Free Essay

"The Long March Was a Retreat That Changed the Destiny of China" to What Extent Do You Agree with This Statement?

In: Historical Events

Submitted By NatusVincere
Words 1146
Pages 5
“The Long March was a retreat that changed the destiny of China” To what extent do you agree with this statement?

The Long March was an epic journey across China conducted by the Red army in 1934. After the breakdown of the first United Front, Chiang Kai Shek launched an offensive which forced a retreat from Mao and the Red army. This retreat is believed to have lasted for over a year and covered 6000 miles. By the end of the march, of the 80000 marchers who embarked on the journey, only 6000 made it to Yenan. It was a march rich with heroism and hardship. However to call the Long March a retreat that changed the destiny of china is controversial. The term 'destiny' can be interpreted in two different ways. It can be the outcome of the Long March influencing the civil war by 1949 or the world's perspective of China.

According to many historians, such as Richard Cavendish, the Long March was a victorious march for Mao and the CCP. It made the survival of the imperiled CCP possible, gave Mao a secure grasp on its leadership and ultimately led to the creation of the People's Republic of China. “As a bulwark of Chinese pride and patriotism, skillfully exploited as such by Mao and his circle”. It is also sometimes believed that the Long March was a seeding machine, one that spread the Marxist ideology and manipulated the opinions of China and Mao across the globe.

Before the epic journey began, the CCP was in a quagmire and the Nationalists seemed on the point of establishing an unshakeable control over China. The communists appeared to be a broken force. At this point, there was no certainty that the CCP will survived. However, as a result of the Long MArch, the survival of the CCP was ensured. When the CCP reached Yenan, they grew stronger. This is the common thought of the achievements of the Long March. However, could the CCP survive even without the Long March? Was Chiang Kai Shek's ruler over China inevitable without it? Many historians argued that Chiang would not have gained control of China even if the Long March had not occurred. Also the presence of the Japanese in China would have affected the KMT as they were expected to deal with the issues made by the Japanese. With the expected failure of the KMT and the involvement from the Japanese, it can be argued that the CCP would have survived even without the occurrence of the Long March. ON the other hand, it is not to say that the Long March had no impact at all on the survival of the CCP, it just merely kept more Communists alive than enured survival possible.

Many historians and critics, even Mao himself, believed that the Long March had spread the ideas of communism throughout China. Mao and his fellow troopers introduce these ideas and made promises that peasants were attracted to. Mao wrote: “The Long MArch is a manifesto. It has proclaimed to the world that the Red Army is an army of heroes, … It has announced to some 200 million people in 11 provinces that the read of the Red Army is their only road to Liberation”. The Long March had won the CCP many support among the rural peasants. Through propaganda, it also strengthened the Red army as more peasants became involved. IN this sense, the Long March had helped the Red Army become stronger, thus helped the CCP to win the Civil war in 1949. However, was the influence of the propaganda as significant as compared to the weakness of KMT and the threat of the Japanese Invasion in determining the destiny of China? If the propaganda factor of the Long March was taken out of the scenario, many historians argued that the destiny of China would remain the same. Although the propaganda helped fostered supports of the CCP, the Japanese invasion would have driven the peasants to seek the CCP for help and support. Meanwhile the KMT's main focus was to crush the CCP first. Be fore the Japanese, the peasants would of course turn to the CCP as they were the only party trying to resist the foreign invasion. With this in the picture, the propaganda factor of the Long March only helped gained a portion of the support for the CCP. Without it, the CCP would still have gained support from factors mentioned and these supports would perhaps be enough to help CCP win the Civil war.

The Long March was also believed to have consolidated Mao's leadership in the CCP. In the Zunyi conference, Mao had exploited rivalries and discontents in the party politburo to wrong foot and take control. It was at that point that Mao had maneuvered himself as the dominant leader of the CCP, thus changing the destiny of China. However, without the Long March and the Zunyi Conference, Mao is believed to still be able to climb his way to power. Mao, by nature, was a very cruel and manipulative individual. He would have exploited the politburos elsewhere. Mao was also an already popular individual due to his beliefs and determination such as the destruction of the Chinese tradition. With those factors, Mao certainly would have changed the destiny of China.

