Premium Essay

The Impact of Hiv&Aids, Tb, and Malaria in Africa

In: Social Issues

Submitted By zxcvvcxz
Words 2145
Pages 9
The impact of HIV&AIDS, TB, and malaria in Africa

Jack
Saint Mary University

Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis (TB) and malaria, which are extremely serious diseases, kill millions of people every year. Most of the deaths are found in developing countries, especially in Africa. Vietor K. Barbiero (2006) reports that during 2005 alone, approximately 2.8 million people died from HIV/AIDS in Africa, half a million Africans is killed by TB, and close to 900,000 Africans are killed by malaria every year (p.6-7). Three of the most serious contagious diseases (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria) have significant impact on healthcare, economy, and education in Africa.
HIV leads to AIDS. According to AVERing HIV&AIDS (2010), HIV is a kind of virus that damages immune system cells step by step. As a result, the body becomes weaker and weaker and becomes more susceptible to contagions. AIDS will evolve when HIV destroys the immune system enough (Para.3). AVERing HIV&AIDS also reports that AIDS is a “medical condition”. A person is believed to have AIDS when his or her immune system becomes too feeble to repel contagions (para.1).
HIV/AIDS in Africa HIV/AIDS is one of the most serious diseases. It alone kills a huge amount of people every year in Africa. For example, Barbiero (2006) reports that although Africa has only 15 percent of the world’s population, 60 out of 100 infected people of HIV/AIDS in the world were found in Africa. Moreover, close to 14 million, more than half of the victims of HIV/AIDS, are women. Terribly, the number of infected people is not going down. Around 2.7 million of new cases of HIV/AIDS carriers occur every year, and approximately 2.8 million were killed by HIV/AIDS during 2005 alone (p.6). AVERTing HIV&AIDS (2010) states that there have...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Health in Tropics

...expectancy data are aggregated data, collected by the WHO to document the changing patterns of mortality. Table E3.1 provides the top ten causes of mortality in rank order over the last decade. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) accounted for two-thirds of global deaths in 2011 and infectious diseases for one-third. In 2000 the relative proportions were 60% NCDs and 40% infectious diseases. This rapid shift reflects the massive scale up in recent efforts to prevent and treat a number of major infectious diseases. Although improvements in maternal and child mortality have been made these still remain unacceptably high. In 2011, 6.9 million children under the age of five died, 99% of these in low and middle income countries. Malaria, despite the enormous scale up in control activities still accounted for 14% of the under-five mortality in the Tropics. There are differences in the age at which mortality occurs stratified by income. In high income countries 70% of deaths occur in the over 70s and only one in 100 occurs in an individual under 15 years of age. In low income countries 40% of deaths occur in individuals under 15 years and 20% in those over 70. The...

Words: 5155 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals

...and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, develop a global partnership for development are the eight goals developed by the members of UN (World Health Organization [WHO], 2012). The purpose of this paper is to give an overview about Millennium Development Goal 6 which is, Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases. Implication for Millennium Development Goals The eight Millennium Development Goals are a global agenda to improve the wellbeing of people around the world. The progress report on MDG issued in 2009, shows that policies and actions backed by adequate funding and strong political commitment can yield results. Death rate due to AIDS, have significantly reduced and many countries are implementing strategies to combat malaria and measles. There are many challenges still remaining due to the current economic status of several countries (Mattson, 2010) Millennium Development Goal 6: combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases HIV/AIDS, Malaria and TB are major challenges of public health in the poorest countries of the world. Every 30 seconds, a child in Africa is dying due to Malaria. Many children who suffer from Malaria develop learning disabilities or brain damage ("End Poverty 2015 Millennium Campaign," n.d). Millennium Development Goal 6 which is, combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases is interrelated with several other goals, such as the......

