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The Level of Involvement in Smoking and Drinking Among High School Students in Cotabato

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CHAPTER I

Introduction

It seems to be a "coming of age thing" when a student goes to teenage life and encounters vices such as drinking and smoking is very rampant nowadays. Such vices cannot be ignored anymore as to the more students seem to be detaching from their spare time or even they intend to cut classes just for this so called vices, they seem to be enjoying freedom too much. A student may be influenced to be involved in any of the stated variables.
High School is far different from being a college student. A person will have a new life when one goes to college. New environment which one has to adapt, new set of friends which one have to treat nice, and new subjects or topics that one has to study based on what course you will get.
Although drinking, smoking, and drug-use for some usually result in adverse health consequences, there are some perceived benefits or advantages of these behaviors particularly from the point of view of the adolescents and youths. Adolescents may view drinking and smoking as privileges of adults and may want to engage in them to feel grown up and to present themselves as adults to others. Some of the reasons given are: the availability of cigarettes at home, parents being model of smoking and drinking behavior and consequently parents lack the credibility as advocates for non-smoking or non-drinking.(Aroyo 2001)
Smoking and drinking are two of the most important risk factors explaining early mortality, accounting for an estimated 14 percent of deaths among youth worldwide. Most individuals try drinking alcohol for the first time in their early teens and most adult smokers begin smoking before age of 18. Many adolescents and youths are likely to adopt behaviors that are very common among adults sometime during their transition to full adulthood, even when they are aware of the undesirable health consequences of these behaviors. For example, the primary socialization theory contends that individual learn social norm and behaviors from primary sources which include the family. There are evidences that a young person who’s parent smoke is likely to smoke (Conrad, et al, 2002).
The Youth Tobacco Survey showed that cigarette smoking is "high, and use of other tobacco products is moderately high."According to the study, majority of the students surveyed started smoking in their early teens. A third of the respondents (29.6%) aged 10 to 20 admitted that they have tried smoking. Of these respondents, 18.8% are current smokers, with 4.7% smoking at least one stick of cigarette per day of the current smokers, 62.7 per cent are in private schools. . J Sch Health 2003; 73: 207-15
According to the study Young people in developing countries are increasingly drinking in the same harmful patterns as young people in developed countries. Young people are more likely to suffer from alcohol-related traffic accidents, violence and family disruptions related to harmful use of alcohol than other age groups. (WHO, 2007).
Family dynamics also play a role in the initiation and continuation of teen alcohol and cigarette smoking . In some families, teens are allowed too much power. Alcohol and other form of vices use by the teen then becomes an unconscious attempt redress the imbalance by calling attention for the need for help. These vices may also alleviate some of the anxiety that comes with too much power. If the teen does not have enough power, then alcohol and other drug use creates a false sense of power and omnipotence.
The health risks of the use especially the abuse of all three substances particularly smoking and drinking affect all age groups. Drug use is socially unacceptable at any age while smoking and drinking is socially unacceptable for minors. These behaviors have legal risks as well. Drinking and smoking are illegal for minors.( J&shan, 2003)

Theoretical Framework
This chapter presents the different theories associated with psychology as regards to learning and behavior. The following theories were utilized in this study:
Psychosocial theory
It was Erik Erikson who first understood how central questions about identity are to understanding adolescent development. Erikson’s fifth developmental stage, which individuals experience during adolescence, is identity versus identity confusion. During this time, said Erikson, adolescents are faced with deciding who they are, what they are all about, and where they are going in life.( UniversityPress.Jessor, R. and S. L. Jessor. 2007)
The search for an identity during adolescence is aided by a psychosocial moratorium, which is Erikson’s term for the gap between childhood security and adult autonomy. During this period, society leaves adolescents relatively free of responsibilities and able to try out different identities. Adolescents experiment with different roles and personalities. They may want to pursue one career one month (lawyer, for example) and another career the next month (doctor, actor, teacher, social worker, or astronaut, for example). They may dress neatly one day, sloppily the next. This experimentation is a deliberate effort on the part of adolescents to find out where they fit in the world. Most adolescents eventually discard undesirable roles.( J.holms 2000)
Youth who successfully cope with conflicting identities emerge with a new sense of self that is both refreshing and acceptable. Adolescents who do not successfully resolve this identity crisis suffer what Erikson calls identity confusion. The confusion takes one of two courses: individuals withdraw, isolating themselves from peers and family, or they immerse themselves in the world of peers and lose their identity in the crowd.
Social Learning Theory
Problem-behavior theory is a systematic, multivariate, social-psychological conceptual framework derived initially from the basic concepts of value and expectation in social learning theory and from concept of anomie. The fundamental premise of the theory, all behavior is the result of person-environment interaction, reflects a "field theory" perspective in social science. Rotter's (2003, 2004)
The theoretical foundations for competence enhancement approaches designed to prevent drug use are Bandura’s social learning 892 G. J. Botvin problem behavior theories .According to this theory (Bandura, and Jessor’s approach, drug use is conceptualized as a socially learned and functional behavior that is the result of interplay between social (interpersonal) and personal (intrapersonal) factors. (Jessor & Jessor, 2004)
Bandura noted that external, environmental reinforcement was not the only factor to influence learning and behavior He described intrinsic reinforcement as a form of internal reward, such as pride, satisfaction and a sense of accomplishment This emphasis on internal thoughts and cognitions helps connect learning theories to cognitive developmental theories.(Thomas,2007)


The Psychological Inoculation Theory
Social influence approaches, based on McGuire's persuasive communications theory and Evans' theory of psychological inoculation, use normative education methods and anti-tobacco resistance skills training. These include correcting adolescents' overestimates of the smoking rates of adults and adolescents, recognising high-risk situations, increasing awareness of media, peer, and family influences, teaching and practising refusal skills, and making public commitments not to smoke. (Mikayo, 2007)

Conceptual Framework
蜉蜉 Independent Variables Dependent Variable
蜉蜉

Socio-demographic profile of respondents:
Age
Year level
Average daily allowance

Moderating variables

Fig 1. Schematic diagram of the conceptual framework of the study
Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of the study. The dependent variable is the selected high school students. While the independent variables are the students’ level of involvement in smoking and drinking .The socio-demographic profile which includes the respondent’s age, year level and average daily allowance are the moderating variables of this study.
The line shows the relationship of the independent and dependent variables.