Finally, the Long March is thought to have changed the world's perspective of China. Outside China, a book called 'Red Star Over CHina' by Edgar Snow had changed the opinions of Mao as a leader. Mao had led about his life in China, claiming that he lived a modest simple lifestyle when in reality he salvaged on the luxuries. As a result of his book, the world viewed China as a potent leader, worthy of support and control over China. In this sense, the Long March had changed the world's perspective of China, hence he destiny of China. The book also had affected students in China. Chinese version of the book was released o the kids, and thus they began to worship Mao and the Red Army. There is no argument here as Edgar's Snow's book was the only book with accounts of life in China that was available to the westerners. Thus, the Long March had changed the destiny of China in terms of perception of China from the world.

Overall, the Long March seemed to have only strengthened the CCP on top of every other factors such as the invasion of Manchuria and the weakness of the KMT. It certainly has helped foster this change in destiny of China, but without it, the destiny of China would not change. I believe that it merely helped speed up the rate of growth of the CCP. It shortened the CCP's rise to power and without it, the CCP might not have gained total control until later.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Pdf, Doc.Txt

...WORKERS OF ALL COUNTRIES UNITE! QUOTATIONS FROM CHAIRMAN MAO TSE - TUNG 5 FOREIGN LANGUAGE PRESS P E K I N G 1966 First Edition 1966 M O R F S N O I TAT O U Q NAMRIAHC GNUT - EST OAM 5 SSERP EGAUGNAL NGIEROF 6691 G N I K E P Printed in the People’s Republic of China Study Chairman Mao’s writings, follow his teachings and act according to his instructions. Lin Piao A facsimile of the above statement by Comrade Lin Piao in his own handwriting appears on the previous page. FOREWORD TO THE SECOND EDITION OF QUOTATIONS FROM CHAIRMAN MAO TSE-TUNG (December 16, 1966) Lin Piao Comrade Mao Tse-tung is the greatest Marxist-Leninist of our era. He has inherited, defended and developed MarxismLeninism with genius, creatively and comprehensively and has brought it to a higher and completely new stage. Mao Tse-tung’s thought is MarxismLeninism of the era in which imperialism is heading for total collapse and socialism is advancing to world-wide victory. It is a powerful ideological weapon for opposing imperialism and for opposing revisionism and dogmatism. Mao Tse-tung’s thought is the guiding principle for all the work of the Party, the army and the country. Therefore, the most fundamental task in our Party’s political and ideological work is at all times to hold high the great red banner of Mao Tse-tung’s thought, to arm the minds of the people throughout the country with it and to persist in using it to command every field of activity.......

Words: 45851 - Pages: 184

Free Essay

China Fragile Superpower

...China Fragile Superpower This page intentionally left blank Fragile Superpower Susan L. Shirk China 2007 Oxford University Press, Inc., publishes works that further Oxford University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education. Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Copyright © 2007 by Susan L. Shirk Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 www.oup.com Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Shirk, Susan L. China: fragile superpower / by Susan L. Shirk. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-19-530609-5 1. Nationalism—China. 2. China—Politics and government—2002– I. Title. JC311.S525 2007 320.951—dc22 2006027998 135798642 Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper For Sam, Lucy, and David Popkin This page intentionally......