Words: 1410 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Mellium Development Goals

...Economic Commission for Africa The Millennium Development Goals in Africa: Progress and Challenges Economic Commission for Africa The Millennium Development Goals in Africa: Progress and Challenges August 2005 © 2005. Economic Commission for Africa Material from this publication may be freely quoted or reprinted. Acknowledgment is requested, together with a copy of the publication. The views expressed are those of the original authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the United Nations. Project coordinator: Adrian Gauci Editorial coordination: Cristina Müller Team: Abebe Shimeles, Workie Mitiku, Vanessa Steinmayer, Reto Thoenen This report was produced with guidance and input from Augustin Fosu, Director of the Economic and Social Policy Division of the ECA. It benefited greatly from the revisions of Bartholomew Armah and Kwabia Boateng. Special thanks to Lorna Davidson for the final editing, to Akwe Amosu for her valuable input, and to Seifu Dagnachew and Teshome Yohannes for creative and efficient lay-out and production. The report was designed by the ECA Communication Team and printed by the Documents Reproduction and Distribution Unit, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Photo credits (left to right): Front cover- R. Zurba/USAID, J. Dunlop/USAID, R. Zurba/USAID, M. Crozet/ILO. Back cover- J. Maillard/ILO, T. Brunette/USAID, I. Getachew/UNICEF. Table of Contents Acronyms .....................................................................

Words: 12663 - Pages: 51

Premium Essay

The Millennium Development Goals: Global Health Inequities

...Health Inquiry, Global Health Inequities Introduction: The Millennium Development Goals (or MDG) are a set of 8 goals set by the world’s nations in hope of reducing poverty by 2015. These 8 goals address poverty, education, equality, disease and the environment. Each goal has a targets and indicators we are aiming to achieve by 2015. The purpose of this report is to report on the history, objectives and constitution of the MDG’s and the success and effectiveness of the MDGs. History of MDGs: In the 1990’s the United Nation (UN) member states went through a historically extraordinary UN press conference process. This conference was aimed at building consensus on development priorities for the 21st century. However, at the end of the 1990’s the governments of the conference experienced conference fatigue and feared the process launched by the conferences was losing steam. In September 2000 in New York there was a large gathering of world leaders called the Millennium Summit. This was the largest gathering of world leaders in history including 189 UN member-states. At the Millennium Summit the United Nation Millennium Declaration was adopted as a result of a series of global conferences held during the 1990’s. The UN saw the Millennium Summit as an opportunity to bring back the development of priorities for the 21st century. It was at this Millennium Summit that the Millennium Declaration set in motion a global partnership and was signed by 147 heads of states....

Words: 3629 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Business Management

...284 I The Johns Hopkins and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Control of communicable diseases 7 This measles 'jab' will help prevent this child from the consequences of measles such as pneumonia, malnutrition, blindness and brain disease. Photo:Marko Kokic,Canadian Red Cross Control of communicable diseases in emergencies Description This chapter gives an overview of common and emerging communicable disease threats among displaced populations because of natural and human-made disasters. General and disease-specific strategies for monitoring, preventing and controlling disease outbreaks are discussed. Learning objectives To review communicable diseases of public health importance; To discuss the basic principles for communicable disease control in emergency and post-conflict situations; To plan a communicable disease control programme for emergency settings; To discuss simple but effective ways of preventing outbreaks of communicable diseases; To describe how to manage specific disease outbreaks in emergency settings; To review re-emerging and other diseases that may affect displaced populations; To discuss how to monitor and evaluate communicable disease control programmes. Key competencies Identify communicable diseases of public health importance; Discuss the basic principles for communicable disease control in emergency and post-conflict situations; Discuss how to design and evaluate disease......

Words: 19028 - Pages: 77

Premium Essay

Gsk Company Profile

...main business divisions, pharmaceuticals and consumer healthcare. This profile deals with the pharmaceuticals division, which generates 85% of GSK’s sales. The five largest selling GSK products are Seretide/Advair for asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD); Paxil/Seroxat and Wellbutrin, both antidepression drugs; Avandia/Avadamet for type 2 diabetes; and the antibiotic Augmentin. Each of these drugs generated above £800 million of sales in 2003. GSK produces a broad range of products of special importance to developing countries, including: Anti-malaria drugs Zentel (albendazole), for de-worming and the prevention of lymphatic filariasis Pentosam, against leishmaniasis Anti-retrovirals (ARVs) for the treatment of HIV/AIDS Tuberculosis drugs Vaccines for developing countries Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) CSR refers to the responsibility of a company for the social, ecological and economic impacts of its operations. GSK follows a proactive and comprehensive CSR approach. In 2003, the company formally adopted a set of Corporate Responsibility Principles. The company is highly transparent about its CSR policies and has a clear governance structure on CSR. Reporting...