Statement of the Problem
This study aims to determine the level of involvement on vices among selected secondary male students in Midsayap, Cotabato.
Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What the socio-demographic profile of the respondents is in terms of: a. Age
b. Year level
c. Average daily allowances,
2. What is the student’s level of involvement in terms of : Smoking
Drinking

Significance of the Study
The findings accumulated by this study may provide significant benefits to the following:
Local Government Unit. They can prevent drug use in schools through improving existing educational programs, and striving to develop ones that are even more efficient. Strict performance of anti-drug laws should be done by various government agencies and disciplinary measures on offenders should be taken.
Parents. They will be aware of their children’s outside school activities and social affairs to control and refrain their children from unnecessary and irrelevant doings that may affect not just the academic performance but also to save the lives of their child by guiding them in order not to engage in different vices.
School Administrators. This would help in promoting a drug-free school environment and better academic performance, thus improving the standards of education in the country. In the absence of specific policies on substance abuse in schools this study makes important recommendations on the way forward.
Respondents. They will be able to recognize the effects and risk factors and how these vices will affect their health and social life. Thus, they will be able to handle such situations and limitations as students.
This study will serve as a motivation for them to be more serious with their studies by refraining themselves in engaging to drinking, smoking, and drug-use.
Future researchers. They will be able to improve the findings of this study. They will have increase awareness and expand their knowledge regarding the social problem on vices. Hopefully come up with better studies regarding this issue.

Definition of Terms
To facilitate the understanding of this study, following terms are defined operationally.
Drinking. - refers to the acts who are engaging themselves of taking in alcohol drinks or liquors
Level of Involvement.- refers to the degree of being engaged into acts of smoking, drinking and drug use
Smoking. - refers to the practice where a substance, most commonly cigarettes, is burned and the smoke tasted or inhaled.
Selected high school students refer to the respondents of this research who are involve in drinking and smoking.

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter will discuss the review of the literature comprised of various studies concerning involvement in vices. The search of information began with identification of terms within the study topic on the level of involvement in various vices namely smoking, drinking and drug use among private and public high school students.

Related Literature

Vices are forms of evil, wicked and criminal actions or behaviors in the society. There are social problems and have been thought of as social situations that a large number of observers feel are inappropriate and need remedying. Further, these are those acts and conditions that violate societal norms and values. Using what was presumed as the universal criteria for “normality”, sociologist’s commonly assumed that social “pathology” was the consequence of “bad” people. Social problems resulted from the actions of maladjusted people who were abnormal because of mental deficiency, mental disorder, and lack of education or incomplete socialization (Johnston, O’Malley, Bachman, & Schulenberg, 2004).
Existing literature supports the importance of school-level substance use as a broader social risk factor for adolescents' alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, with the negative effects modified by low- or high-risk peer and parental contexts. However, few studies have examined these issues in early adolescence, when initiation of substance use has the most detrimental long-term effects. In addition, little research has compared school-level effects across multiple substances. Finally, peer and parental risks in these studies have been defined very narrowly as parents' or peers' use of the given substance, despite the importance of more general peer and parental risk factors for substance use among adolescents, such as peer deviance or parenting practices (Best et al., 2005; O'Donnell et al., 2008).

Problems of teenagers
The teenage years are fraught with all kinds of problems – from low self-esteem and peer pressure, to low motivation and chronic untidiness. With a bit of foresight, you can help your teen with all of these.
Self-esteem
Part of being an adolescent is the excruciating concern over appearance. Changing body shape, no wonder teenagers spend so much time looking in the mirror! If a young person is less than delighted with the changes they see – and very few are completely happy – it can knock their self-esteem. Parents should try to avoid making jokes about a teenager’s appearance – even if it’s meant in a light-hearted way; it can be taken to heart. It’s also a mistake to make light of something that worries a teenager, even though it may seem silly to you. (Dryfoos, 2005; Dryfoos & Barkin, 2006)
The four problems that affect the most adolescents are (1) drug abuse, (2) juvenile delinquency, (3) sexual problems, and (4) school-related problems . The adolescents most at risk have more than one of these problems. Researchers are increasingly finding that problem behaviors in adolescence are interrelated (Milburn & others, 2012; Passini, 2012). For example, heavy substance abuse is related to early sexual activity, lower grades, dropping out of school, and delinquency (Marti, Stice, & Springer, 2010; Tull & others, 2012). Early initiation of sexual activity is associated with the use of cigarettes and alcohol, the use of marijuana and other illicit drugs, lower grades, dropping out of school, and delinquency (Harden & Mendle, 2011). Delinquency is related to early sexual activity, early pregnancy, substance abuse, and dropping out of school (Pedersen & Mastekaasa, 2011). As many as 10 percent of adolescents in the United States have been estimated to engage in all four of these problem behaviors (for example, adolescents who have dropped out of school are behind in their grade level, are users of heavy drugs, regularly use cigarettes and marijuana, and are sexually active but do not use contraception). In 1990, it was estimated that another 15 percent of high-risk youth engage in two or three of the four main problem behaviors (Dryfoos, 1990). Recently, this figure increased to 20 percent of all U.S. adolescents (Dryfoos & Barkin, 2006.