Words: 135807 - Pages: 544

Free Essay

Frontline

...FRONTLINE JANUA RY 1 3, 2 012 WWW.FRONTLINE.IN INDIA’S NATIONAL MAGAZINE RS.25 WORLD AFFAIRS IRAQ FOOD SECURITY PDS CLIMATE CHANGE DURBAN Exit America 49 What people say 96 Uncertain stand 114 Remembering TAGORE On his 150th birth anniversary VOLUME 28 NUMBER 27 TH E STAT E S Fiery trap in Kolkata 41 SC IE NCE Higgs signal? 44 WOR L D A F F A I R S Iraq: Exit America War crimes in the trash Russia: December Revolution Pakistan: Volatile state India & China: Troubled equations DECEMBER 31, 2011 - JANUARY 13, 2012 C O V ER S T O RY 49 52 ISSN 0970-1710 Timeless Tagore As an activist, thinker, poet and rural reconstructionist, Rabindranath Tagore continues to be relevant. A tribute on the 150th anniversary of his birth. 4 WWW.FRONTLINE.IN Jayati Ghosh: Mess in eurozone R.K. Raghavan: A lost battle? 108 118 BOOKS LE TTE R S 73 127 54 57 61 TR AVE L Jungles of Borneo 64 AR T Achuthan Kudallur’s journey 85 H ISTOR Y Of Quit India, Nehru & Communist split 89 FOOD SEC UR I T Y Understanding the PDS Kerala: Power of literacy Bihar: Coupon fiasco Jharkhand: Strong revival Chhattisgarh: Loud no to cash E CONOM Y Losing momentum Interview: C. Rangarajan, Chairman, PMEAC CL IM A TE C H A N G E Uncertain stand in Durban CONTR OV E R S Y Mullaperiyar dispute: Deep distrust Fallout of fear OBITU A R Y Humble genius: Mario......

Words: 77117 - Pages: 309

Premium Essay

Starbucks

...1 GLOBALIZATION 2 PART 1 Globalization PART ONE Planet Starbucks T hirty years ago Starbucks was a single store in Seattle’s Pike Place Market selling premium roasted coffee. Today it is a global roaster and retailer of coffee with more than 7,600 retail stores, some 2,000 of which are to be found in 34 countries outside the United States. Starbucks Corporation set out on its current course in the 1980s when the company’s director of marketing, Howard Schultz, came back from a trip to Italy enchanted with the Italian coffeehouse experience. Schultz, who later became CEO, persuaded the company’s owners to experiment with the coffeehouse format—and the Starbucks experience was born. The basic strategy was to sell the company’s own premium roasted coffee, along with freshly brewed espresso-style coffee beverages, a variety of pastries, coffee accessories, teas, and other products, in a tastefully designed coffeehouse setting. The company also stressed providing superior customer service. Reasoning that motivated employees provide the best customer service, Starbucks executives devoted much attention to employee hiring and training programs and progressive compensation policies that gave even part-time employees stock option grants and medical benefits. The formula met with spectacular success in the United States, where Starbucks went from obscurity to one of the best known brands in the country in a decade. In 1995, with almost 700 stores across the United......

Words: 24447 - Pages: 98

Premium Essay

Prime Minister

...Rosedale, Auckland 0632, New Zealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd) Penguin Group (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, Block D, Rosebank Office Park, 181 Jan Smuts Avenue, Parktown North, Johannesburg 2193, South Africa Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England First published in Viking by Penguin Books India 2014 Copyright © Sanjaya Baru 2014 All rights reserved 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The views and opinions expressed in this book are the author’s own and the facts are as reported by him which have been verified to the extent possible, and the publishers are not in any way liable for the same. ISBN 9780670086740 Typeset in Bembo by R. Ajith Kumar, New Delhi Printed at Thomson Press India Ltd, New Delhi This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior written consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser and without...

Words: 114823 - Pages: 460

Premium Essay

Multinational Corporation

...Multinational Corporations and Foreign Direct Investment This page intentionally left blank Multinational Corporations and Foreign Direct Investment Avoiding Simplicity, Embracing Complexity Stephen D. Cohen 1 2007 1 Oxford University Press, Inc., publishes works that further Oxford University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education. Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Copyright # 2007 by Oxford University Press Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016 www.oup.com Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cohen, Stephen D. Multinational corporations and foreign direct investment: avoiding simplicity, embracing complexity / Stephen D. Cohen. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN-13 978-0-19-517935-4; 978-0-19-517936-1 (pbk.) ISBN 0-19-517935-8; 0-19-517936-6 (pbk.) 1.......

