Free Essay

The History of the Flush Toilet

In: Other Topics

Submitted By ravencudi
Words 1022
Pages 5
The History of the Flush Toilet
When you think of major inventions before 1900 one of the last that will come to mind is the flush toilet. So yeah it doesn’t caring the same sense as an invention such as the airplane, stoplight or telephone but it has served its purpose just as much as the others. The flush toilet is one of few inventions that hasn’t went obsolete over time and still use in everyday life. Believe it or not there were people who didn’t have the benefit of this invention we take for granted.
The bathroom is a room that we have dedicated to use daily, from bathing to grooming. There was a point in history to where a bathroom wasn’t even in a blueprint of a house plan. Before mid-1800s people then didn’t have the luxury of a space to dispose of body waste sanitary. In Medieval times people used potties. Potties were kept in most homes. Streets had open drains – channels that ran down the streets – so it was easy to empty the pots. You just threw your waste out of the window. When people threw their potty waste out of the window, they would shout "Gardez l’eau" [gar-day low], which is French for "watch out for the water”. Rich people had little rooms extending out from the walls of their homes, there would be a plank of wood with a hole in it, to sit on. There was nothing underneath, so whatever you empty from your body would just drop to the ground for stories up. When taking care of our business in the bathroom the last thing we would associate it with is food but, in the 1700s, the most likely place for a potty would be in the dining room. They were kept inside furniture pieces. Most city people had a drain in their garden or under their house. They would empty the pot into the drain. Around that time there are lots of stories from that time about people dying in the 'night air'. This was really deadly poisonous gas that came off by the waste in the drains.
Around 1750, a new type called a "pan closet" was invented. At the bottom of the closet was a pan designed to seal in unpleasant odors. It wasn’t very good because they couldn't keep the pan clean. American inventors were seeking solutions to the problem of building a sanitary water closet. As early as 1875, James Henry and William Campbell patented a plunger-type water closet; over the next 50 or so years more than 350 applications formed for patent. When it comes to the inventor of the toilet Thomas Crapper is often given credit, probably because of the pun filled name but he is only the owner of the first main distributor of the flush toilet. Crapper didn’t one day sit down and decide that what the world needed was an indoor toilet. His product was another tweak of a design problem that the Victorians had been puzzling over: how to build a flushing water closet that would efficiently and sanitarily remove waste without allowing dangerous sewer gases to enter. When Crapper advanced his design, flushing water closets weren’t a new idea. Sir John Harrington, who was the godson of Queen Elizabeth I, had designed one for her use in 1596, although it never caught on with the rest of society, and was more of to be more of a novelty than a everyday invention, especially in the nonexistence of widespread sewer system.
In this day and age ever every home, business, school, and building at least has one bathroom equipped with a toilet and they all vary in in sizes and styles. Most toilets have either one- or two-piece construction and come with either a smaller, round bowl or larger, extended bowl. Ranging from juvenile models like preschools to chair-height models for large adults or even people with special needs. White is still the most common color, and the typical height from bowl rim to floor is about 15 to 17 inches. Most housing toilets are installed on the floor, but wall-mount models are an option for bathrooms short on floor space. Most toilets are made from Vitreous china, or porcelain, is most common construction material for the toilet itself in homes and also public restrooms The most common type of toilet is a gravity-fed model, which relies on the weight of the water and head pressure (height of the water in the tank) to promote the flush. If you see free-standing water when looking down into the tank, your toilet is gravity fed. Dual-flush toilets are one type of gravity-fed toilet. Dual-flush toilets let users choose from one of two flush options depending on need: Users can push one button for a regular 1.6-gpf flush, or they can push another for a reduced flush using about 0.9 gallons of water. There are the pressure-assist toilet relies on air pressure within a cylindrical vessel, inside the toilet tank. Air inside the vessel forces a forceful, rapid flush. The vessel, along with a powerful flush, is a sign of a pressure-assist toilet. Drains for toilets are either on the floor, or in the wall. Wall outlets can be either 4 inches off the floor, or the fixture is "hung" on the wall over the outlet. When comfort comes in play when designing a toilet, you can get the seats soften to your leisure. This is an example of the different piping done for toilets.
With the invention of the sanitary flushable toilet society and people no longer needed to rely on chamber pots and open windows and backyards to dispose of their waste. Nor did they have to fear sewer gases like methane seeping back up into their homes and igniting explosively. Which I think many people today would be very grateful for today if they took the time to understand how fortunate we are for this invention.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

