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The Iliad

In: Historical Events

Submitted By AngelaMannel
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The
Iliad Iliad

HOMER

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KALIGIRANG KASAYSAYAN
Ang Iliad o Iliada sa wikang Filipino ay isang epikong patula at sinasabing pinakamaaga at pinakatanyag na literatura mula sa Gresya. Nababasa natin ito ngayon dahil kay Homer na siya ring nagsulat ng Odisea o Odyssey. Ang Iliada ay nagbigay ng malaking impluwensya sa kaisipan ng mga Griyego at naging sanggunian na din dahil sa mga tema nito. Sa sobrang laki ng impluwensya nito, tinaguriang itong ‘Bibliya’ ng mga Griyego. Naka-sentro ang kuwento ng Iliada sa malagim, madugo at mahabang ‘Trojan War’. Nagtagal ang digmaan ng sampung taon at si Achilles ang itinuturing na bayani ng mga Griyego at malaking parte ng istorya ay inilaan sa kahanga-hangang mga nagawa niya noong panahong iyon. Ngunit, maraming parte ng kasulatan tungkol sa digmaang ito ay nawala na at ang natira lamang ang mga nangyari noong huli at pinakamadilim na taon ng digmaan para sa mga Griyego at ang pinakamatamis na pagwawagi ng mga Trojans at nagbabalik tanaw sa mga nangyari sa mga nakalipas na taon.
Ipinapakita ng Iliada ang pakikiaalam ng mga diyos at diyosa sa mga buhay ng tao kahit na ipinagbabawal ito, ang dangal ng mga bayani, ang galit ni Achilles, ang kayabangan ng mga hari at ang mga kabayaran ng digmaan.
Ang Iliada ay dating kasama sa grupo ng mga sinaunang tula na tinatawag na Epic Cycle. Binubuo ito ng dalawampu’t apat na balumbon. Nawawala na ang halos lahat nito at ang Iliada ay hindi sakop ang mga nangyari bago magkaroon ng digmaan at ang pagtatapos ng digmaan pati ni arin ang kamatayan ni Achilles

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PAMAGAT AT BUOD
ANG ILIADA Nagsisimula ang kuwento halos sampung taon na matapos magsimula ang Trojan War. Ang mga Griyego ay nagtatalo kung ibabalik ba nila ang Trohanong bihag na si Chryseis. Si Chryseis ay anak ng pari ni Apollo na si Chryses at naging matindi ang galit ng diyos sa hari na si Agamemnon nang tumanggi siyang ibalik si Chryseis sa kanyang ama. Nagdulot ang diyos ng mga salot sa kampo ng mga Griyego. Una sa kanilang mga inaangking hayop at ‘di naglaon naapektuhan na din ang mga tao sa salot na nagtagal ng sampung araw. Ang mga Griyego kasama ang bayani nilang si Achilles ay pinilit si Agamemnon na ibalik si Chryseis para humupa ang galit ni Apollo sa kanila. Nag-aatubili na pumayag si Agamemnon ngunit kapalit nito ay ibibigay sa kanya ni Achilles si Briseis ang babaing bihag ni Achilles. Nabastos sa kawalang-hiyan ni Agamemnon, hindi lumaban si Achilles at ang kanyang mga kawal sa digmaan. Samantala, habang wala si Achilles, nagkaroon ng pagkakasundo si Paris, ang prinsipe ng Troy at si Menelaus, ang asawa ni Helen na magtuos. Kung sino ang magwawagi sa kanya mapupunta si Helen. Sa kabila ng pakikiaalam ni Aphrodite, nagwagi pa rin si Menelaus. Matatapos n asana ang digmaan kung hindi lamang ibinunsod ni Athena na sirain ang kasunduan. Muling nagsimula ang digmaan. Nangmakapasok ang mga Trohano sa kampo ng mga Griyego nagmakaawa ang lahat kay Achilles na lumaban ulit ngunit hindi pumayag si Achilles. Naguguluhan kung lalaban muli, nagmakaawa ang kanyang kaibigan at kasintahan na si Patroclus na si Patroclus na lang ang magsusuot ng kanyang armas at mamuno sa kanyang kawal. Pinagsabihan siya ni Achilles na mamuno ngunit kapag naglalaban na ay umalis na siya. Sa kabila nito ay pinatay ni Hector si Patroclus. Nagluluksa sa kamatayan ng kanyang kasintahan, lumaban muli si Achilles at nanggagalaiti sa galit’y pinatay ni Achilles si Hector at binaboy ang kanyang katawan kahit na alam niya ang propesiyang kapag pinatay niya si Hector ay mamamatay din siya. Nagtatapos ang Iliada sa pagmamakaawa ni haring Priam kay Achilles na ibalik sa kanila ang katawan ni Hector para mabigyan ng karapat-dapat na libing.