Gender Difference
The gender differences in the risk-taking behaviors among Filipino adolescents and youths. Men are much more likely than women to drink, smoke, and use drugs. In general, the Filipino society accord more liberties and allow a wider range of social activities to men than women. In fact, we have seen that parents tend to approve their sons’ drinking and smoking more than their daughters, indicating that it is more acceptable for men than for women to take some risks that are common and provide certain pleasures. Domingo and Marquez (2006)
The current risk-taking behavior among Filipino adolescents and youths are glargely consistent with the problem behavior theory According to( Gruber, Di Clemente, Anderson and Lodico (2006). Children born in urban areas are more likely to engage in risk-taking behavior at early ages than children born in rural areas. Urban communities are likely to be more tolerant of adolescent behaviors that do not follow norms. Adolescents and youth are likely to find time and place with little adult supervision, and access to cigarettes, alcoholic drink, and drugs more easily in urban areas than in rural areas. Children who are not raised by two parents or whose parents do not have stable marital relationship are less likely to have strong attachment to family and more likely to engage in risk-taking behavior than others (Hornik et al., 2006).

Parents’ attitudes on drinking and smoking
Parents’ attitudes are likely to represent prevailing social norms. The views of adolescents and youths of their parents’ attitude, then, can be interpreted as their views of the social norm. In addition, parents who are demanding and responsive to their children are likely to serve as protective factors against initiation of smoking and drinking. Parental involvement and monitoring of their children can have the same protective effect It could also be partly reflecting the condition where some of these respondents did not have father or an adult male who raised them present in their households. (Cohen et al. 2004).
Perception among adolescents and young women that their parents disapprove of drinking and smoking is nearly universal. In contrast, perception of parental disapproval of drinking and smoking among men is much weaker. Disapproval rate among parents of 20–24 year old men is only at moderate level, ranging from 47% to 66%. The disapproval rate is higher for younger respondents than older respondents, for smoking than for drinking, and among mothers than among fathers.

Parents’ attitudes reflect social norms
Not surprisingly, Domingo and Marquez (2006) found that parents’ attitudes affect the behavior of adolescents and youths on drinking and smoking behavior. Thus, drinking, which was thought that parents disapprove at lower rates, is more prevalent than smoking, which, on the other hand, parents disapprove at higher rates. Men are less likely than women to have parents who disapprove, and are much more likely to take these risk-taking behaviors than women. Prevalence increases with age, consistent with the pattern of decreasing parental disapproval rate with age.
Drinking and smoking is very common in the Philippines especially among adult males. Therefore, in the process of transition to adulthood, most male adolescents are likely to begin drinking and smoking. It is likely that the initiation of drinking and smoking is closely related to some Markers of transition to adulthood such as reaching socially and legally recognized age of adulthood, completion of education, leaving parental home, and beginning of full-time employment. Once controlled for these transition indicators, other individual and family characteristics may have small effects (Royal College of Physicians, 2004).
The Philippines has no national law regulating smoking and sale of tobacco products. There is no minimum age requirement for the purchase of cigarettes and no law regulating the advertising and promotion of cigarettes. There is no law that requires the printing of warning labels on cigarette packages. Instead, the National Tobacco Administration (NTA) is supposed to protect and promote the “balanced and integrated growth” of the tobacco industry. These, despite the results of a survey which says that 72 percent of the polled adult populations were supportive of having a legislation banning smoking advertisements There are more restrictions on drinking than smoking especially of the minors. Those who are less than 18 years old are prohibited from purchasing or drinking alcoholic drinks. (Arroyo 2004).

Economic aspects of drinking and smoking.
In the previous years, costs of cigarettes and alcohol drinks have increased tremendously. A stick of local cigarettes which cost P1 three years ago now costs P1.50 or a 50 per cent increase in prices. At this price, high school and college students can afford to squeeze in a stick or so in their daily allowances. Beer and other alcoholic drinks as well as drugs are more prohibitive to the young people. At the macro-level, it has been estimated that smoking alone drains 20 per cent of the household income of smokers’ families. (Buka, 2005).

Global and youth culture
As societies become more complex, family and religion are no longer the primary socialization agents for young people. Schools and teachers and mass media also share the role. The Internet also reaches and links young people around the world. Marketing and mass consumption are seen as important elements of the global youth culture (Cohen et. al, 2004). Historically and currently, youth are caught between tradition and progress. There is much concern and speculation about Western values, consumerism and secular role models being imposed on the world’s youth. In general, studies of youth in developing countries report that young people place more emphasis on family and tradition than on personal achievement. Many young people manage to keep one foot on their country’s past and culture while the other foot is headed in new directions, according to the Braungart study. For example, a study Filipino youth caught in the throes of a modernizing society and abrupt political changes found that family solidarity was the most prominent value among youth, followed by respect for tradition (Lermet, 2004).
Smoking among adult women is much less.. In the United States and Britain, smoking is the most preventable cause of death and nine out of ten lung cancer deaths are caused by smoking. In the UK, the proportional impact of smoking is greater in younger age groups and in men, accounting for one in three male deaths in the 35-64 age groups (Royal College of Physicians, 2004). However, for many people smoking poses conflicts because they find it difficult to stop even though they realize it is a major health risk. A report from a consulting firm was quoted in the British Medical Journals saying ‘cigarette smoking is a) cancer causing b) cancer promoting c) poisonous d) stimulating, pleasurable and flavorful’ (Dyer, 2004).
There are, of course, other experienced and perceived benefits to smoking – the relaxing effects, to cope with negative feelings and states, to socialize and so on. However, there is some debate in the literature regarding whether smoking or nicotine does, indeed, produce a positive effect on mood or cognitive performance (Royal College of Physicians, 2004).

