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The Living Conditions of University Students in Boarding Houses and Dormitories in Davao City, Philippines

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IAMURE: International Journal of Social Science Vol. 1 January 2012 International Peer Reviewed Journal

IAMURE: International Journal of Social Science

The Living Conditions of University Students in Boarding Houses and Dormitories in Davao City, Philippines
RUEL A. BRILLIANTES iro@hcdc.edu.ph patwel_18@yahoo.com NELIA B. AGA FE C. TIPACE Holy Cross of Davao College CESAR A. ADEGUE MERCELEE P. PEREZ Brokenshire College ADORICO M. AYA-AY EMMA V. SAGARINO University of the Immaculate Conception Abstract - Living in a boarding house or dormitory is necessary for students who come from far places. In Davao City, an observable statistics of university students from neighbouring provinces and the city’s outskirts live in these temporary residences. However, reports reveal that these housing facilities, most of the time, fail to consider students’ safety and welfare. This study determined the living conditions of university students in boarding houses and dormitories. This is anchored on the premise that the physical and environmental components of these residential facilities could affect students’ holistic well-being. Data elicited through survey involving five hundred seventy-one (571) respondents and focused group discussion among selected groups of student-boarders/dormers, reveal that a student’s stay in a boarding house and dormitory has significant contributions to his/her personal, social, academic and emotional growth. But, this has nothing to do with the development of his/her spirituality. Results
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demonstrate further, that respondents have recognized their boarding houses and dormitories possessing good basic housing facilities. However, they felt the deficiency in the provisions of safety and security facilities especially on fire escapes or exits and fire extinguishers. This manifests that most operators have violated some requirements set under the Building Code of the Philippines. Keywords - Living conditions, university students, boarding houses, dormitories, Davao City INTRODUCTION Students particularly those from the provinces stay in boarding houses or dormitories which are considered temporary dwellings. Their living conditions in these dwellings may result to beneficial and/ or prejudicial contributions to their holistic well-being. Some reports reveal that students’ temporary dwellings fail to consider the provisions of basic and other facilities that will meet the various needs of the occupants. These findings suggest administrative interventions and legislative actions on the part of the school and the Local Government, respectively. Most school administrators consider the quality of life of their students living in boarding houses or dormitories not as a pressing concern. Their responsibility to them is confined only within the boundaries of the school or those off – campus but school-sanctioned activities. Although, they have no control over the students’ other activities and whereabouts, administrators are in agreement that things that happen outside the campus affect academic performance. Thus, it is imperative that administrators are informed of the conditions of student boarders/ dormers to anticipate problems that may possibly occur. As a result, they may provide precautionary and proactive measures. Legislative interventions may also address boarding house or dormitory living-related concerns. In Davao City, there has been an evident dearth of an ordinance related to the matter. Hence, it is timely for the City to build such.

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Our collaborative study aims to establish the current conditions of college students living in boarding houses and dormitories. Specifically, its findings hope to formulate programs and may serve as bases to create a specific set of guidelines on boarding house operation and regulations in the City. FRAMEWORK The Student Development Theory underpins our study. This states that the total environment of the student is educational and must be used to help the student achieve full development. This further solicits support from some proponents or authors as follows. Clarkson (2006) explains that this theory founded on general theories of human development, creates explanations and descriptions of the growth processes that are common in the student experiences. She uses Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs in explaining her thoughts in her An Introduction to Student Development Theory. Clarkson believes that acquiring a good night sleep, receiving necessary nutrients and staying free of life threatening illnesses or injuries are critical to well being, however, these are generally insufficient to most college students. She also adds that college students are generally able to satisfy their needs of safety and security; nevertheless, this can only be achieved when they live in a familiar environment free from danger. Lastly, Clarkson pronounces that new students typically spend a lot of time and energy seeking acceptance from peers and developing friends on the campus, hence, forming social groups is not that easy. De Larrosa (2000) elucidates that one particular theory of student development can be explained using the Chickering’s model known as the “Seven Vectors of Student Development” (1969). She expounds that these vectors attempt to picture out how a student’s development in the college setting affects his or her emotional, social, physical and intellectual being in a college environment. Chickering and Raisser (1993) includes the following additional vectors: developing competence, managing emotions, moving through autonomy toward interdependence, developing mature interpersonal relationships, establishing identity, developing purpose, and developing integrity (De Larrosa, 2000).
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Underlying concepts that claim support to this study include that of Chickering (1974) as cited by Kane (1990) saying that a life in a residence hall greatly affects students in all stages of development. A positive effect of staying in residence halls on their personal development is stated by Edwin as cited by Kane (1990). Conversely, living in a residence hall does not guarantee a student rich educational experiences according to Blimling (1993) as cited by Pike, Schroeder, Thomas (1997). Figure 1. demonstrates the conceptual paradigm of the study.

