Premium Essay

The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake

In: Historical Events

Submitted By scrombomb
Words 2752
Pages 12
The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake At 5:12 a.m. on April 18, 1906, the people of San Francisco were abruptly awaken to one of the world’s most expensive and impacting earthquakes of the 20th century. The magnitude of the earthquake is debatable, ranging from 7.7 to as high as 8.2. However, the most accepted Richter measurement is 7.9. This is debated because Charles Richtor developed his scale in 1935, after the killer quake. The main shock epicenter occurred offshore 3.2 km from the city, near Mussel Rock. It ruptured along the San Andreas Fault northward and southward for 476 km (296 miles). The quake was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles, inland as far as Nevada. Though the earthquake was impacting in itself, it lasted less than a minute and the most damage was done by the resulting fire that lasted 4 days. The earthquake bears inexhaustible remembrance as one of the worst natural disasters in the history of the United States and has had lasting social, fiscal, and political impact. The death toll is uncertain, but modern calculations approximate about 3,000 deaths at a minimum. The death toll alone is a very debated topic, and has had a large impact by itself. Initially it was said that only 478 people had died. It is speculated that the official tally of 478 was employed by the city coroner, who added 100 to the 378 bodies that showed up at the morgue. Some uncertainty in the toll exists because government officials felt that reporting the true death toll would lower real estate prices and diminish efforts to rebuild the city. Also, hundreds of casualties in Chinatown were ignored and unrecorded. It is hard to accurately say how many died. Most of them occurred in San Francisco itself but others were reported in cities like Santa Rosa and San Jose. The death toll has been revisited many times, the most recent of which in 2005. Historians now say that...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Eathquake

...San Francisco 1906 Earthquake In San Francisco California a major Earthquake had occurred on 1906 which result to fires that had cause an estimated of 3,000 deaths and $524 millions of property loss. The damaging cost in the city of San Francisco were $20 million and outside the city was $4million.The Earthquake vibration lasted for about 1 minute. The quake ruptured a total of 290 miles of the earth's surface along the San Andreas Fault, from northwest of San Juan Bautista to the triple junction at Cape Mendocino. Though most of the damage was focused in San Francisco the quake was felt all the way from Oregon to Los Angeles. Many building were destructed and several hundred of people got killed. The earthquake happened on the San Andreas Fault, which is the major fracture of the Earth's crust. It is trending northwestward through southern and northern California, US for 650 miles (1,050 km) and passing seaward in the vicinity of San Francisco. Movement along this transform fault is of the strike-slip type and is characterized by occasional large earthquakes originating near the surface along the path of the fault. The disastrous San Francisco quake of 1906 and the less serious earthquake of 1989 were both caused by movement along the fault. According to the theory of plate tectonics, the San Andreas results from the abutment of two major plates of the Earth's crust, the Northern Pacific and the North American. Along the fault, the......

Words: 751 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Home

...The third game of the world series on October 17, 1989 to see the giants try to bounce back against Oakland at Candlestick Park wasn’t the only match to be done that evening. Eighteen kilometers beneath the ground another contest was also beginning in an arena known as the San Andreas Fault. Here two enormous plates of the earth’s crust had been locked in a planetary pushing match since the great San Francisco earthquake of 1906. These players were tiring, reaching the breaking point. Their game was in its last inning. As the fans finally found there seats at Candlestick Park. Expectantly they watched the teams warm up. The clocks had reached 5:04. And deep beneath the ground a section of weak rock had snapped. The two sides of the San Andreas shot past each other. Simultaneously the West Side of the fault rose, and it had seemed to be lifting the mountains themselves. The ripping of the faults was dangerously unstoppable. And for about eight seconds the earth’s crust unzipped at more than two kilometers per second, twenty kilometers to the north and south. The bucking Santa Cruz Mountains flicked houses off their foundations like eggshells. The faulting released a frenzy of seismic waves. Setting seismometer needles scribbling around the world, and carrying a lethal message to Californians. Waves rolling to the south bludgeoned the city of Santa Cruz, which was only 16 kilometers from the epicenter. They took out its commercial heart and had swiped four lives. ...