Factors that causes engagement with vices
In relation to level of involvement of students in vices, this article reports factors that causes and reason behind such as teenage drinking, smoking, and drug abuse that teenagers to urge to go down with this kind of vices. Peer Pressure
The choices a teenager makes may be greatly influenced by his/her peers. Teenagers may opt for drinking and smoking if their peers often indulge in these. Teenagers may resort to drinking if their friends or others who they consider to be a part of the happening crowd are opting for alcohol and using substances. The desire to fit in and become popular may drive them to do so. Unfortunately, they may not realize when such a practice may turn into a habit.(Dyer 2004)

Escapism or Curiosity to some teenagers
This kind of vices may seem to be a means to escape from the problems that they may be facing at school or home. The high that is felt after drinking causes the senses to blur. This in turn leads to a temporary state of 'bliss'. It could be simply because a young teen wants to try something new. Sometimes teenagers may just want to drink out of curiosity.( M Zuckerman – 1994) Thrill-seeking Behavior
It may be in their nature to do something that they are not expected to do. Teenagers who like to question authority or defy their parents are likely to indulge in drinking and smoking in order to break the societal rules. Those who have a problem managing their impulses are also likely to do so. .( M Zuckerman – 1994)

Lack of Parental Guidance.
The behavior of parents has a considerable effect on the minds of children. Parents must therefore assess their own drinking and smoking habits. They must not indulge in binge drinking. Sometimes teenagers may feel that if their parents can have it, so can they! Social Situations.
Insecurities can seep in the impressionable minds of teenagers. When faced with problems at home or in their relationships, teenagers may feel that drinking may help them forget their worries. Low self-esteem that may develop in teens due to rejection by his/her peers or family could also lead to depression which in turn may cause them to turn to alcohol. If the issue of these vices if left unaddressed, occasional drinking could even turn into an addiction. This can have serious repercussions. (Scott McConnell ).