Figure 1. The Conceptual framework of the Study

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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The study endeavours to determine the living conditions of university students in boarding houses and dormitories. It also aims to assess how their stay in the boarding houses and dormitories affects their overall well-being. In a narrower view, this answers questions pertaining to; profile of the respondents, features of their boarding houses and dormitories; respondents’ perception on the effect of boarding house and dormitory habitation to their well-being. METHODOLOGY Research Design The study made use of the descriptive design integrating qualitative information to quantitative analysis of the data. This employed a triangulation method in which survey was reinforced and validated with focused group discussions (FGDs) among students and structured interviews among landlords/ landladies. In addition, the study considered the conduct of incidental interviews to some students and observations of the building components of boarding houses / dormitories to gather supplementary and supporting data. Locale and Participants The respondents of this study were purposively and conveniently selected. They were composed of 571 student-boarders/ dormers and ten (10) boarding house and dormitory owners/ operators. The student-respondents were enrolled during the 2nd semester of S.Y. 2008-2009 in HCDC, IUC and Brokenshire College. The operators or owners of boarding houses/ dormitories were chosen based on area location considerations, that is, nearness of the structure (building or house) to the school. An ocular survey was made to at least ten sections/classes in each school to get the average rate of student-boarders/ dormers. It was done to make an approximate total number of student-boarders/ dormers considering the absence of data on this matter. The survey
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found that 40 % of the class sizes are student boarders/ dormers; thus, accounted for the estimated number of students living in boarding houses/ dormitories. The average was multiplied with the total college student population of each institution. Ten percent of the approximate number of student boarders was considered as the sample size. The distribution of the respondents per school and the manner how number of samples was computed are shown in the matrix. Distribution of respondents
Institution No. of Enrolled Students for the 2nd Semester, S.Y. 2008-2009 7,725 3,300 3,250 Estimated No. of Student Boarders/ Dormers (B X 40%) 3,090 1,320 1,300 A. Sample Size ( C X 10%)

HCDC UIC BC Total

309 132 130 571

Research Instrument The data were primarily gathered through survey and focused group discussions. A researchers-made survey tool was used in the study. It passed the testing and reliability procedures. The tool received a Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient of .845. Separate researchers-made focused group discussion guide and interview guide were also developed for the conduct of the group discussion and in-depth interview among selected students and boarding house and dormitory operators/ owners, respectively. Ethical considerations were looked into by the researchers such as consent on voice recording during the conduct of interview and focused discussion, and field note taking during area visits.