Words: 160016 - Pages: 641

Free Essay

Superstar Economics

...TABLE OF CONTENTS Author’s Preface ...................................................................................................................... p. 3 Chapter 1 — Introduction ....................................................................................................... p. 9 Chapter 2 — Desire: The Turning Point of All Achievement ................................................. p. 22 Chapter 3 — Faith Visualization of, and Belief in Attainment of Desire ............................... p. 40 Chapter 4 — Auto-Suggestion the Medium for Influencing the Subconscious Mind .............. p. 58 Chapter 5 — Specialized Knowledge, Personal Experiences or Observations ...................... p. 64 Chapter 6 — Imagination: the Workshop of the Mind .......................................................... p. 77 Chapter 7 — Organized Planning, the Crystallization of Desire into Action ........................ p. 90 Chapter 8 — Decision: the Mastery of Procrastination ......................................................... p. 128 Chapter 9 — Persistence: the Sustained Effort Necessary to Induce Faith ........................... p. 138 Chapter 10 — Power of the Master Mind: the Driving Force ................................................. p. 153 Chapter 11 — The Mystery of Sex Transmutation .................................................................. p. 160 Chapter 12 — The Subconscious Mind: The Connecting Link ........................................

Words: 91742 - Pages: 367

Free Essay

2009-Report to Congress of the Us-China E and S Review Commission

...2009 REPORT TO CONGRESS of the U.S.-CHINA ECONOMIC AND SECURITY REVIEW COMMISSION ONE HUNDRED ELEVENTH CONGRESS FIRST SESSION NOVEMBER 2009 Printed for the use of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission Available via the World Wide Web: http://www.uscc.gov dkrause on GSDDPC29 with K1 VerDate Nov 24 2008 08:23 Nov 10, 2009 Jkt 052771 PO 00000 Frm 00003 Fmt 6012 Sfmt 6602 M:\USCC\2009\52771.XXX APPS06 PsN: 52771 M:\USCC\USChina.eps Report Documentation Page Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 3. DATES COVERED 2. REPORT TYPE 01 NOV 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 00-00-2009 to......

Words: 185166 - Pages: 741

Premium Essay

Strategy Management

...require students to apply key concepts. Whether the assignment includes a click and drag, video case, or decision generator, these applications provide instant feedback and progress tracking for students and detailed results for the instructor. Case Exercises The Connect platform also includes author-developed case exercises for all 12 cases in this edition that require students to work through answers to assignment questions for each case. These exercises have multiple components and can include: calculating assorted financial ratios to assess a company’s financial performance and balance sheet strength, identifying a company’s strategy, doing five-forces and driving-forces analysis, doing a SWOT analysis, and recommending actions to improve company performance. The content of these case exercises is tailored to match the circumstances presented in each case, calling upon students to do whatever strategic thinking and strategic analysis is called for to arrive at a pragmatic, analysis-based action recommendation for improving company performance. eBook Connect Plus includes a media-rich eBook that allows you to share your notes with your students. Your students can insert and review their own notes, highlight the text, search for specific information, and interact with media resources. Using an eBook with Connect Plus gives your students a complete digital solution that allows them to access their materials from any computer. Tegrity Make......

Words: 219639 - Pages: 879

Premium Essay

Exorbitant Priviledge

...Monetary System Barry Eichengreen Oxford University Press, Inc., publishes works that further Oxford University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education. Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Copyright © 2011 by Barry Eichengreen Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 www.oup.com Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Eichengreen, Barry J. Exorbitant privilege : The Rise and Fall of the Dollar and the Future of the International Monetary System / Barry Eichengreen. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-19-975378-9 1. Money—United States—History—20th century. 2. Devaluation of currency—United States—History—21st century. 3. United States—Economic policy—2009– 4. Financial crises—United States—21st century. I. Title. HG540.E33 2010 332.4′973—dc22......