Words: 553 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Plate Tecttonics Press Release

...Education on Earthquake Preparedness By Krystle Wilson March 28, 2014 Los Angeles, CA – Earthquakes occurs frequently in Los Angeles and its surrounding areas in California. I would like to take some time today to discuss earthquake preparedness and discuss descriptions of hazards associated with earthquakes in Los Angeles. I will also discuss the origin and causes of earthquakes, relation to the shifting plates to the natural process of mountain building, relation of earthquakes to plate tectonics and faults in Los Angeles. I will share some historical disasters associated with past earthquakes and discuss potential of future earthquake events. Descriptions of hazards associated with earthquakes in Los Angeles Earthquakes occurs and it occurs where there are tectonic plates or fault lines. The main earthquake hazard is the effect of ground shaking. The ground shaking can create hazards with buildings that may potentially collapse, roads may be unleveled, ground may split open. Because of Los Angeles being a large city with large population of people and buildings, there are gas lines running underneath the city. If an earthquake occurs, it may cause rupturing of the pipe line which could lead to fires and explosions. (Michigan Tech, n.d.). Origin and causes of Earthquakes “The earthquakes in California in general are caused by the movement of huge blocks of the earth’s crust – the Pacific and the North American plates.”......

Words: 966 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Earthquake of 1906

...The Economic Disaster of a 7.8+ Earthquake on The San Francisco Bay Area Christina Sotelo Geology 6 – Jefferis- Nilsen November 21, 2012 Over the many decades the economic standing of the United States, specifically California, had fluctuated due to many unforeseen factors. One huge factor that cannot be anticipated, and often causes drastic effects on the economy, are geologic disasters. The state of California is notorious for having earthquakes that shake up the state quite often and leave the affected area with a substantial amount of damage. The 1906 earthquake of San Francisco was the largest geologic disaster known to the nation at the time it occured. Destroying about 80% of the city, this earthquake also caused an enormous amount of fires to break out throughout the city. Not only did the state of California have to build up funds to reconstruct the city, but also other states and nations provided economic relief to help rebuild the ninth largest city in the United States. As one of the most metropolitan areas in the West Coast of the US, San Francisco had a humongous task at hand to make this once financial, trade, and cultural center flourish once again. The magnitude of the earthquake caused widespread destruction due to the geologic setting of San Francisco, but also the destruction of buildings was due to the makeshift quality of the construction of the city. If there were to be a repeat of the quake today, it could possibly be more devastating than the......

Words: 1766 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Earthquakes

...In the United States, the most high risk earthquake areas according to the USGS Map ("USGS," 2008) are the western most outer lying areas running from California to Seattle. There is one hotspot covering Northeast Arkansas, Southeast Missouri, Western tip of Tennessee, and then the Eastern portion of South Carolina. With the exception of the hotspot in the middle of the country, the real hot spots are the outer lying areas, mostly on the west coast, but in South Carolina as well are some hazardous areas in the Northeast, like the tippy top of Maine, a little part of the northern part of New York. It is not as great on the opposite side of the country, but still reaches up to 32 on the scale that goes to 64, so that is half as dangerous as California or the state of Washington, but much greater than in most other parts of the country. That leads to the conclusion that coastal states are much more dangerous than the rest of the country with the exception of the one Midwestern area noted earlier. Around the world, the pattern that shows up is that island countries, such as Japan in the Pacific, or the Dominican Republic in the Atlantic are the highest risk areas. South Central Pennsylvania is a relatively low risk area, coming in at the 4 – 8 mark on the scale, but just outside of the higher risk area of Eastern Pennsylvania, which is slightly higher and goes up to 16 on the scale. If a good job opportunity came up in a high risk, red area, I would take the risk because it......