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PAGSURI BATAY SA ELEMENTO
TAUHAN
Achilles * Aristos Achaion o Best of the Achaians; Bayani ng mga Griyego at ang pinakamapanganib na sandata ng mga Griyego laban sa Trohano. Lingid sa kaalaman ng marami, ang “Achilles’ heel” ay hindi nakalagay sa orihinal na teksto. Si Achilles ay sadyang malakas at magaling sa pakikidigma, mabilis at mahusay gumamit ng armas. Sinasabing nanggaling ang galing niyang ito sa kanyang ina na isang sea nymph. Si Achilles ay labinlimang taong gulang lamang nang siya ay sumali sa digmaan.
Patroclus
* Pinakamalapit na kaibigan ni Achilles at kanyang kasintahan na tinuturing siyang Philtatos (most beloved); Kasama na ni Patroclus si Achilles simula pa ng pagkabata. Ibinigay ni Patroclus ang kanyang buhay para sa mga Griyego sa pamamagitan ng pagpanggap na siya si Achilles. Nang siya ay mamatay, sumiklab ang galit ni Achilles at pinatay si Hector.
Hector
* Ang bayani ng mga Trohano at ang sunod na hari pagkatapos ni Priam. Pinatay niya si Patroclus na siyang ikinagalit ni Achilles kaya pinatay siya ni Achilles at binaboy ang kanyang katawan.
Paris
* Prinsipe ng Troy at ang kumuha kay Helen mula kay Menelaus.
Priam
* Hari ng Troy at ama ng limampung anak na lalaki at labinsiyam na anak na babae kailang ditto si Hector at Paris.
Menelaus
* Hari ng Sparta at asawa ni Helen.
Agamemnon
* Kapatid ni Menelaus at commander ng buong sandataha ng Griyego. Dahil sa kanyang pagiging ganid, sakim at mayabang, nagalit sa kanya si Apollo at pati na rin si Achilles.

Helen * Sinasabing pinakamagandang babae sa mundo at asawa ni Menelaus. Kinuha siya ni Paris at dinala sa Troy. Nagkaroon ng digmaan upang maibalik siya muli sa Sparta
TAGPUAN
Troy * Dito ginanap ang digmaan. Pinamumunuan ni Hari Priam. Ang Troy ay napapalibutang ng pader na kalianman ay hindi nalagpasan ng mga kalaban maliban sa mga Griyego.

PROBLEMA Tinangay si Helen mula sa kanyang asawa ni Paris at pumunta sila ng Troy. Dito nagsimula ang dimaan. Dahil sa kasakiman ni Agamemnon ay tumangging lumaban si Achilles para sa mga Griyego at nagdulot din siya ng salot sa kampo. Dahil ditto napilitan na lumaban si Patroclus at siya ay pinatay ni Hector. Sumiklab ang galit ni Achilles at pinatay si Hector at dinala din niya sa kanyang sarili ang kamatayan.
TEMA
Maraming makukuhang tema sa buong epiko ng Iliada ngunit ang pinakamatingkad ay ang kaguluhan at kapayapaan. Makikita natin na sa kagustuhan ng tao na maibalik ang kapayapaan nagdadala ito ng kaguluhan. Halimbawa, sa kagustuhan ni Patroclus na masagip ang mga Griyego sa kapahamakan at maibalik ang kapayapaan ay nagpanggap siyang si Achilles. Namatay siya at nagbunga ditto ang kaguluhan na dala ni Achilles sa kanyang pagluluksa. Isa pang halimbawa ay sa kagustuhan ni Menelaus na maibalik ang kanyang asawa at maging mapayapa muli ay nagsiklab siya ng digmaan na nagtagal ng sampung taon at ikinamatay ng napakaraming tao. Ipinapakita ng Iliada ang magagawa ng mga tao upang makuha ang pinaniniwalaan nilang magbibigay sa kanila ng kapayapaan sa pamamagitan ng kaguluhan. Umuusbong dito ang kabahaniyan ngunit kabayanihan ba ang pakikisama sa digmaan? Kabayanihan ba ang pagpatay para sa karangalan lamang? Kabayanihan ba ang pagdudulot ng malaking gulo para makuha ang iyong gusto?