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Data Analysis Data transcription was done manually by the researchers. Data presentations (tables) and analysis followed, together with the thematic coding and interpretation of the FGD results and interviews. Statistical analysis is limited to frequencies and mean. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Student – Respondents Demographic Profile Majority of the 571 student-respondents are 1st year (29.77%) followed by 2nd yr. (24.86%); 3rd yr. (19.61%); 4th yr. (14.01%) and a parcel of the percentage (11.73%) was unidentified. In terms of gender, majority are females (67.12%) compare to males (43.33%). The finding illustrates that there are more females staying in boarding houses/ dormitories than males. Respondents come from the provinces where the sources of income come from proceeds of harvested seasonal rice and fruits. They claim this in some ambush interviews made. In addition, they are either unaware of or are not privy to the real income of their parents. Majority of those staying in the boarding houses come from far provinces with no housing provisions while studying in the City of Davao. While those from the outskirts of the city proper, still stay in boarding houses and dormitories for economic, safety and convenient reasons as well as meeting the demands of various school requirements. Features of the Boarding House/ Dormitories Most of the respondents are residing in commercial and residential types of boarding houses and or dormitories than apartments which are considered as whole-house lodging. Majority of them lives in boarding houses that are walking distance from their respective schools. Proximity and location are two of the major reasons why respondents chose their current boarding house/ dormitory (Lindsey, 2008). As a consideration, this is not only limited to the distance of the student’s boarding house and dormitory to school
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but to public places like markets and malls, facilities like internet cafés and the like. Furthermore, this will provide them easy access to some school facilities. One hundred fifty-eight respondents (28 %) are paying a monthly rental fee of P 501 to P 800; this constitutes a big parcel of the total sample. About 21 percent are paying P 1,701 and above, and 17 percent are paying P 801 - P1, 100. Some student-renters are willing and capable of renting a room or living in a boarding house/ dormitory with a relatively high rental fee. A participant of the FGD says, “It’s okay even if the rental is relatively higher as long as the place is safe in the sense that it is located in a neighbourhood which is free from gangsters.” Some students prefer to stay near their school campus to save transportation cost but some are willing to pay a higher monthly rental for a more secure and safe place. The result of the interview conducted among landladies and landlords declare that they are also looking into their boarders’ paying capacity. This means that boarding house or dormitory operation is for income-generation, especially among dwellings located near the three locales of this study. Majority of the interviewed boarding house operators have no business permits to operate. A boarding house owner reveals that, most of the surrounding boarding houses in his area are residentialturned boarding houses with no operational permits. The operator’s testimony can be considered as a violation of the National Building Code of the Philippines, as the Code bars modifications on the original character of occupancies or uses of any building which would replace the building in a different division (Sec. 01.02 of the Republic Act No. 654). Most operators agree that the requirements set by the Business Bureau, Engineering Department and the Fire Department of the City of Davao are not reasonable. They further explain that said requirements include expensive equipment and high fees aside from the alleged misdemeanours of some fire department officers. From these given grounds, it can be inferred that some boarding house owners failed to consider safety and security provisions. On the respondents’ source of food, 51.66% of them prepare and cook their own food while 48.34% buy only from “carenderias”.
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The study also shows that thirty-six percent of the respondents live in double- occupancy room type of lodging. However, around 45 percent are sharing the room with 2 other occupants or more. This concurs with the study conducted by the City of Davao regarding boarding houses/ dormitories in the city, finding out that majority of the bedrooms in the boarding houses are provided with double deck beds (Bagaman and Jumawan, 2009). The significant numbers of the boarding houses accommodate less than ten (10) student-renters or occupants (36.08 percent). About 22 percent houses ten to twenty occupants. However, 23.29 percent of the respondents did not disclose the issue; hence, explains that they are not aware of the total number of occupants in their respective boarding house and dormitory. The statistics shows that most dormitories/ residence halls/ boarding houses are overcrowded by most standards (Beals, 2011). Majority of the respondents believe that their current boarding house/ dormitory provides them appropriate housing facilities needed, as the total mean of these items registers fifty-six percent (56 %). As attested by the thirty-two percent (32%) of the total mean, most of these facilities do not exist in their boarding houses and dormitories. These include alarm system (66%), fire extinguisher (54%), and fire exit (42%); all of which concern the safety and security of the residents but unfortunately felt by the majority of the respondents as nonexisting facilities. This suggests that some boarding house operators have violated the R. A. 6541, Section 3.01.09 when they failed to meet the requirements of safety to their occupants (Building Code of the Philippines). Study rooms and bathrooms are likewise considered non-existing by the 47 % and 39 % of the population, respectively. The aspect on the functionality of the provided facilities was not able to note a strong evidence for majority of the respondents did not give any answer. The findings could somehow convey that there are some boarding houses and dormitories that provide facilities which do not function well at all. To enumerate some are fire exit, fire extinguisher, alarm system, study room, clotheslines, kitchen, laundry area, and even bathroom, among others. Majority of the boarding houses/ dormitories house both male and female (52.36%). According to Collen and Anderson (2003) as