Related Studies
Each year hundreds of thousands of young people engage in risky and negative behaviors such as vices. This can range from trying a cigarette for the first time to becoming addicted to prescription drugs. From tobacco to alcohol and drugs, youth are exposed to and have easy access to unhealthy and illegal substances that can have detrimental, sometimes fatal consequences.(dyer 2004)
A distinction is made between early-onset—before age 11—and late-onset—after 11—antisocial behavior. Early-onset antisocial behavior is associated with more negative developmental outcomes than late-onset antisocial behavior (Schulenberg & Zarrett, 2006). Not only is it more likely to persist into emerging adulthood but it is also associated with more mental health and relationship problems (Burke, 2011; Loeber & Burke, 2011).
Several studies suggest that schools vary widely in their levels of alcohol (Rehm et al., 2005), tobacco (Aveyard et al., 2004), and marijuana use (Ennett et al., 2005). In turn, school levels of substance use are related to neighborhood sociodemographic factors (Botticello, 2009; Ennett et al., 2007), as well as school policies and climate (Aveyard et al., 2004; Bisset et al., 2007; Fletcher et al., 2008; Moore et al., 2004). Importantly, school-level substance use is associated with individual students' rates and level of use. Among high school students (ages 14–18), school-level frequency of alcohol intoxication predicted individual heavy drinking (Botticello, 2009), and higher smoking rates among high school seniors were associated with more frequent smoking among junior students (Leatherdale et al., 2005).
Adolescents who begin smoking at younger ages are more likely to become regular smokers and less likely to quit (Wallace, 2004). Quitting attempts are more frequent among those with health-oriented values, among females than males, and among those who had smoked less than five cigarettes a week over the previous three months than among those who smoked more than 11 cigarettes a day . (Pletcher, 2012).
In one study, smoking among high school seniors was more strongly related to smoking in junior students who had fewer versus more close friends who smoked (Leatherdale et al., 2005). In contrast, the presence of cannabis-intoxicated students at school was more strongly associated with individual marijuana use for students who reported having many versus few marijuana-using friends (Kuntsche and Jordan, 2006).
It is possible that widespread substance use at school makes such use appear more acceptable and normative and, perhaps, makes it appear especially attractive for students with low levels of exposure from family and friends (as for smoking or amplifies negative (Leatherdale et al., 2005).
Siziya et al., (2007) conducted a study on cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Kafue district, which is situated in Lusaka province, 45 km south of the Lusaka capital city of Zambia. The respondents were pupils from 60 basic schools and seven secondary schools. The total number of the respondents was 1872 pupils, of whom 891 were males and 981 females. Overall 8.2% pupils were current 8 cigarette smokers, while 10.4% males and 6.2% females were current smokers. The majority of the smokers usually smoked at their own home or at a friend‘s house. Having some pocket money, having friends or parents who were smokers and being exposed to pro-tobacco advertisements at social gatherings were associated with being a current cigarette smoker.
In their study on teen drug abuse in high schools in the United States,report that 90% of high school seniors have tried alcohol, 53% get drunk at least once a month, 43% smoke marijuana and about 1/3 were smoking cigarettes; 95% of untreated addicts died of their addiction, 50% of traffic deaths were alcohol related, 40% assaults were alcohol related, 97% of addicts were never treated. Dakota and Forks (2004)
Christopher (2006) conducted a Canadian Addiction survey on the prevalence and correlates of tobacco among the youth aged 15-19. The results indicated that Canadian youth aged 15-19 were reported smoking at least occasionally. These findings are quite challenging because the youths that were studied aged 15-19 are also likely to be studying in high schools.
In the Philippines, the number of women who smoke is constantly on the rise. It is a phenomenon that, in recent years, seems to affect the youngest most of all: 30% of girls between the ages of 13 and 15 smoke regularly.According to a recent study conducted by the Southeast Asia Tabacco Control Alliance, 18.7% of Filipino young women between the ages of 13 and 25 smoke cigarettes. The numbers go up if the sample is restricted to teenagers between 13 and 15: 3 out of 10 already have the smoking habit. Among female smokers, 60% say that they smoked their first cigarette at the age of 18, while the remaining 40% say they started when they were still very young. (Teensociety,2003)
The risk of drinking routinely, for drinking behaviors, and they should also realize that adolescents who drink regularly could be engaged in other health-risk and problematic behavior regarding the different studied schools (private and central and peripheral public schools), we could identify that, curiously, central public schools have patterns more similar to private than to peripheral public ones. In central public and private schools it was verified heavy alcohol use among 14.8% and 12.3% of students, respectively. As to peripheral public schools, it was noted lower heavy alcohol use (8.6%). These results may be indicating that students of peripheral schools, for having less money, consume less alcohol. We may raise the hypothesis that having less money may be only a marker of a situation of social challenge and not the cause of a lower alcohol use. Besides, it is possible that students more impaired by alcohol and drugs in peripheral poor neighborhoods had already been expelled from the educational system.(Conrad 2004)
More than half of adult Filipino males are still smoking and local experts say that it is the most prevalent risk factor that account for the increasing incidence of deaths related to diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Filipinos are also smoking more than Americans, Japanese and Singaporians.
The prevalences of smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes, cholesterol problems, high blood pressure and obesity were presented by the main authors of the National Nutrition and Health Survey (NNHeS) at the ongoing 10th joint annual convention of the Philippine Society of Hypertension and Philippine Lipid Society at the EDSA Shangri-La Hotel.
According to the presentation of the NNHeS results was the highlight of the convention attended by 1,500 medical practitioners from all over the country. This nationwide survey was undertaken to assess the prevalence of all lifestyle and nutrition-related risk factors and diseases among Filipinos 20 years and above. The NNHeS results also showed that the smoking prevalence in the country is higher than that in Singapore (24.2 percent), Japan (47.4 percent and the USA (24.1 percent)(.Arroyo 2004)
The state policies of the Philippines are generally protective toward youth, particularly from activities deemed harmful to them. The Child and Youth Welfare Code (Presidential Decree 603) makes parents responsible for keeping children from “becoming addicted to intoxicating drinks, narcotics drugs, smoking, gambling, and other vices or harmful practices.” City and municipal ordinances prohibit business establishments from selling intoxicating drinks to minors younger than 18 years of age.
Minors are banned from entering night clubs and disco houses, sauna baths, massage clinics, health studios, and similar establishments, and laws restrict the entry of minorsto certain films in movie theaters. Some ordinances order liquor-dispensing establishments to keep a distance from schools (Compilation of Ordinances, City of Manila, 1955). Republic Act 9211, or the Tobacco Regulation Act of2003, also prohibits the sale of tobacco products to minors. A few cities and municipalities in the Philippines have prescribed curfews (11 p.m. to 4 a.m.)for their youth. But in metro Manila, this proposed regulation did not seem to find much support.(Manilatimes2001)
Studies have shown that many of these policies have been ignored by the young. Drinking alcohol is more common than smoking, as 63% have tried drinking and 56% are currently drinking among the same age group (Cruz &Berja, 2004,).
In Davao City has been named the first 100-percent smoke-free metropolitan in Southeast Asia, more than a decade after its implementation of a city-wide smoking ban. The Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance (Seatca) July 7 recognized Davao City for successfully implementing its Comprehensive Anti-Smoking Ordinance passed in 2002. Davao City should serve as a “model city in implementing law against smoking,” local media quoted Seatca director Bungon Ritthiphakdee as saying. She was speaking at the sidelines of a regional workshop on best anti-smoking practices in Davao, attended by representatives from ASEAN member countries. Seatca is a multi-sectoral alliance supporting ASEAN countries in developing tobacco control policies. It works closely with the ASEAN governments and the World Health Organization (WHO). Davao last May further tightened its anti-smoking rules through the implementation of the New Comprehensive Anti-Smoking Ordinance. Violators will now be given citation tickets under the updated policy, which now covers all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and shishas.
WHO earlier this year recognized President Benigno Aquino III and other ranking government officials for their efforts at curbing tobacco consumption among Pinoys. The Philippines early this year rolled out higher taxes for tobacco and alcohol products through a controversial Aquino-backed revamp of the so-called “sin tax” law (LBG, GMA News).
A natural reaction to transitions might be the issue. From being under "rules" to the crossroads of the real life, things from the real life they might be experiencing might not come off good from the start. Such crossroads may be a time for experimenting, discovery and risky decisions

CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the research design, sampling design, locale and respondents of the study, research instrument, validity and reliability of instrument, data gathering procedures and statistical tools used in the study.

Research Design
This study utilized descriptive research design, to identify the level of involvement in smoking and drinking among high school students. As widely accepted, the descriptive method of research is a fact-finding study to determine the present condition that involves adequate and accurate interpretation of findings. Relatively, the method is appropriate to this study since it aims to describe the present condition of the level of involvement in smoking and drinking among high school students. The variables and responses was treated in a form that can be analyzed using statistics.