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PAG-UUGNAY SA KASALUKUYANG PANAHON Maihahambing natin ang Iliada sa kasalukuyan dahil ang mga nakikita nating pagkakamali sa panahong iyon ay nananaili pa rin. Makikita natin ang mga sakim na pinuno na habol lamang ay kayamanan at hindi ang ikabubuti ng kanilang nasasakupan. Hanggangn ngayon ay mayroon pa ring mga walang saysay na digmaan para sa karangalan at kayamanan. Hanggang ngayon ay malabo at manipis pa rin ang linya ng kapayapaan at kaguluhan. Ang akala natin ay magbibigay sa atin nga kapayapaan ay siya palang magbibigay ng kaguluhan sa buhay ng iba. Hanggang ngayon ay laganap pa rin ang kasakiman sa kalooban ng tao. Mas pinapahalagahan natin ang ating karangalan kaysa sa ikabubuti ng marami kagaya ng pinagdaanan ni Achilles. Natatakot siya na mawalan ng karangalan sa harap ng kanyang mga kawal at mga pinuno kaya mas pinili niyang itaya ang buhay ng kanyang pinakamamahal. Sa huli ay napagtanto niya kung ano ang mas mahalaga ngunit huli na ang lahat dahil nawala na ito sa kanya. Ang pinagdaanan ni Achilles ay maigagaya din natin sa atin. Huwag nating hayaan na huli ang lahat bago natin mapagtanto na mas importante ang bagay na ating intinaya kaysa sa bagay na gusto nating makamit. Minsan ay mas mahalaga ang moral sa popularidad, pangalan at karangalan na minsan ay nakakalimutan natin sa mundong ating ginagalawan dahil sa simula’t simula ay naaakit tayo sa karangyaan at kayamanan na dapat ay pinakahuli nating prayoridad ngunit inuuna natin ito. Kailan ba tayo matututo? Kailan ba natin maiisip na kapag iniisip natin ang ating sarili panandaliaan lamang ang saya na maibibigay nito satin at sa huli, itong desisyon na ito ay magbibigay ng matinding kalungkutan.

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...intervention was thought to be typical, and one of his foremost works, The Iliad, reflects this. Nearly all of the Greek gods are involved in the outcome of the Trojan War, which happens to be the background story of this epic poem. The gods are used by Homer to add twists on an otherwise standard plot of war. Evidently, the gods will be a powerful source of divine intervention and their actions certainly have significant outcomes on the Trojan War, and more importantly, the story of The Iliad. Zeus, very untypical of a Greek god in his lack of involvement in the Trojan War for selfish reasons, was portrayed as the father figure, being impartial and fair to both sides of the war. He remains this way to serve as a check for the other god's involvement in the war. Without the presence of fate controlling the inner circle of Olympus, it is likely that the activity of the Trojan War would have become chaotic, possibly even becoming a playground of war for the gods. The power of fate, above all of the other gods combined, is a power that not even divine intervention can prevent. This theme of fate and how it controls the god’s actions is quite befitting to the storyline of The Iliad. The Iliad, in essence, recounts the story of part of the tenth year of the Trojan War. It recounts of the anger of Achilles, the greatest warrior present at Troy, and of the background battle that is ensuing. The reoccurring theme in the Iliad is that no matter whom the character is, god or human,......

Words: 3197 - Pages: 13

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The Iliad - "Achilles' Rage"

...Journal Essay #3 When the reader first opens Homer's epic poem The Iliad, the author's very first line states the poem's main premise: "Achilles' rage" (1); if that doesn't tell the reader anything, it's also the title of the first book. However, I've noticed that many people still find it difficult to determine who the heroic protagonist is in The Iliad. That's because the audience today doesn't believe that their view, of what constitutes a heroic protagonist, coincides with the typical heroic protagonist of the Ancient Greeks. Yes, contemporary readers will all probably agree that Achilles possesses a couple of the characteristics, that would make him a heroic protagonist (i.e. being extremely brave, ambitious for honor, physically strong, etc...). However, Achilles also possesses some less thought-of characteristics, that might cause contemporary readers to arguably disagree with Achilles being an heroic protagonist. Given all criteria that makes up an epic poem's heroic protagonist, and that The Iliad is considered an epic; I'm going to have to say, that (while others display qualities of heroic protagonists) Achilles is the most heroic protagonist of The Iliad. Some of the more controversial characteristics, that make Achilles the perfect candidate for being the most heroic protagonist include: ambition driven by glory and immortality, he fights something or someone god-like, he has a known companion, he has an outward physical element that's very prominent, he......

Words: 652 - Pages: 3