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cited by Villanueva et. al. (2007), a gender-mixed or co-ed boarding house/ dormitory can draw intimate relationship among female and male boarders. This is alarming as sexual intimacy which may lead to engagement of male and female boarders to relationship, pre-marital sex and unwanted pregnancies may take place (Villanueva et. al, 2007). In addition, Rockler-Gladen (2007) concedes that sexual harassment can be a big problem in co-ed dorms. Vulgarity and lewdness of some guys are also huge treats for women dormers; hence, they feel uncomfortable even if harassment is not concretely taking place. With this kind of living orientation, dormitories and boarding houses most of the time fails to provide privacy as an important human need (Estrada, 2008). Furthermore, privacy is important for residents of boarding houses and dormitories, more importantly for women, as it is for everyone. Should a person want to be in private, he/ she cannot make it so in this orientation, since it is implied that one is being surrounded by many individuals (Deasy, C.M., 1985). Policies in boarding houses/ dormitories are normally set but the implementation is sometimes inconsistent. Operators have felt the need of setting specific rules in a mixed-gender boarding house/ dormitory. These include the prohibition of both sexes to enter the opposite sex’s rooms among other important rules. Similarly, curfew, visitation policies and all others for implementations must be intensified because the study of Villanueva et. al. (2007) reports that looseness or laxity of the rules or policies and their implementation especially on visitation is one of the common causes why student-renters are deem to involve in some worthless activities. Furthermore, a respondent of their study said that due to non-existence or laxity of policies in the boarding house, they are encouraged to bring partners and engage in some conducts like drinking spree and sexual activities among others. They also conclude that the concern of the landlord/ landladies apparently is more focused on the bills and rentals and not merely on their welfare. Visitations are regulated if not restricted in boarding houses and dormitories. Operators or owners most of the time allow parents and close relatives to stay in or enter the occupant’s room. However, other visitors who are considered non-relatives (friends, boyfriends/ girlfriend, classmates, etc.) are allowed to visit but are to be entertained in the receiving area (sala or terrace), not inside the room.
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Well-being/Lifestyle of Student-Renters in Boarding Houses and Dormitories Spiritual Aspect. In almost all places, churches and chapels are located close to residential areas. This is clearly manifested in the responses made by the respondents where the item on the presence of nearby religious institutions and structures got the highest rating (3.06) in the spiritual aspect. It is also noted that most boarding houses do not have planned activities to nurture the spirituality of the boarders. Landlords and landladies usually leave the matter on spirituality to the students because, for them, it is not their concern. It is difficult to hold a common spiritual activity in a boarding house where students may come from different religious denominations. Emotional Aspect. Peers are influential in the life of a college student. Most college students prefer to confide to their friends when they have problems. Furthermore, respondents agree that friends call their attention when they misbehave. In addition, respondents have significantly identified and recognized the support system that can be given by their friends to them, especially in cases when they feel sad or lonely. According to Kane (1990), similarities and differences between college roommates can act as important sources of support and challenge. He emphasizes that the roommate relationship provides an opportunity for the students to develop interpersonal problem-solving skills in the context of the stresses (Kane, 1990). Further, an association of College and University Housing Officers’ research study reports that residence hall roommates regard each other as a “best friend” 79.3 % of the time after having roomed together for seven weeks (Kane). It is noteworthy to discuss that the dormers/boarders have tendencies to acquire greater stress in the boarding house/dormitory than at home. This is so because in the boarding house and dormitory they are on their own while they are pampered by parents at home. Homesickness might also be the cause why student-renters believe that living in a dormitory or boarding house is stressful. Brewin, et. al. (1989) AND Stroebe, et.al. (2002) provide figures showing that eighty percent (80%) of students living in residence halls experience the