Words: 895 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Lessonplan

...高一人教新课标必修1 --Unit 4 Earthquake 教案   一、    教学内容分析 (Analysis of the teaching materials) 二、    教学目标和要求 (Teaching aims and demands) 三、    教学重点与难点 (Teaching difficult and important points) 四、    教学课时安排 (Teaching arrangements) 五、    教学设计步骤 (Teaching procedures) 六、    评估与反馈 (Assessing)     一.教学内容分析 本单元话题为“地震”,主要描写了1976年唐山大地震,各项语言活动也都是围绕地震展开。本单元共分八个部分。 Warming-up 部分通过两张图片引出话题“一旦地震发生,将会造成怎样的危害”,为后面的主题作了一个热身运动。 Pre-reading 部分设置了两个开放性问题,目的是增加学生的生活常识,提高他们的应变能力。这部分为接下来的阅读作了很好的铺垫,学生可通过套乱,参阅有关地震的书籍并运用一些生活常识来回答这两个问题。Reading 部分具体描写了1976年唐山大地震的震前、震中和震后。作者详细描述了地震来临前的一些不正常的自然现象及动物的反常表现;地震的来势汹汹并在顷刻间将整座城市夷为平地;震后人们勇敢面对现实并及时实施抢救和重建工作。Comprehending 部分包括三组练习,主要目的是为了帮助学生更好地理解Reading部分的文章。 Learning about Language 部分分为两个部分:Discovering useful words and expressions 和Discovering useful structures.第一部分要求学生在把握文章的基础上,掌握重点词汇的词义及时用,这更注重培养学生运用上下文猜测词义的能力。其次还对一些复杂的数字读法进行了检测。第二部分则结合文章学习定语从句。 Using Language 部分分为Reading,Writing and Speaking;Listening和Writing。Reading,Writing and Speaking 包括读一篇邀请函,写一份演讲稿和关于一套新唐山邮票的Little talk。Listening 部分讲述了一位地震幸存者的故事,并根据听力材料进行正误判断和回答问题,旨在培养学生获取细节的能力,并通过听来模仿标准的语音和语调。Writing部分要求学生报纸写一篇新闻报道,学习如何按照规范的步骤进行写作,如选择适当地标题和组织语言等。另外这一部分也培养学生写作时注意标题、主旨大意和细节。 Summing up部分帮助学生整理、巩固本单元所学到的知识,包括学到的关于地震的知识,有用的动词、名词、表达方式和新的语法项目。Learning Tip部分就听英语方面给出了一些建议,建议学生多听广播或电视里的英语节目.   二.教学目标和要求 根据《英语新课程标准》关于总目标的具体描述,结合高一学生实际和教材内容,我们将教学目标分为语言知识、语言技能、学习策略、情感态度、文化意识五个方面。 1.知识目标(Knowledge) ① 词汇(Vocabulary):shake, rise, crack, burst, well, smelly, pond,......

Words: 2815 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

...the Earthquake

...The 1906 Earthquake Do you know anything about the Sanfransisco earthquake of 1906? Do you know Emma Burke’s point of view of the earthquake? The author’s purpose affects the narrator’s point of view of the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, by keeping the purpose to inform us and to try not to reveal how she feels. Emma Burke’s point of view of the immediate aftermath of the earthquake was that even though the destruction was immense, people were working hard to help. Based on what I read it stated “Chimney’s on roof’s, on the street, bricks and broken glass everywhere, stone steps gaping apart, wooden ones splintered, and buildings at straight angles.” This explains the destruction and aftermath of the earthquake in detail. Moon Shadow’s point of view of the immediate aftermath of the earthquake was how he was upset and disturbed by what he saw and heard. The author wrote a few things explaining this, one of them being, “A strange eerie silence hung over the city, as if itself were holding it’s breath.” This tells us how everything felt way to quiet, and was a bit strange of how there was almost no noise. Emma Burke’s purpose affects the narrator’s point of view by being able to in form readers about the 1906 earthquake, while Yep’s purpose was to entertain us by telling us a story to keep us reading about the earthquake. (For Fun.) In Conclusion, the author’s purpose affect’s the narrator’s point of view of the immediate aftermath of the earthquake by......

