of the Indian film industry and the entire industry as well. Bollywood films, which are made in Mumbai usually are the most famous and acknowledged amongst the Indian film industry which also includes other genres like Tollywood, which constitutes of the movies made in the state of Andhra Pradesh (and now Telangana as well) and caters to Telugu films. The Bollywood movies are generally melodramatic and musical. There are other local language films made in Tamil Nadu and West Bengal as well. Bollywood films in specific have done well in Southeast Asia and are fairly popular amongst the Indian populace. It also brings to light the challenge of whether Indian content films can rival with Hollywood in international markets and to how extensively a modification in content is required for this approach to be successful. History of the World cinema The Cinema...

Words: 2026 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

The Culture Value of Film Culture

...Reflections on The Cultural Value of Film Statistics can be used to show that Britain’s film industry is now the third biggest in the world and a prime destination for inward investment. This success story was heralded by James Purnell, new Minister for the Creative Industries, in a speech to the Institute of Public Policy Research in June this year.[1] But what is the relation of this economic success to the vibrancy and breadth of our film culture? A further look at the statistics provided by the UK Film Council for 2004 shows that last year domestic production fell from 44 films to 27, where domestic is taken to be films made by a UK production company shot wholly or partly in the UK. In 1997, the year when the government set up the Department of Culture, Media and Sport, UK production had been at a record high, and 84 domestic productions were registered. In terms of what UK audiences could see in 2004, beyond American features and American co-productions, the rest of the world share of the market in UK and Ireland was just 2.7%, a figure which betrays the failure of film policy to encourage interest and understanding in the stories of what goes on beyond our shores. Last year also saw the consolidation of companies operating in the exhibition sector and a series of momentous deals which changed the landscape of UK exhibition. In August 2004, Terra Firma acquired both the Odeon and UCI cinema circuits for a total of 580 million pounds, acquiring a 35% share of...

Words: 3815 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Assd

...Name: Radhika K Section: i Reg No: 1221055 CONSEQUENCES OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY MISMATCH IN THE ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY Introduction: The entertainment industry is in the race to embrace corporates, and the production houses today are vying with each other to reach out to the global markets. With increasing incomes of the common man and broad room for expansion, industry representatives and analysts say that the film and entertainment sector has remarkable potential for growth. Movie production tycoons are aiming to develop content and partnerships to conquer both domestic and international audiences. Demand and Supply The Indian film industry produces roughly twice the number of movies as the American film industry, and sells 2.5 times the number of box office tickets as the U.S market. However, the Indian film industry box office revenues have been under the scanner; in 2008 Indian films earned only USD 1.6 billion compared to Hollywood's USD 9.7 billion, though ticket prices in India are less expensive than those in the U.S. or Europe. Factors affecting the mismatch: This scene is attributed to screen penetration and consumer spending still being considerably less as compared to the global scene. India is still a very price-conscious market. Also, cinema business is a tertiary demand and is the last in the chain of decision-making from a consumer’s perspective. However, demand for luxury goods, cinema tickets are said...

Words: 398 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Business Student

...the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an estimated 64.5 percent of Americans tip the scales as overweight or obese, the highest percentage of fat people of any country in the world. However, adults and kids in other countries are catching up. THE WORLD The World Heart Federation reports that globally there are now more than 1 billion overweight adults and that at least 400 million of those are obese. An estimated 155 million children are overweight worldwide including 30–45 million who are obese.1 In many countries, the worst increases in obesity have occurred in young people. About half a million children in Europe are suffering classic middle-aged health problems because they are too fat. Obesity among European children has been on the rise over the last 25 years. The number of overweight children in Europe did not change much from 1974 to 1984; then the rate started to creep up during the next 10 years, and it exploded after 1995. In Britain, one in five children is overweight or obese; in Spain 30 percent; and in Italy, 36 percent. While less than 1 percent of the children in Africa suffer from malnutrition, 3 percent are overweight or obese. Perhaps the most distressing data come from Asia, where the measure of being overweight used in Western countries may underestimate the seriousness of weight-related health problems faced by Asians. In Japan, for example, obesity is defined as a body...

Words: 3893 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Mcdonald’s and Obesity

...the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an estimated 64.5 percent of Americans tip the scales as overweight or obese, the highest percentage of fat people of any country in the world. However, adults and kids in other countries are catching up. THE WORLD The World Heart Federation reports that globally there are now more than 1 billion overweight adults and that at least 400 million of those are obese. An estimated 155 million children are overweight worldwide including 30–45 million who are obese.1 In many countries, the worst increases in obesity have occurred in young people. About half a million children in Europe are suffering classic middle-aged health problems because they are too fat. Obesity among European children has been on the rise over the last 25 years. The number of overweight children in Europe did not change much from 1974 to 1984; then the rate started to creep up during the next 10 years, and it exploded after 1995. In Britain, one in five children is overweight or obese; in Spain 30 percent; and in Italy, 36 percent. While less than 1 percent of the children in Africa suffer from malnutrition, 3 percent are overweight or obese. Perhaps the most distressing data come from Asia, where the measure of being overweight used in Western countries may underestimate the seriousness of weight-related health problems faced by Asians. In Japan, for example, obesity is defined as a body...