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phenomenon at some time or other. Homesickness in boarding houses and dormitories must be properly addressed for it can be increasingly accompanied by many cognitive problems such as poor memory or poor concentration, and can lead to academic problems if it becomes severe or chronic (Burt, 1993; Fisher and Hood, 1988) Personal Aspect. Respondents agree that their stay in a boarding house/dormitory has helped them become more independent and responsible. It is a human nature that when one is alone he tends to be self-reliant considering that he has no one to depend on. This is a good consolation to parents for allowing their children to stay in boarding houses. Although rated lowest in the personal aspect, the respondents still perceive their stay in a boarding house/ dormitory as a way of achieving freedom and independence. Although hardships are inevitably encountered once a person is alone, this will lead him/ her to develop his/her independence and thereby relying most on his/ her own capacity to deal with things. Personal maturity is hastened when a person has the opportunity to deal independently with his own concerns. In addition, this new living environment often requires significant effort on the part of the students. They must learn to accomplish tasks that were previously not their responsibility. Consequently, Estrada et. Al. (2008) concluded that living in a dormitory develops the independence of the students. Academic Aspect. On the academic level, the respondents agree that their academic performance has improved during their stay in the boarding house or dormitory. They also agree that they can accomplish academic requirements efficiently during their stay in the boarding house or dormitory. This is probably because no household chores will interrupt them whenever they review their lessons or do their school projects/requirements. In addition, board mates help in academic related needs, thus, they perform better in school. This is usually observed if one has a senior board mates willing to assist the needs of boarders of lower years. Roommates seem to have an important influence on the academic success and personal growth of residence halls students. Kane (1990) finds a high positive correlation existed between paired high-ability roommates and high grade-point averages while the reverse effect on grades was found when high-and low-ability students were paired.
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If a student resides with board mates or roommates who really value education and who extend time in studying, he will eventually become like them, thus, academic success is inevitable. Living away from home has set both detrimental and beneficial effects to the academic life of the students. Based on the responses, the respondents are thinking maturely as they are assuming responsibilities towards themselves vis-à-vis their academic endeavours despite being away from the comfort of their own family. Some tend to be influenced by their peers, as they perceived living in a dormitory or boarding house a way of achieving independence. Predominantly, the respondents claim that living in temporary shelters having lesser chores give them ample time to study; thus, this plays a significant contribution to their academic performance. Social Aspect. The respondents claim that they become friendlier when they stay in a boarding house/dormitory. Moreover, they are able to establish friendships among the other occupants. This is expected in a situation when one needs to have a sense of belongingness. In an environment where everyone is all transients, the necessity to attach to others is vital to sustain. To be with friends or to socialize is one of the most important needs of a human being as reflected in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The conduct of social gatherings such as parties and the like are allowed in the respondents’ places. Respondents also respond to invitations from their board mates/co-boarders and land lady/ land lord when opportunity to be with them comes. Sibling-like relationships also are present and easily observable on any college campus dormitory. Students tend to form this kind of relationship before others. The sibling-like relationship is formed between roommates. Like siblings, roommates live in constant contact with each other and are forced to live with this person no matter what the situation. (Christopher, Ohlinger, McDermott and Lim, 1999). Social activities in boarding houses/ dormitories create essentialities in the lives of the students. Since, being away from one’s family creates the feeling of homesickness and loneliness; experts agree that one of the best ways to cope with these is to get involved in activities (Estrada et al., 2008). Allowing one’s self to get bored lead to great depression and students have to make sure that they always have something to do.
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Living in a dormitory will vastly improve the sociability of the students in college. Especially for freshmen, living in a dormitory helps students meet new people and make friends with other students they might not have otherwise met. Dormitories are usually diverse, multicultural, and co-ed, permitting a wide range of friendships to develop. Moreover, the large numbers of students will make friends with a wider variety of people than they would otherwise. Instead of focusing only on students who share the same schedule or classes, those who live in the college dormitories make friends with students with diverse academic interest and ethnic backgrounds (Living in a…2002). Lastly, according to living away from home increases leadership and interpersonal skills and cultural awareness (De Larrosa 2000). Therefore, a student moves towards interdependence. Another research finding states that students living at home are “less fully involved” in social, academic, or extracurricular activities in school with others as compared to those students who live in the dorms (Chickering and Kytle, 1999 as cited by De Larrosa, 2000). CONCLUSIONS In Davao City, most boarding houses are actually converted residential dwellings located particularly in areas nearby higher educational institutions. Majority of these boarding houses/ dormitory admit both male and female students and offer multiple roomoccupancy orientation. It is believed that boarding house/ dormitory operations is a good business and are sources of additional income for the house/ building owners. However, some operators of these boarding houses do not have permit to operate; failure of securing for permits are attributed to numerous requirements and the high costs of fees as gleaned form the interviews made among operators/ owners. For the students, proximity and affordability are the two major requirements in choosing a boarding house or dormitory. Nearness of the boarding house or dormitory to the school and to other establishments is a great factor. Moreover, the price of the rent is a thing to be greatly considered.