Words: 337 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Int Science Task 3

...Earthquake of 1906 Slide one. San Francisco At 5:12 am on April 16,1906 an earthquake shook the coast of Northern California. With a magnitude of 7.8. The quake affected 375,000 square miles. It could be felt all the way to Nevada. One half of this miles were in the Pacific Ocean. The cities of San Jose, Santa Cruz, and Santa Rosa were all affected by this earthquake. There was 400 million dollars, 1906 dollars, in damages done to the city. This was the first major disaster in the world to be documented by pictures. Slide 2 The Fires The fires erupted after the quake. Firefighters were unable to fight them because the water lines were destroyed in the quake. 28,000 building were destroyed spanning over 500 blocks. The fires burned for 3 days. As a result they caused more damages then the quake did. 225,000 people lost their homes and 3,000 perished. The city built refugee camps to house the ones who lost their homes. Slide 3 History Theodore Roosevelt was the current president, being elected in 1901. In December of 1906, president Roosevelt was awarded the Nobel peace prize for his help with the peaceful end to the Russo-Japaneese war. In 1906, 1.1 million immigrants had arrived in America. That is the most to arrive on a single year. At this time San Francisco was the 9th largest city in the United States. The night before the quake, Italian tenor, Enrique Caruso played at the Palace Hotel. The hotel was destroyed......

Words: 514 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Earthquake Case Study

...Comparing 2 different Earthquake Cases Introduction: In this essay I will be comparing 2 different cases of Earthquakes, 1 in an MEDC (More Economically Developed Country) and the other in an LEDC (Less Economically Developed Country) both of a magnitude of 7.0. The two earthquakes that I will be comparing are the Kobe Earthquake in Japan in 1995 of a magnitude of 7 (for the MEDC) and the Haiti Earthquake in 2010 of a magnitude of 7.0 (for the LEDC).I will be comparing the impact after the Earthquake, the damage inflicted on the city, the cost in damage and the loss of lives and the amount of injuries. I will be doing this to see how the economic bracket and earthquake proof buildings can affect the damage inflicted onto the cities affected...

Words: 905 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Analysis Of The Butte Fire

...The first article was about the Butte fire which my whole project was originally based off. It tells you about how long and drastic the fire was. The fire was insanely fast and took out a lot of land. Also talks about how the Butte fire was one of the most severe fires of the dozen wildfires they had roaring throughout the state of California at the time. Talked about all the destruction that it did, “destroyed more than 750 homes and hundreds of other buildings.” This all had happened in less than the very first week of the Butte fire. Second fire that it went ahead and talked about was the Valley Fire which was the other major fire burning through northern California very fast and taking a lot down with it. It went ahead and burned all the...

Words: 341 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

20th Century

...to San Francisco, he brought with him a neo-classical style that combined renaissance-revival with post-impressionist views. He began introducing his style starting with the Hibernia Bank building in 1892 and continued to incorporate it throughout his works. In creating the Temple for the congregation, Pissis attempted to produce something that would serve its members for generations, as well as incorporate visual design elements that were aesthetically pleasing. The result was a creation that stands more than 120 feet tall, features a dome with an external diameter of 60 feet, and contains more than 20,000 square feet of usable space. The congregation’s practical needs were also kept in mind—the Temple sits more than 1,400 members. The structure also contains 121 glass windows, 89 of which are ornamentally leaded and of which 32 are arched. While the Temple Sherith Israel was the only synagogue Pissis has designed, he has achieved the difficult task of combining form and function into this great building. The building’s only flaw is that it included unreinforced masonry, which following the San Francisco earthquake of 1989, was deemed by the city as in need of a retrofit. To Pissis’ credit, this would have been extremely difficult to predict almost 90 years earlier. Where most architectural purists elevate aesthetic appeal over solid structural design, Pissis balanced the two in a building that has withstood two great earthquakes and continues to be the pride of San......

Words: 411 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Loap

...MGT/230 Assignment – Internal and External Factors Paper Johnson and Johnson (JNJ) began in the late 1880s as a family owned and operated business geared toward the health care and first aid of individuals. In their first 20 years of operation, Johnson and Johnson built a solid domestic business and were among the first responders to the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake. Currently, Johnson and Johnson span the globe with more than 250 locations in 57 countries ("Johnson and Johnson Company Structure", 2011). In JNJ’s century plus experience and business operations, adjusting and adapting the functions of management to meet operational goals and public demands is a testament to their longevity. From their worldwide expansion, innovations in healthcare, business ethics, contributions to technology, to their community diversity, JNJ provides a “How to Succeed in Business” guide for others to follow. Internal and external factors involved in technology affect management’s efficiency in planning, organizing, leading and controlling. The new advances in technology have provided new production techniques and new ways to manage and communicate such as telecommuting and robotic manufacturing. The technology of computers has increased productivity and performance. Management is able to watch and learn what the competitors are doing and improve the efficiency in decision making. There are also threats involved with technology when ensuring the most up to date......