Sampling Design
This research was based on convenience sampling technique. It is a type of non-probability sampling wherein the researcher handily and conveniently select particular elements or subject for addition in a study to make sure that the elements would have certain characteristics pertinent to the study. To maintain the quality and effectiveness of this study, the researcher has chosen 40 respondents as the sample of this study. The 40 selected high school male students who were currently enrolled this school year 2014- 2015 respectively.

Locale and Respondents of the Study
The respondents in this study were high school male students currently enrolled this school year 2014-2015. Only male respondents was selected in the study since it is presumed that males are more fascinated to, and more likely to become fastened on vices such as smoking and drinking than female. Forty ( 40 ) male high school students were selected as the respondents of this study. This study was conducted outside of the chosen school premises of Dilangalen National High School and Saint Mary’s’ Academy in Midsayap, North Cotabato.

Research Instrument
The research instrument used in this study was a researcher-made. This questionnaire containing a set of questions that was useful in gathering information about the respondents. The question of the survey has been designed and organized to illustrate the sample’s views and opinions with regard to certain topic. The questionnaires were organized into two parts.
Part 1 of the survey includes the demographic data and information about the respondents such as age, year level and average daily allowances. The respondents were asked to provide their answers on the given spaces.
Part 2 includes the level of involvement in smoking and drinking.The analysis of the respondents’ answers was assigned to check the corresponding number as to their degree of involvement using the scale below:

4-NI (Never Involved) 3.50 - 4.49
3-RI (Rarely Involved) 2.50 – 3.49
2-MI (Moderately Involved) 1.50 – 2.49
1-AI (Always Involved) .50 - 1.49

Validity and Reliability of the Instrument
To test the questionnaire’s validity or the degree to which the questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure, the questionnaires will be carefully examined. A pilot test was conducted to ten selected high school male students in Midsayap, North Cotabato. The statements and terms that is difficult to understand was revised into well-constructed statements covering the necessary content and ready for use questionnaire. Thus, in order to know the questionnaire’s reliability, the result of the pilot test, was treated using the Cronbach Alpha Coefficient.

Data and Gathering Procedure
A fundamental scientific research followed a systematic and orderly procedure. Hence, the researcher has undertaken the following procedures: ( 1) As a good start, a letter of consent was secured the permission of the Dean of the College of Nursing of this institution through a formal letter that was submitted to her office and the approval letter was attached to another letter intended for the high school principal of the selected schools where the respondents were enrolled to served as a signal and gesture of protocol in conducting this study.(2) Upon receiving the approved letter from the dean, the researcher proceeds to the selected schools then conducted survey. The respondents were personally approached outside their schools. Respondent s with difficulty in interpreting items in the questionnaires were assisted by the researcher. Survey questionnaires were distributed to the respondents using convenience sampling. (3)Upon the distribution of the survey questionnaires, the researcher made herself available while the respondents were answering the questions ,this was to entertain questions that the respondents might ask and in order to have 100% retrieval of the questionnaires. Lastly, data were collected, tabulated, presented analyzed and interpreted based on the research questions included in the study.

Treatment of Data
Part 1 which was aimed to elicit the demographic profile of the respondents such as age, year level and average daily allowances, was treated by frequency distribution and mean while Part 2 which was obtained the information about their level of involvement in smoking and drinking treated by summation of weighted mean and its interpretation .

CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter includes the presentation, tabulation, analysis of the data collected from forty (40) respondents.

Table 1
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents According to Age
Age
Frequency
Percentage
17-16
15-14
13-12
19
18
3
47.5 %
45%
7.5%
Total
40
100%

Table 1 shows the age distribution, results revealed that the youngest respondents were 13-12 years old and the oldest were 17-16 years old. 19 (47.5%) of the respondents belonged to the age of 17- 16. On the other hand, (45%) of them belonged to the age of 15-14 followed by (7.5%) of them belonged to age 1.Result shows that most of the respondents were 17-16 years old.

Table 2 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents According To Year Level
Year level
Frequency
Percentage
4th Yr
3rd Yr
2nd Yr
1st Yr
19
9
9
3
47.5%
22.5%
22.5%
7.5%
Total
40
100%

Table 2 presents the year level distribution of the respondents, it reveals that most of our respondents were 4th yr students which constitutes 19 or 47.5%: 9 or 22.5% for both 3rd yr. and lastly 3 or 7.5% for 1st yr.

Table 3
Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents according to average daily allowances
Daily allowance
Frequency
Percentage
100 and ABOVE
80-90.00
60-70.00
50-60.00
30-40.00
20 and BELLOW
2
8
4
13
10
3
5%
20%
10%
32.5%
25%
7.5%
Total
40
100 %

Table 3 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to daily allowance. It reveals that 32% have a daily allowance of Php 50.00-60.00 with a frequency of 13; 25% has a daily allowance of Php30.00-40.00 with a frequency of 10; 20% has a daily allowance of Php80.00-90.00 with a frequency of 8; 10% has a daily allowance of Php 60.00-70.00 with a frequency of 4; 7.5% are receiving a daily allowance of Php 20.00 and below with a frequency of 3.
Supported by the National Survey on and Health, more than 80 percent of all adult smokers begin smoking before the age of 18; and more than 90 percent do so before leaving their teens. Table 4
Mean distribution and interpretation of the respondents in their level of involvement in Smoking.
Smoking
Mean
Interpretation
I always smoke
3.35
Rarely involved
I never smoke
3.3
Rarely involved
I prefer to smoke alone
3.4
Rarely involved
I smoke with my friends
2.9
Rarely involved