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Most boarding houses are providing basic housing facilities to the renters; however, some boarding houses/ dormitories fail to furnish facilities for safety, thus, most have violated the provisions stipulated in the Building Code of the Philippines. Other facilities like study rooms, bathrooms and safety lockers are missing in several boarding houses/dormitories. In addition, sound-buffering is a problem in most boarding houses/ dormitories; noise is a big problem to students especially during study periods. Lastly, respondents assessed lightings in study rooms and supply of natural air as abated. On the effects of boarding house/ dormitory habitation, most of the respondents who live in these temporary dwellings are orderly, independent, responsible and time-conscious; likewise they are concerned about their academic performance. Furthermore, they still have the time to be sociable and friendly. RECOMMENDATIONS Basic housing fixtures such as but not limited to alarm system, fire extinguisher, fire exit, study rooms, exclusive bathrooms for male and female, and safety lockers must be furnished in boarding houses/ dormitories. Household policies such as on curfew, visitation, and utilization of facilities and control of noise must be considered by landlords and observed by student-renters. Operators/ owners may also integrate plans to nurture the spiritual growth of their student-renters. They might also tap the help of the Religious Education Programs or the Office of the Chaplain of the colleges/ universities in this endeavour. Most importantly, the student-renters must consider the responsibilities and liabilities accompanying their freedom. Parents should regularly monitor their children’s situation in the boarding houses/ dormitories. Likewise, the Office of the Student Affairs and Discipline (OSAD) and/ or Guidance and Counselling Centers of schools may take the initiative to address boarding house/ dormitory-related issues. Specifically, these offices may build good relationships with identified boarding house/ dormitory operators and jointly create programs that consider the welfare of the studentrenters. In addition, the OSADs and Guidance Offices can make a
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policy which advices and requires the students to report the address and location of their current boarding houses/ dormitories. Owners of carenderias, food stalls, school canteens, cafeterias, specifically food handlers must comply with the proper health requirements with close monitoring by the local government so as to secure good health and safety of the students. Individuals or entities who would like to venture into boarding house/ dormitory operation should consider elements of accessibility, proximity, affordability, sanitation, safety and privacy. Universities and colleges if possible must be open to the idea of putting up their own. The local government should see to it that there is strict compliance of the requirements in operating boarding houses/ dormitories by landlords/ landladies and monitoring of the same. Sanitation should also be given importance. In addition, a concrete government ruling on boarding house operations must be formulated and passed by the City Council of Davao. LITERATURE CITED Bagaman, S. and Jumawan, H. 2009 The Social Condition of Occupants of the Boarding Houses in Villa Abrille Street, Davao City. Unpublished Undergraduate Research, Holy Cross of Davao College, Davao City, Philippines Beals 2011 Life in a Box: The Psychological Effects of Dormitory Architecture and Lay-out on Residents. Retrieved: January 7, 2012, from http://writing.fsu/writing/?q=node/121Press