History of Toilet Paper

...quality assurance Professor: SCORTAR LUCIA-MONICA Toilet Paper Student: Gabriel Ionescu Ovidiu Contents Introduction 3 The history of toilet paper 3 Demands of the market 4 Design and Metrology 4 Raw materials 5 Manufacturing, Labeling and Packing 5 Bibliography 6   Introduction In our busy life, we tend to use some products so frequent that we can’t imagine life without them. How many of you think that you can live without water, not only for drinking purposes, but also for washing. How many of you think that you can live without food? How many of you think that you can live without clothes? The list can go on with phones, internet connection, cars etc. I think one of the objects that we don’t even think about, but in the same time we use it daily, is Toilet Paper. Was toilet paper on your list before? What about now? Do you think you can live without it? I don’t think so. Therefore, if toilet paper is such an important product, let’s find out some more information about it. The history of toilet paper Most of us think that toilet paper was invented a long, long time ago, but in fact the role of paper that we have today, was designed just in 1857 by Joseph Gayetty. Of course the idea of using paper for cleaning purposes was developed a long time ago. Although the use of paper as wrapping and padding material dates back to the 2nd century BC, the first documented use of toilet paper in human history was dated back to 6th century AD. In 589,......

Words: 1322 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Roca Bathrooms

...INTRODUCTION: Roca is the world leader in the definition of bathroom space and a benchmark reference in the world of design of sanitary ware. Currently they are active in more than 135 different countries and have 76 production plants spread across five continents. Roca directly employs more than 21, 000 people across the globe. Roca’s presence started to spread over the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Russia, Morocco, Argentina, Brazil and China. Roca’s constant technological innovation has just one aim: to give its customers the best possible service. For this reason, its R&D&I departments analyse the needs and tastes of society to adapt the company’s products to new market conditions. This adaptation process is not only carried out on the basis of aesthetic principles and modernity but is also generated with the aim of improving people’s quality of life PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS: Bathroom collections Khroma Element America Happening Hall Meridian Dama The Gap Dama Retro Debba Nexo Dama Senso Victoria Access Baby Basins & furniture solutions Kalahari Heima Prisma Natura Anima Joli Stratum Amberes Victoria-N Victoria Basic Senso Square 2.0 Senso Square Mini Urban Bol Urbi Diverta Sofia Luna Faucets collections Evol Thesis Loft Elite Loft L90 Singles Lanta Modena Florentina Moai M2 Logica Esmai Atlas Targa Monodin L20 T-1000 T-500 Vectra Victoria Brava M3 Avant Instant Sprint Bath solutions Circular......

Words: 1128 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Carpet Capital Culture Clash

...resulting interaction with their original Anglo workforce. There are numerous cultural misunderstandings in this case study between Anglo and Latino workforce. The Human Resource Department is unclear how to address the issues facing in the company. The restroom One of the cultural challenges that company is facing is soiled toilet paper scattered or piled all over the plant’s bathroom floors. In Mexico and other Latin American countries, the sewer or wastes pipes leading from the building are usually small in diameter compared with U.S. standards. In addition, the water pressure or volume generated is also less and toilets are much more prone to clogging. Individuals are taught at an early age to dispose their used toilet tissue into the basket provided. It is very much possible that restrooms at the company sites do not provide waster basket for used toilet tissues disposal. Or there is no sign in the restroom to let Latino workers know that their toilets have plenty of horsepower to flush away anything. Banking The Mexican banking system is much different than most Anglo Americans are used to. Mexicans distrust banking system due to history of corruption in Mexico. Many of them choose to keep their money in their house. Furthermore, many Mexican immigrants, in fact, immigrants in the U.S. are illegal immigrants or immigrants who lack traditional documents such as a driver’s license and Social Security number or just simply lack of any kind of legal identification......