Words: 81879 - Pages: 328

Free Essay

Njnkjn

...been perhaps the most influential man in the area of personal success technique development, primarily through his classic book Think and Grow Rich which has helped million of the people and has been important in the life of many successful people such as W. Clement Stone and Og Mandino. Napoleon Hill was born into poverty in 1883 in a one-room cabin on the Pound River in Wise County, Virginia. At the age of 10 his mother died, and two years later his father remarried. He became a very rebellious boy, but grew up to be an incredible man. He began his writing career at age 13 as a "mountain reporter" for small town newspapers and went on to become America's most beloved motivational author. Fighting against all class of great disadvantages and pressures, he dedicated more than 25 years of his life to define the reasons by which so many people fail to achieve true financial success and happiness in their life. During this time he achieved great success as an attorney and journalist. His early career as a reporter helped finance his way through law school. He was given an assignment to write a series of success stories of famous men, and his big break came when he was asked to interview steel-magnate Andrew Carnegie. Mr. Carnegie commissioned Hill to interview over 500 millionaires to find a success formula that could be used by the average person. These included Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, Henry Ford, Elmer Gates, Charles M. Schwab, Theodore......

Words: 92846 - Pages: 372

Premium Essay

Eat Pray Love

...Africa Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England First published in 2006 by Viking Penguin, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2 Copyright © Elizabeth Gilbert, 2006 All rights reserved LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING IN PUBLICATION DATA Gilbert, Elizabeth, date. Eat, pray, love: one woman’s search for everything across Italy, India and Indonesia / Elizabeth Gilbert p. cm. ISBN 0-670-03471-1 1. Gilbert, Elizabeth, date—Travel. 2. Travelers’ writings, American. I. Title. G154.5.G55A3 2006 910.4—dc22 [B] 2005042435 Printed in the United States of America Set in Italian Garamond with Tagliente Display Designed by Elke Sigal Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by...

Words: 136177 - Pages: 545

Premium Essay

Eat Pray Love

...Africa Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England First published in 2006 by Viking Penguin, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2 Copyright © Elizabeth Gilbert, 2006 All rights reserved LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING IN PUBLICATION DATA Gilbert, Elizabeth, date. Eat, pray, love: one woman’s search for everything across Italy, India and Indonesia / Elizabeth Gilbert p. cm. ISBN 0-670-03471-1 1. Gilbert, Elizabeth, date—Travel. 2. Travelers’ writings, American. I. Title. G154.5.G55A3 2006 910.4—dc22 [B] 2005042435 Printed in the United States of America Set in Italian Garamond with Tagliente Display Designed by Elke Sigal Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by...

Words: 136206 - Pages: 545

Premium Essay

Eat Pray Love

... Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England First published in 2006 by Viking Penguin, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2 Copyright © Elizabeth Gilbert, 2006 All rights reserved LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING IN PUBLICATION DATA Gilbert, Elizabeth, date. Eat, pray, love: one woman’s search for everything across Italy, India and Indonesia / Elizabeth Gilbert p. cm. ISBN 0-670-03471-1 1. Gilbert, Elizabeth, date—Travel. 2. Travelers’ writings, American. I. Title. G154.5.G55A3 2006 910.4—dc22 [B] 2005042435 Printed in the United States of America Set in Italian Garamond with Tagliente Display Designed by Elke Sigal Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a...

Words: 133069 - Pages: 533

Premium Essay

Maritime Power of Chaina

...Maritime Strategy of China in the Asia-Pacific Region Origins, Development and Impact HUANG, AN-HAO Submitted in total fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy August 2009 School of Social and Political Sciences Faculty of Arts The University of Melbourne Produced on archival quality paper ABSTRACT This thesis aims to examine how and why a continental-oriented China has shifted its maritime strategic orientation and naval force structure from its coast toward the far seas in an era of interdependent international system. Generally, China is an ancient continental land power with an incomplete oceanic awareness. With the transformation after the Cold War of China’s grand strategy from landward security to seaward security, maritime security interests have gradually become the most essential part of China’s strategic rationale. Undoubtedly, the quest for sea power and sea rights has become Beijing’s main maritime strategic issue. Given China’s escalating maritime politico-economic-military leverage in the Asia-Pacific region, its desire to become a leading sea power embodying global strategic thinking means that it must expand its maritime strategy by developing its navy and preparing for armed confrontation in terms of international relations realism. Conversely, Beijing’s maritime policy leads at the same time towards globalization, which involves multilateralism and strategic coexistence of a more pragmatic kind. This research......

Words: 115996 - Pages: 464