Blimling, G. S. 1993 New challenges and goals for residential life programs. In J. Winston, R. B. & S. Anchors (Eds.), Student Housing and Residential Life: A Handbook for Professionals Committed to Student Development Goals (pp. 1-20). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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Brewin, C.R. et. al 1989 Demographic and psychological determinants of homesickness and confiding among students. British Journal of Psychology. Vol. 80, 467-477 Burt. C 1993 Concentration and academic ability following transition to university: An investigation of the effects of homesickness. Journal of environmental psychology,13, 333-342. Chickering, A. W. 1969 Education and identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Chickering, A. W. 1974 Commuting versus resident students: Overcoming educational inequities of living off campus. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Chickering, A. W. and Kytle, J. 1999 The collegiate ideal in the twenty-first century. ln J. D.Toma and A.J. Kezar (Eds.), Reconceptualizing the collegiate ideal (New directions for higher education, No. 105) (pp. 109-120) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Chickering, A. W. and Reisser, L. 1993 Education and identity. 2nd Ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Collen, M. and Anderson, C. 2003 Emotional Convergence. NJ: Wiley and Sons Christopher, R., H. Ohlinger, M. McDermott, and C. Lim 1999 Dormitory Life versus Family Life. Retrieved from http://cwabacon. pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/renzetti2_ab/chapter0/essay1/ deluxe-content.html on March 13, 2010. Clarkson, S. 2006 An introduction to student development theory. Central Michigan University. Retrieved: November 12, 2009, from http://www.
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reslife.cmicc.edu/rama/index.php?section=Experienced_ Staff&category=Intro_to_Student_Development_Theory Deasy, C.M. 1985 Designing places for people. New York: Witney Library of Design De Larrosa, L. 2000 Chickering’s seven vectors of student development explained. Retrieved: April 20, 2010 from http://www.depts.ttu.edu/ mcnair/journal/Leticia.De.Larrosa.pdf Estrada, et. al 2008. The academic constraints of students living in dormitories. Far Eastern University, Sampaloc, Manila. Retrieved: November 12, 2009, from http://www.cydf82philippines.com/files?Research_ Project_in_English_of_Cherry_Ann.doc Fisher, S., and Hood, B. 1988 Vulnerability factors in the transition to university: self-reported mobility history and sex differences as factors in Psychological disturbance. British Journal of Psychology, 79, 309-320. Kane, T.L. 1990. A study of the theories and practices utilized in residence hall student assignments. Texas Tech University. Texas, USA.p.17-20. Lindsey, A. 2008 Pros and cons of living in college dormitories at UTM. University of Tennessee at Martin, United States of America. Retrieved from http://voices.yahoo.com/pros-cons-living-college-dormitoriesat-909277.html on December 17, 2009. Pike, G., Schroede, C., and Berry, T. 1997 Enhancing the educational impact of residence halls: The relationship between residential learning communities and firstcollege experiences and persistence. Journal of College Student
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Development. Retrieved: November 12, 2009, from http:// findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3752/is_199711/ai_n8779872/ pg_13/?tag=content;coll Rockler-Gladen, N. 2007 Pros and Cons of Mixed-Sex Residence Halls for College Students. Retrieved: November 12, 2009, from http://collegeuniversity. suite101.com/article.cfm/coed_dorms#ixzz0Yn27weA0 Stroebe, M., Vliet, T. V., Hewstone, M. & Willis, H. 2002 Homesickness among student in two cultures: Antecedents and consequences. British Journal of Psychology, 93, 147-168. Villanueva, et. al 2007. Risk factors involved in the formation of sexual intimacy among HCDC students staying in boarding houses. Journal of Undergraduate Research in Psychology. Vol. 1, No. 1. Holy Cross of Davao College, Davao City, Philippines.p.29-47. Villanueva, et. al 2009. Make use of break to test safety of student houses, Villar urges fire bureau. A press release retrieved on July 7, 2009 fromhttp:// www.senate.gov.ph/press_release/2009/051_villar1.asp. Villanueva, et. al 2004. Number of People Living in Boarding Houses. Shelter SA Snapshotz, Adelaide, South Australia: 2. Retrieved: July 7, 2009 from www.sheltersa.asn.au. Villanueva, et. al Living away from home. Boarding Students’ Handbook. All Saints’ College Bathurst. Retrieved: May 10, 2010 from http://www. saints.nsw.edu.au/assets/pdf/boardinghandbook/2009Boarders-Handbook-for-web-low-res.pdf