Grand mean

2.59

Rarely involved

Table 4 shows the mean distributions and its interpretation of the respondents according to level of involvement in smoking. It further shows that the respondents rarely involved in always smokes’ cigarettes with a mean of 3.35.The respondents rarely involved in never smoke with a mean of 3.3.The respondents rarely involved in prefer to smoke alone with a mean of 2.9..Lastly the respondents rarely involved in prefer to smoke with their friends with a mean of 2.9. The overall weighted mean of the respondents’ answers in level of involvement in smoking is 2.59 which means that the respondents were rarely involved into Smoking..
Greater involvement with smoking among adolescent has been shown to be related to social individual-level of variables such as parental and peer models for smoking. Stronger positive smoking outcome expectancies, and weaker negative smoking expectancies. (Bacchi & West, 2005)

Table 5
Mean distributions of the respondents in their level of involvement in Drinking.
Drinking
Mean
Interpretation
Occasionally I drink
2.9
Rarely involved
I drink beer
3.15
Rarely involved
I drink hard liquors
3.10
Rarely involved
I drink alcoholic beverages daily
3.25
Rarely involved
I prefer to drink with my friends
2.2
Moderately involved
I prefer to drink alone
3.1
Rarely involved

Grand mean

2.43

Moderately involved

Table 5 shows the mean distribution and its interpretation of the respondents according to level of involvement of drinking. It further shows that the respondents rarely involve in occasionally I drink with a mean of 2.9 .The respondents rarely involve ‘ in I drink beer ‘ with a mean of 3.15.The respondents rarely involved in ‘ I drink hard liquors’with a mean of 3.10.The respondents rarely involved in ‘I drink alcoholic beverages daily’ with a mean of 3.25. the respondents moderately involved in ‘I prefer to drink with my friends’ with a mean of 2.2. lastly, the respondents rarely involved in ‘I prefer to drink alone with a mean of 3.1. The overall weighted mean of the respondents answers in level of involvement in drinking is 2.43 which means that the respondents were moderately involved into Drinking.
Drinking during adolescence may be a predictor of future alcohol misuse and other risky behaviors ). However, it is unclear as to whether beginning to drink at an earlier age itself increases the likelihood of harmful tendencies in adulthood . R., Hill, K. G., & CatalanoR. F. (1997).

CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary, findings and conclusions derived from the findings and recommendations based on the findings and conclusions of the study.

Summary
This study aims to determine the level of involvement in smoking and drinking among selected high school students of Midsayap, Cotabato.
Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What the socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of: a. Age
b. Year level
c. Average daily allowances,
2. What is the student’s level of involvement in terms of:
a. Smoking
b. Drinking
The respondents in this study are selected high school male students who are currently enrolled this school year 2014-2015. Only male respondents were selected in the study since it is presumed that males are more fascinated to, and more likely to become fastened on vices such as smoking and drinking than female. 40 high school male students were selected as the respondents of this study. These respondents were currently enrolled from the two selected schools of Midsayap, Cotabato.

Summary of the findings of the study The following are the findings of the study conducted:
The demographic profile of the respondents revealed that most were 16-17 years old (47.5%) : most of them were in fourth year level (47.5%) and most of the students has a daily allowance 50-60 (32.5%) .
The results of the students level of involvement in smoking among selected high school students revealed the overall mean distribution indicates that they are (rarely involved) 2.53
Greater involvement with smoking among adolescent has been shown to be related to social individual-level of variables such as parental and peer models for smoking. Stronger positive smoking outcome expectancies, and weaker negative smoking expectancies. (Bacchi & West, 2005) The level of involvement in Drinking among the selected high school students indicates 2.44 (moderately involved) . Drinking during adolescence may be a predictor of future alcohol misuse and other risky behaviors ). However, it is unclear as to whether beginning to drink at an earlier age itself increases the likelihood of harmful tendencies in adulthood . R., Hill, K. G., & CatalanoR. F. (1997).

Conclusion Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions were drawn.
The older the students the more likely to involved in testing or trying to smoke, drink liquor, than younger students. Students were rarely involved in smoking and moderately involved in drinking. Moreover, there is a tendency that the degree of respondents’ involvement to both drinking and smoking is rampant, regardless of how much is their daily allowances and how much they spent with smoking and drinking.

Recommendations
The researcher recommends the following to lessen more and prevent the involvement of the students in smoking and drinking.
For Barangay
Curfew hour for minors especially to the students must be done.
.For Parents
Guidance, supervision to their children to enable prevents trying different vices such as smoking and drinking.
The parents should monitor their children especially in school.
Parents should nourish their children and always have family affairs to enable children to forget such things that can harm to them.
For School heads and teachers
The School heads and teachers should monitor the students and teach well values.
School must conduct seminar and workshop related to implement policies in order to prevent the students in smoking and drinking For the Respondents
Lessening and preventing different vices such as smoking, drinking is much better.
Focus more on studies and family to enable forgot and not involve in such vices.
Give more importance to those things that can’t take you to harm For the future Researchers
Similar studies be conducted with more emphasis and evaluation of students involvement in smoking and drinking.
Widen more the content of the study specially the questionnaire to be able to know the real status and involvement of the students in terms of smoking, drinking and other form of vices.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cotabato Medical Foundation College, Inc
Midsayap, Cotabato

Appendix A
Letter of Request to the Dean

SOCORRO D. AQUINO, RN, MAED, MAN
Dean College of Nursing and Midwifery
Cotabato Medical College Foundation, Inc.
Midsayap, Cotabato

Dear Madam:

Praise Him Always!