Words: 286 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

San Francisco Earthquake 1906

...Reference #1: Date Accessed: 3/18/2015 Cooke, Tim. 1906 San Francisco Earthquake. Milwaukee: Gareth Stevens Pub., 2005. Print. On April 18, 1906 at approximately 5:13 a.m., a super powerful earthquake that lasted for about 45 to 60 seconds struck San Francisco, California. The earthquake that hit the town was so strong, that people all along the West Coast of the U.S felt it; the areas along the coast included Oregon to Los Angeles, California and east into the state of Nevada. Unfortunately, since the earthquake was an 8.3 on the Richter scale more than 3,000 people were killed, while 225,000 people were left homeless. Thousands of people were left homeless after the earthquake disrupted about 12,000 square miles of land. It has been said that one of the reasons why the 1906 earthquake caused so much damage, was that parts of San Francisco were built on land that was once the seabed of the San Francisco Bay. Thus, a majority of the land in San Francisco should have never been built on, since the building does not have the proper ground support. Reference #2: Date Accessed: 3/18/2015 Richard, Hansen Barton., and Gladys C. Hansen. 1906 San Francisco Earthquake. Charleston: South Carolina, 2013. Print. In the 1906 earthquake, the buildings that were damaged the most had wooden structures that were built on alluvial soil or landfill. In addition, because the buildings had weak foundations, those killed in the earthquake were in wooden structures, not brick.......

Words: 872 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Earthquake Hazard

...analysis is Los Angeles CA and the hazard that is the highest risk to the city is an earthquake. L.A. is the second largest city in the United States; it encompasses over 498 square miles and is surrounded by mountains and ocean. L.A. is a very urban environment, its high concentration of infrastructure makes it vulnerable to earthquakes, but at the same time it also gives it the resources it needs to respond to earthquakes or any other hazards. L.A. has had a few large scale earthquakes in the last decades and some geological experts predict it will suffer a major quake in the near future. How it has responded to those disasters in the past is what has laid the foundation as to how the city will deal with future earthquakes or other hazards and attempt to minimize their impact on the city. Los Angeles lies around 60 miles from the San Andreas Fault. This fault line is one the most active fault lines in the world and as such is capable of producing severe earthquakes. And even though Los Angeles doesn’t lie directly underneath it like the city of San Francisco, the fault line does pose a great danger to the city. But even more of a threat to the city is the many unknown smaller fault lines that run beneath it. With a population of over 4 million people, a large size earth quake would cause substantial damage and injure or kill a large number of people. L.A. has had around six major earthquakes that were 6.0 or stronger in the last hundred years. It does also have......

Words: 1223 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Los Angeles Earthquake Preparedness Press Release

...One” means: a tremendous earthquake that scientists predict will rock the state of California, which sits on the famous San Andreas Fault line, an 800-mile line of weakness that runs through California. Overland, it runs for 625 miles, running north-south from Point Arena in north San Francisco to the border with Mexico. The most risky stretch of this fault, the southern part, passes about 35 miles from Los Angeles. Being the biggest and most populated city closest to the fault, Los Angeles is a high-risky region in the event of a big earthquake. There are over four million residents and 400, 000 businesses within Los Angeles city, an area of 475 square miles. It is one of the City’s greatest responsibilities to protect the public and ensure that all responsible agencies are prepared for immediate response and rescue operations in the event of earthquakes and other related disasters. The starting point, the focus of this press release, is educating the public about the causes of earthquakes, associated disasters, and vulnerability of Los Angeles to future earthquake events. Hazards Associated Earthquakes in Los Angeles The common disasters associated with earthquakes include the disruption of public, social and business activities, as well as destruction of property, and in serious cases, loss of life. In addition, earthquakes destroy infrastructure such as electricity lines, roads, water, and sewage drainage systems. Consequently, if an earthquake strikes it will......

Words: 906 - Pages: 4