Words: 18642 - Pages: 75

Premium Essay

Aids

...HIV/AIDS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY By: Tina Green HIV/AIDS Hook & Thesis statement What is AIDS? I. How is it contracted? A. Where did AIDS come from B. Who is at risk of infection? II. Transfer of the virus A. Is anyone safe from the virus? B. Is there a cure? III. Statistics A. How many people living with HIV? B. How many people living with AIDS? IV. Conclusion A. Medication B. Prevention What exactly is HIV? HIV is an abbreviation for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. This virus can lead to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). According to Aids.gov, more than 1.1 million people in the United States are living with HIV infection, and almost 1 in 6 (15.8%) an unaware of their infection. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is an infectious virus that destroys the Immune system and makes it harder to fight off infections. Where did HIV come from? The aidsinstitute.org states, “Scientists identified a chimpanzee in West Africa as the source of HIV infection in humans. The chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus or SIV) was most likely transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. Over decades, the virus slowly spread across Africa and later into other......

Words: 1122 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Nursing Shortage

...Nursing Shortage: A Comparative Analysis James Baptiste Walden University NURS 3001 Section 3, Issues and Trends in Nursing Prof. Sonya Blevins December 9, 2012 According to international journal of nursing the shortage is a global challenge, affecting every country in the world. However each country experiences it according to its own domestic issues. The purpose of this paper is to analyze three countries nursing population United States, Philippines and South Africa where nursing shortage has affected their health care quality. This article investigates the impact of the nursing shortage in three different countries United States with a rapid aging of its population which has an effect on the health care system, Philippines with the policy of exporting a massive of nurses oversees by the government which in return creates a vacuum in the country for skilled nurses, and South Africa where poor working condition, low wage and social unrest distress the health care system. By using literature as research tools to be able to describe what nursing shortage means for those countries and strategies that they use to address the situation. In United States the nursing shortage is more relate to an aging population. The professional issues in nursing (2009) state that between now and 2015, the population aged 85 years and older will increase by 40%. Therefore not only more nurses will be needed but also due to increase in technology the 21st century patients have......

Words: 584 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Student

...i GOVERNMENT OF UGANDA Ministry of Health HEALTH SECTOR STRATEGIC PLAN III 2010/11-2014/15 ii TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD BY MINISTER OF HEALTH .......................................................................................... IV ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......................................................................................................................... V LIST OF ACRONYMS .............................................................................................................................. VI EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................ IX 1. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................. 1 1.1 CONTEXT AND RATIONALE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE HSSP III ..................................................................... 1 1.2 DEVELOPMENT PROCESS FOR THE HSSP III ............................................................................................................ 1 2. BACKGROUND ..................................................................................................................................... 2 2.1 SECTOR ORGANISATION, FUNCTION AND MANAGEMENT ..................................................................................... 2 2.1.1 The Ministry of Health and national level institutions .........................................................

Words: 50378 - Pages: 202

Premium Essay

Mdr Tb Supply Chain

...Jimma University College of Health Sciences Department of Pharmacy Assessment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis drugs supply chain network design and performance measures at health facilities of Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia By: Alula Tadesse, SintayehuTarekegn&TadesseGudeta Advisor:-Dr.TemesgenGaroma (PhD) April, 2015 Jimma, Ethiopia ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: In all supply chains, correct logistics management optimizes the circulation of products and materials, and insures the link between flow of the physical items and the follow of information. It takes a holistic approach to company’s activities, as well as to the lifecycle of a given product, from its conception to its disposal. This system also has a great impact on the sustained availability of medicines including antiretroviral drugs where their absences resultin service interruption and loss of customer confidence on the institution. For this purpose an effective supply chain network and performance measures needs to be established. OBJECTIVE:-The objective of this study was to assess the supply chain network and performance measures of antiretroviral drugs at health facilities of Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia METHODS: This study was conducted at the selected health facilities of Jimma town from May 05 to 08, 2015.Retrospective cross- sectional study design using both qualitative and quantitative method was. RESULT: - two health facility of jimma town were randomly selected and the key......

Words: 2515 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Public Health

...the major cause of ill health globally is: a. Smoking b. Obesity c. Poverty d. Sedentary lifestyles e. Malnutrition The major contributing factor associated with death in children under five years of age globally is: a. Pneumonia b. Measles c. Prematurity d. Under-nutrition e. Injuries The United States has led the world in increasing the average life span a. True b. False The highest proportion of premature deaths in the United States is due to: a. Genetic predisposition b. Social circumstances c. Environmental exposures d. Problems with health care e. Behavioral patterns 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.   7. The leading cause of death in the United States is: a. Heart diseases b. Cancer c. Diabetes d. Motor vehicle accidents e. HIV The prevalence of obese residents among those over 17 years old in the U.S. is...