Words: 3893 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

The Walt Disney Company: Expansion Strategies

...exploit all the other markets around the world as well as diversifying its operations to cover a wider range of entertainment products and services. As of December 2015, the Walt Disney company had spread its tentacles to three continents where Disney amusement parks and stores have been observed have been set up in the united kingdom, United States, Spain, Italy, as well as Portugal (Bohas, 2014). Licensed shops have also been set in operation in almost every county around the globe. This paper focuses on the strategies that the Walt Disney Company has adopted to thrive in the industry as well as how the company manages to thrive in the international market. Complementary strategic moves Strategic alliances The company has partnered with other players in or outside the industry not only for the purpose of diversifying its operations but also to strengthen its competitive advantage in the entertainment industry. In December 2015, it was announced that the Walt Disney company was to form a strategic alliance with the Kimberly-Clark corporation. As an impact of the alliance, the Walt Disney parks and resorts would be able to showcase Kimberly- Clark’s brands in the Walt Disney world resort, the Disney cruise line, the Disney resort, and the Disney baby care centers that are hosted by Huggies (Bohas, 2014). The alliance is an extension...

Words: 1806 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Mcdonald’s and Obesity

...the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an estimated 64.5 percent of Americans tip the scales as overweight or obese, the highest percentage of fat people of any country in the world. However, adults and kids in other countries are catching up. THE WORLD The World Heart Federation reports that globally there are now more than 1 billion overweight adults and that at least 400 million of those are obese. An estimated 155 million children are overweight worldwide including 30–45 million who are obese.1 In many countries, the worst increases in obesity have occurred in young people. About half a million children in Europe are suffering classic middle-aged health problems because they are too fat. Obesity among European children has been on the rise over the last 25 years. The number of overweight children in Europe did not change much from 1974 to 1984; then the rate started to creep up during the next 10 years, and it exploded after 1995. In Britain, one in five children is overweight or obese; in Spain 30 percent; and in Italy, 36 percent. While less than 1 percent of the children in Africa suffer from malnutrition, 3 percent are overweight or obese. Perhaps the most distressing data come from Asia, where the measure of being overweight used in Western countries may underestimate the seriousness of weight-related health problems faced by Asians. In Japan, for example, obesity is defined as a body...

Words: 3893 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Krissh Case

...Q-1: How has indian film industry evolved through ages? A : Indian Cinema has completed 100 years of its inception in this very year. In the last 100years, the cinema has evolved genre wise and also technologically from black and white and silent to coloured and with special sound effect. When we talk about Indian film industries, the current scenario is very different from past due to change in technology. Today Indian film industries playing an important role in Indian economy. We can divided Indian film industries into four major parts according to ages. 1. 1920-1950 (The early days of Indian cinema) 2. 1950-1960 (A golden age of Indian cinema) 3. 1970-1980 (The angry young man awakens) 4. 1990-2000 (Bollywood gains global popularity) 1- 1920-1950 Those days was starting days of Indian cinema. At that time in 1913 the first Indian silent film Raja Harishchandra´ was produced by Dhundiraj Govind Phalke who is known as Dada Saheb Phalke. The most remarkable thing that happened in Indian film industries was in 1931 ,when india‘s first talkie , Alam Ara ´,directed by Ardesh Irani was realesed. Ist colour film was Kisan Khaniya´ in 1937. 2- 1950-1960 All time most popular films was produced during this period like Rajkapoor’s Awara in 1951, Guru Dutt’s Pyaasa in 1957, Kagaj ke Phool in 1959. Also some most momentous films of this period were Mughaleazam, Sahib Biwi aur Ghulam, Guide, etc. 3- 1970-1980 This decade was dominated by artist like......

Words: 742 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Strategic Review of Love Film.Com

...Strategy in Entrepreneurial Ventures A case study by, Arun Venkatachalam FT MBA 2009/10 May, 2010 Table of Contents 1. 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 2. 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 3. 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 4. 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 5. BACKGROUND ....................................................................................................................................... 3 Who or What is ‘LOVEFiLM.COM’? ................................................................................................. 3 Why are they considered a high growth entrepreneurial company? ..................................................... 4 Where they are currently? .................................................................................................................... 6 What is the basis for this report? .......................................................................................................... 6 BEGININING OF ‘LOVEFiLM.COM’ .................................................................................................... 7 The Innovative Online Business Opportunity ...................................................................................... 7 The Market Analysis of 2001/2002 ...................................................................................................... 9 Strategic Analysis of the Business Environment ................................................................................ 10 Competitor Analysis ...........................................

Words: 5361 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Walt Disney vs. 21 Century Fox

...and mistakes. Over the last year, not only did Disney shares reach all-time highs, but the company experienced resounding cross-platform success with its Frozen franchise, spurred excitement for the upcoming sequels to the original Star Wars trilogy, and readied the opening of the new Shanghai Disney Resort. Furthermore, the media conglomerate continues to perform at a high level, despite facing constant pressure in its film and broadcasting holdings. Disney creates, develops, produces, markets, and distributes content through an unrivaled range of media platforms. The company derives its revenues from five operating segments. Media Networks (43% of companywide business in fiscal 2014) includes ESPN, ABC, Disney Channel, among others, and generates sales from affiliate fees, ad sales, and the distribution of television programs. Parks and Resorts (31%) operate the company’s internationally prominent theme park and resorts holdings, such as Disneyworld, Disneyland, and a number of international locations. Studio Entertainment (15%) produces and acquires films for international distribution through Walt Disney Pictures, Pixar, Marvel, and Lucasfilm, among others. Consumer Products (8%) licenses Disney’s intellectual property to...

Words: 2068 - Pages: 9