Words: 1162 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Risk Review Plan for Macville Pty

...company Mission MacVille cafes serve competitively priced, high-quality coffee and gourmet food in a safe and comfortable café-style environment. Our friendly, well-trained staffs provide superior customer service. Vision MacVille aims to deliver our valued customers the very best café-going experience. In three years, the business will have established a presence across the Queensland and NSW, with the opening of additional cafes. Values • Customer-focus • Safety • Teamwork • Performance excellence Strategic directions The strategic context in which MacVille will achieve its mission and vision it through: • Engaging with customers and customer research • Developing and improving products and quality History of Hurley’s Café Hurley’s café is located in Toowoomba city at Ruthven Street, which is the corner of the two main streets. Also, Hurley’s café is in 130km west of Brisbane. This café is a family own business and some family members were employed on the staff. As a family business café, James was the person who supervises the operations of the store and Mr.Hurley, as manager would initiate with employees salaries. Scope - Project MacVille Pty Ltd has developed a chain of cafes in the Central Business District of Brisbane, Queensland. The board of directors have made the decision to expand their operations in Queensland with the purchase and re-branding of the existing Hurley’s café in Toowoomba, 130km west of Brisbane......

Words: 2790 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Levels of Health Promotion in Nursing Practice

...hands are basic health promotional activities that a toddler can perform at direction of parent. | Preschoolers can verbalize pain. Preschoolers are curious about body their own bodies and its functions Preschoolers have an accurate perception of the external parts of their own bodies. Preschoolers view the internal part of body as hollow. | School-age children are aware of how their own body functions and when it is ailing School-aged children have an abstract understanding of the definition of health and factors causing illness and recognize the need for well health check up exams. Cultural influences may also contribute to the school-age child’s perception of illness | | Toddlers generally have no history of health screenings Cavities may be common if teeth are neglected. There is a potential for poor health maintenance if the parent’s lack knowledge. Toddlers are at risk for injury due to accidental...

Words: 4296 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Geography

...CASE STUDY SUMMARY Case Study: | Christchurch Earthquake, New Zealand | Year: | 2010 | Event Profile Magnitude | Enormous | Sept 2010- 7.0Feb 2011- 6.6 | Small | Speed of onset | Rapid | | Slow | Duration | Long | Sept 2010- 40 seconds | Short | Areal extent | Widespread | | Limited | Spatial predictability | Random | | Predictable | Frequency | Frequent | 2010 earthquake had frequent aftershocks (over 14,000) | Rare | Facts Country Profile- NEW ZEALAND | LocationThe group of islands is located in Oceania, southeast of Australia, in the South Pacific Ocean. The 2 main islands are North Island and South Island. | Map | PopulationNZ: 4,438,393(Christchurch: 366,100) | HDI 0.913 (9th) | GDP (US $)$166 billion | GDP per capita (US $)$36,400 | Government Parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm | Political Stability | What happened? | Magnitude / LocationSeptember 4th earthquake occurred along an east-west fault (not Alpine Fault), associated with the motion of the two tectonic plates. Fault that caused the earthquake was under the Canterbury Plains- flatlands between the Southern Alps and the Pacific Ocean. The quake was centred around 45km west of Christchurch. February 2nd epicentre was 10km away from Christchurch with a shallow focus of 5km. This earthquake caused much more damage and had a greater impact on the area. | Time / Speed of onset / DurationFriday, September 03, 2010 at 16:35 PMSaturday, September 04, 2010 at 04:35...

Words: 865 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Consumerism in the 1950's

...include bare necessitates for the home. Aside from the addition of indoor “…flush toilets and electric lighting and appliances” families were not concerned with updating their material lifestyle (Witkowski , 1998). In 1940, 33% of Americans could not afford the luxury of running water and 48% had no refrigerator (Witkowski , 1998). Soldiers returning home after WWII were greeted by a vastly changing market for the American consumer. The war had caused inflation back home. In 1945, “the economy created 17 million new jobs” (Witkowski , 1998). The increase in incomes changed the dynamic of how American families viewed consumerism. Rationing of goods reformed into increased spending habits on recreational goods. Advertising dominated the market encouraging consumers to “keep up with the Jones’s”; a coined phrase that promoted consumers to spend money on material goods and update household appliances in order to maintain their desired social status. After the Depression ended wages more than doubled in 1950 compared to 1935, making consumers eager to spend (The Boom Years, 2012 p 274). Americans wanted to live “the good life” which meant having the latest household appliances like washing machines and refrigerators, a cookie-cutter house in the suburbs, a driveway for the family car, and small yard for the children to play on with all their new toys (American Experience: TV's most-watched history series, n.d. & The Boom Years, 2012 p 274). Americans during the post......