As a part of our educational enrichment, I, Angelique N. Ferrer, 4th yr BSN student from Cotabato Medical College Foundation, Inc. will be conducting a survey entitled “The Level of Involvement in smoking and drinking among selected High School Students” for the partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Bachelor of Science of Nursing.

Be assured that all gathered information will be kept confidential.

Your approval on this humble request may surely contribute to the success of this endeavor.

Respectfully yours,

ANGELIQUE N. FERRER
Researcher

Cotabato Medical Foundation College, Inc.
Midsayap, Cotabato

Appendix A

Letter of Request to the School Principal

MRS. MELDA C. VILLORIA
Directress/Principal
Dilangalen National HIghschool
Pob. 2, Midsayap, Cotabato

Dear Madam,

Praise Him always!

I am Angelique N. Ferrer, 4th yr BSN student from Cotabato Medical College Foundation, Inc. is conducting a research study about “The Level of Involvement in smoking and drinking among selected High School Students”. I am writing to your good office to ask for your approval to conduct the said survey outside the school premises of Dilangalen National High School using convenience sampling. The confidentiality and anonymity of the respondents’ answers will be treated confidential and will prove useful in the findings of this study.

Thank you and more power.

Respectfully yours,

ANGELIQUE N. FERRER Researcher Noted by:

SOCORRO D. AQUINO, RN, MAED, MAN College Dean/ Adviser
Cotabato Medical Foundation College, Inc.
Midsayap, Cotabato

Appendix A

Letter of Request to the School Principal

SR. MA. TERESITA SALANATIN, RVM
Dicrectress/Pricipal
St. Mary's Academy of Midsayap
Pob. 2, Midsayap, Cotabato
Tel. # (064) 229-8681

October 17, 2014

Dear Madam,

Praise Be Jesus and Mary!

I am Angelique N. Ferrer, 4th yr BSN student from Cotabato Medical College Foundation, Inc. is conducting a research study about “The Level of Involvement in smoking and drinking among selected High School Students”. I am writing to your good office to ask for your approval to conduct the said survey outside the school premises of St. Mary’s Academy using convenience sampling. The confidentiality and anonymity of the respondents’ answers will be treated confidential and will prove useful in the findings of this study.
Thank you and more power

Respectfully yours,

ANGELIQUE N. FERRER

Researcher

Noted by:

SOCORRO D. AQUINO, RN, MAED, MAN

College Dean/ Adviser

Cotabato Medical Foundation College, Inc. Midsayap, Cotabato

Appendix A

Letter to the Respondents

Dear Respondents,

Greeting of peace!

I am Angelique N. Ferrer, 4th yr BSN student from Cotabato Medical College Foundation, Inc. is conducting a research study about “The level of involvement in smoking and drinking among selected high school students”. You are one of the chosen respondents to answer the following questions. I assure you that your answers will be treated confidential and will prove Puseful in the findings of this study. Please answer all questions as honestly as you can.

Thank you and more power.

Sincerely yours,

ANGELIQUE N. FERRER
Researcher

Noted by:
Dr. SOCORRO D. AQUINO , RN, MAED, MAN
College Dean/ Adviser

APPENDIX C
RESEARCH TOOL
College of Nursing
Cotabato Medical Foundation College Inc.
Midsayap,Cotabato City

Part I: Demographic Profile of the Respondents:

Please answer the following questions by writing your answers in the space provided or by checking the appropriate boxes.

Age:
Year level:
蜉蜉1st year 3rd year
蜉蜉 2nd year 4th year
蜉 Average daily allowance:
蜉蜉蜉 P20.00 and below P30.00-40.00 P50.00-60.00
蜉蜉 P60.00-70.00 P80.00-90.00 P100.00 above

Part II: Level of Involvement In Smoking and Drinking among selected high school students of Midsayap, Cotabato.
Direction:
Please check the corresponding number on how often you are indulging in these activities using the scale below:

Involvement scale:

4-NI (Never Involved) 2-MI (Moderately Involved)
3-RI (Rarely Involved) 1-AI (Always Involved)

Drinking
4
NI 3
R1
2
MI
1
AI
Occasionally I drink

I drink beer

I drink hard liquors

I drink alcoholic beverages daily

I prefer to drink with my friends

I prefer to drink alone

Smoking
4
NI
3
RI
2
MI
1
AI
I always smoke

I never smoke

I prefer to smoke alone

I smoke with my friends

CHAPTER I.INTRODUCTION

Rationale……………………………………………………………............2
Theoretical Framework……………………………………………..............4
Conceptual Framework……………………………………………..............6
Statement of the Problem…………………………………………...............7
Significance of the Study…………………………………………...............8
Definition of Terms…………………………………………………............9

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE………………………….10

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY

Research Method………………………………………………………….….25 Sampling Design……………………………………………………………..25 Setting of the Study…………………………………………………………..26 Data Collection Procedure…………………………………………..…….….27 Statistical Treatment of Data…………………………… …….…...............27

CHAPTER IV. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION

OF DATA………………………………………………………………….… 29

CHAPTER V.SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATION

Summary of the Study……………………………….……………………….33 Findings of the Study…………………………………………………………33 Conclusions………………………………………………………………...…34 Recommendations…………….………….......................................………35
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDICES A.LETTER OF REQUEST TO THE DEAN OF NURSING A.LETTER OF REQUEST TO THE BARANGAY CAPTAIN A.LETTER OF REQUEST TO THE RESPONDENTS B.SURVEY SHEET C.TIMETABLE ACTIVITIES D.CURRICULUM VITAE

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