Words: 2430 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Implementing a Large-Scale Systematic

...MAJOR ARTICLE Implementing a Large-Scale Systematic Tuberculosis Screening Program in Correctional Facilities in South Africa Vincent Zishiri,1 Salome Charalambous,1,2 Maunank R. Shah,2 Violet Chihota,1 Liesl Page-Shipp,1 Gavin J. Churchyard,1,2 and Christopher J. Hoffmann1,3 1 The Aurum Institute, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2School of Public Health, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; and 3Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland Downloaded from http://ofid.oxfordjournals.org/ by guest on January 9, 2015 Background. Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence is high in correctional facilities in southern Africa. With support from local South African nongovernmental organizations, the South African Department of Correctional Services initiated a program of systematically screening newly admitted and current inmates for symptoms followed by GeneXpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/rifampicin (Rif ) for microbiologic testing of symptomatic inmates. Methods. We conducted a program evaluation during a 5-month window describing program reach, effectiveness, adoption within the facilities, cost, and opportunities for sustainability. This evaluation included 4 facilities (2 large and 2 smaller) with a total daily census of 20 700 inmates. Results. During the 5-month evaluation window from May to September 2013, 7426 inmates were screened at the 4 facilities. This represents screening 87% of all new admits (the remaining new......

Words: 5727 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Maths and Statistics

...glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Goal 1 – Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Goal 2 – Achieve universal primary education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Goal 3 – Promote gender equality and empower women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Goal 4 – Reduce child mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Goal 5 – Improve maternal health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Goal 6 – Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Goal 7 – Ensure environmental sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Goal 8 – Develop a global partnership for development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

Words: 21527 - Pages: 87

Free Essay

Health Care in India

...HEALTH CARE IN INDIA - VISION 2020 ISSUES AND PROSPECTS R. Srinivisan INTRODUCTION Key linkages in health Health and health care need to be distinguished from each other for no better reason than that the former is often incorrectly seen as a direct function of the latter. Heath is clearly not the mere absence of disease. Good Health confers on a person or groups freedom from illness - and the ability to realize one's potential. Health is therefore best understood as the indispensable basis for defining a person's sense of well being. The health of populations is a distinct key issue in public policy discourse in every mature society often determining the deployment of huge society. They include its cultural understanding of ill health and well-being, extent of socio-economic disparities, reach of health services and quality and costs of care. and current bio-mcdical understanding about health and illness. Health care covers not merely medical care but also all aspects pro preventive care too. Nor can it be limited to care rendered by or financed out of public expenditure- within the government sector alone but must include incentives and disincentives for self care and care paid for by private citizens to get over ill health. Where, as in India, private out-of-pocket expenditure dominates the cost financing health care, the effects are bound t be regressive. Heath care at its essential core is widely recognized to be a public good. Its demand and...

Words: 12674 - Pages: 51

Premium Essay

Nursing Papers

...THE CHARACTERISTICS OF PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING THE PREVENTION OF MOTHER TO CHILD TRANSMISSION OF HIV (PMTCT) PROGRAMME AT BULAWAYO CITY CLINICS, ZIMBABWE. by MGCINI SIBANDA Submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTERS OF ARTS in the subject SOCIAL BEHAVIOR STUDIES IN HIV/AIDS at the UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA SUPERVISOR: DR GE DU PLESSIS JOINT SUPERVISOR: MR L ROETS SEPTEMBER 2008 DEDICATION This is dedicated to all women living with HIV, in the sincerest hope that this study will make a small contribution to programme development and implementation. I also wish to dedicate this to my family: Patience, Babongile and Bongiwe, with love. i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study would not have been possible without the support, commitment and encouragement of a large number of people in a wide range of capacities. Unfortunately, it is not possible to acknowledge by name all the people who contributed in some way to the study. Above all l appreciate the contribution of all the pregnant women who participated in the study, who volunteered their time and valuable information. Particular thanks are due to my supervisor Gretchen du Plessis for her untiring effort and thorough guidance throughout the study. A special word of thanks goes to the Bulawayo Medical Director’s office and the staff at the city clinics for allowing me to carry out the study. I am also grateful to the research assistants who assisted in......

Words: 30269 - Pages: 122