Words: 804 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment

...Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP) | Toddler 1-3 Erickson’s Developmental Stage: * | Autonomy versus shame and doubt | | Preschool-Aged 4-5 Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Initiative versus guilt | School-Aged 5-12 Erickson’s Developmental Stage: * | Industry versus inferiority | | Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management: List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group. List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. | Healthy patterns are established such as brushing their teeth prior to getting dressed and at bedtime Learning to recognize when to wash their hands, | Parents allow preschooler to assist with small task in the kitchen to encourage a healthy lifestyle Preschooler is encouraged to learn basic hygiene. | Child is aware that dirty hand causes illnesses but not why. Parents encourage healthy hygiene such as hand washing and proper bathing | | Parents do not in cooperate toddler in healthy routines like oral hygiene Parents do not help toddler recognize when hand washing is needed. | Parents do no encourage preschoolers to learn about healthy living. Preschooler is not encouraged to maintain basic hygiene | Child disregards dirty hands frequently with no comprehension on why they need to be clean Parents have......

Words: 2497 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Children's Functional Assessment

...Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP) | Toddler Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Autonomy vs. Shame (McLeod, 2013) | Preschool-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Initiative vs. Guilt (McLeod, 2013) | School-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Industry vs. Inferiority (McLeod, 2013) | Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management: (Edelman, 2010) (Jarvis, 2012) (McLeod, 2013) List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group. List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. | Able to express feeling bad/sick but have little understanding of the meaning of health. Depend on the caregiver for health management. Ready for independent activities. Often imitate parents or caregivers. Ex. brushing teeth on their own but unaware of the health benefits. | Able to verbalize when in pain or not feeling well. Curious about their body and its functions. View the internal body to be hollow. | Aware of how their body functions and when it is sick or not functioning properly. Have abstract thought and understand the definition of health and factors causing illness. Cultural influences contribute to their perception of illness. | | Risk for injury r/t accidental exposure and environmental dangers. Risk for poor health maintenance r/t caregiver knowledge deficit. | Risk...

Words: 2842 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Gung Ho

...History number: 2 Name of the patient: Rommel Francisco Preceptor: Dr. Ligon Informant: Patient Date of Interview: July 25, 2011 Historian: Raymond Ceneta Date Submitted: August 1, 2011 Reliability: 100% Group number: 13 General Data: Rommel Francisco married with 3 children, 52 years of age, a Filipino and Iglesia ni Cristo, pedicab driver. He is currently residing at Karuhatan Valenzuela City. He was born on January 12, 1957 in Manila near Fabella Hospital. He had his forth visit at Fatima Medical Center on July 25, 2011. Chief Complaint: Cough History of Present Illness: The complaint started last January 2011 when he used his bike to his work. He takes Tuseran Forte to relive the symptom. Four days prior to consultation, the patient experienced cough which persist when he is at work and relieved by taking Tuseran Forte 2x a day, it also persist when he sleep and this wake him up. Cough is accompanied by thick yellow sputum and patient is having half a tablespoon each cough. The patient characterized it as mild to moderate. It is associated with back pain. The symptoms persist for four days which leads the patient to seek medical attention. Past Medical Illness: The patient only had completed his vaccination in OPV; he doesn’t have immunization in BCG, DPT and Hepa B. He had mumps and measles. He does not have allergy on foods and drugs. He had his first surgical procedure in 1989 related to stab wound at right lower quadrant of abdomen, 2nd......