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Villanueva, et. al Ordinance no. 813: An Ordinance Prescribing Guidelines, Standards and Requirements Governing the Construction, Use, Occupancy and Operation of Dormitories and Boarding Houses in the City of Naga. Retrieved: January 11, 2009, from http://www.naga.gov.ph/sp/ pdf/ord82-813.pdf retrieved

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...62118 0/nm 1/n1 2/nm 3/nm 4/nm 5/nm 6/nm 7/nm 8/nm 9/nm 1990s 0th/pt 1st/p 1th/tc 2nd/p 2th/tc 3rd/p 3th/tc 4th/pt 5th/pt 6th/pt 7th/pt 8th/pt 9th/pt 0s/pt a A AA AAA Aachen/M aardvark/SM Aaren/M Aarhus/M Aarika/M Aaron/M AB aback abacus/SM abaft Abagael/M Abagail/M abalone/SM abandoner/M abandon/LGDRS abandonment/SM abase/LGDSR abasement/S abaser/M abashed/UY abashment/MS abash/SDLG abate/DSRLG abated/U abatement/MS abater/M abattoir/SM Abba/M Abbe/M abbé/S abbess/SM Abbey/M abbey/MS Abbie/M Abbi/M Abbot/M abbot/MS Abbott/M abbr abbrev abbreviated/UA abbreviates/A abbreviate/XDSNG abbreviating/A abbreviation/M Abbye/M Abby/M ABC/M Abdel/M abdicate/NGDSX abdication/M abdomen/SM abdominal/YS abduct/DGS abduction/SM abductor/SM Abdul/M ab/DY abeam Abelard/M Abel/M Abelson/M Abe/M Aberdeen/M Abernathy/M aberrant/YS aberrational aberration/SM abet/S abetted abetting abettor/SM Abeu/M abeyance/MS abeyant Abey/M abhorred abhorrence/MS abhorrent/Y abhorrer/M abhorring abhor/S abidance/MS abide/JGSR abider/M abiding/Y Abidjan/M Abie/M Abigael/M Abigail/M Abigale/M Abilene/M ability/IMES abjection/MS abjectness/SM abject/SGPDY abjuration/SM abjuratory abjurer/M abjure/ZGSRD ablate/VGNSDX ablation/M ablative/SY ablaze abler/E ables/E ablest able/U abloom ablution/MS Ab/M ABM/S abnegate/NGSDX abnegation/M Abner/M abnormality/SM abnormal/SY ab......

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