Words: 974 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment

...Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP) Toddler Erickson’s Developmental Stage: 1 to 3 years Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt (Edelman & Mandle, 2010) Preschool-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: (3 to 5 years) Initiative vs. Guilt (Edelman & Mandle, 2010) School-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: 6 to 11 years Industry vs. Inferiority (Edelman & Mandle, 2010) Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management: List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group. List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. 1-Toddlers may eventually learn that being sick means feeling bad or having to stay in bed, but they have little, if any, understanding of the meaning of health. 2-Toddlers whose parents eat a variety of foods are more likely to try new foods 1-Their concepts of what is inside the body and how its internal functions operate are vague and inaccurate 2- Most preschoolers can name one or two items inside the body (blood, bones) 1- Most school-age children perceive symptoms and show an ability to participate in health-promoting behaviors 2- School-age children’s understanding of illness is directly correlated with their cognitive development and follows a direct sequence of developmental stages 1-Risk for injury is very high. Toddlers like to explore parent’s guidance is a must. 2- Parents need to be educated on ways to keep their toddlers safe......

Words: 2743 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Green Marketing Plan - Nandos

...Green Marketing Plan Mustafa Ahmed (21626669) Table of Contents Executive Summary..............................................................................................................1 Situation Analysis.................................................................................................................2 Industry Analysis..................................................................................................................4 Customer Analysis................................................................................................................5 Competitor Analysis..............................................................................................................7 Internal Analysis....................................................................................................................8 Objectives..............................................................................................................................9 Green Marketing Strategy......................................................................................................10 References..............................................................................................................................13 Executive Summary The purpose of this plan is to analyse the environmental efforts of the Nando’s Carnegie branch, and to develop strategies that propels them a step closer towards a more eco-friendly and sustainable future.......

Words: 4149 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Functional Health Assessment-Child

...& Bindler,2003). | Preschool-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Initiative vs. Guilt (Ball & Bindler,2003). | School-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Industry vs. Inferiority (Ball & Bindler,2003). | Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management: List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group. List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. | The toddler’s sense of autonomy or independence is shown by controlling body excretions, saying no when asked to do something, and directing motor activity. Children who are consistently criticized for expressions of autonomy of for lack of control-for example, during toilet training-will develop a sense of shame about themselves and doubt in their abilities (Ball & Bindler,2003). When a toddler dosent feels well they are able to say they are sick. Health management is dependent on the caregiver. Brushing teeth and washing hands are basic health promotional activities that a toddler can perform at the direction of a parent. Toddlers are poor historians of health screenings. Few toddler teeth are present at this stage. Proper care is needed to avoid dental carries. At risk for poor health maintenance if parents lack knowledge. Environmental hazards increase a toddlers risk for injury or accidental exposures. | The young child initiates new activities and considers new ideas. This......

Words: 3709 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Report

...PRACTICUM EXPERIENCE AT KALIPAYAN RESORT HOTEL AND RESTAURANT DASMARIñas city, cavite A Narrative Report submitted to the Faculty of the Cavite State University Indang, Cavite In Partial Fulfillments of the Requirements for the Course of Hrml 199-1a Housekeeping Practicum Marlon V. Calinawan May 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION A. Rationale about Practicum Training……...............................1 B. Linkage Establishment...........................................................2 CHAPTER II: TRAINING AREA A. Standard Operating Procedure..............................................7 B. Facilities.................................................................................9 C. Man Power...........................................................................10 D. Duties and Responsibilities…………………………………...11 CHAPTER III: LEARNING EXPERIENCE.........................................13 CHAPTER IV: CONCLUSION...........................................................14 APPENDICES CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION A. Rationale about the Practicum Training On the Job Training (OJT) or practicum training is a method used for broadening student’s skill and develops their productivity n the working area. It is a learning opportunity for the student to gain hands-on experience through their exposure to the different operation in the hotel this training allows the......

Words: 2250 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Functional Health Assessment

...Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP) | Toddler Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt | Preschool-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Initiative vs. Guilt | School-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Industry vs. Inferiority | Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management: List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group. List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. | Toddlers have little to no understanding of heath and it is the caregiver’s responsibility for health management. Toddlers should be able to wash their hands and learning to brush teeth with the guidance of a parent. | This age group can verbalize pain and are very curious about how their body works. Preschoolers may view the inside of their body as “empty” because they can’t see what’s inside. | School aged children are aware of how their body functions and are aware for the need for well checkups. They also have a better understanding of health and illness. | | The child may not have white teeth and the nurse may notice decay. Poor overall health appearance, not well maintained by parents. | They can experience fear of mutilation and death at this age. Immunizations are an important part of overall health and are at risk for infection if not up to date. | They can learn poor health......

Words: 2774 - Pages: 12