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The Medieval World (Costume)

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The Medieval World
The Middle Age

* Byzantine Empire c.300-1200 ce * Barbarian Migration-Merovingian * Carolingian c.750-1000 ce * Romanesque c.900-1150 ce * Gothic * Burgundian & Early Renaissance

OCCIDENT - Roman Empire
ORIENT - Byzantine Empire

The Byzantin Empire

(Religious time - covering more skin) 300-1200 apr. J.-C.

Women Costume | Tunic and Stola * Long sleeves, belted. Ankle-length, worn over an under-tunic | Layering
Layering
| Paludamentum | * Mantle, cape: for upper class, semi-circular worn over tunic pinned on the right shoulder with fibula(Purple - on the picture) | Maniakis | * Large woven embroidered and jeweled necklace (similar to Egyptians) | Men Costume | Tunic | * Long sleeves, belted. Knee or ankle-length | Dalmatic Tunic | * Tunic with wide sleeves reserved for rules and dignitaries | Paludamentum & Chlamy | * Mantle, cape (as women) short version called chlamys | Braires | * Fitted trousers (like leggings) worn under tunic |

Women & Men

Crown, Stephanos

* Crown/diadem worn by royalty at official ceremonies

Pendulia

* Strings of pearls or jewels attached to the crown

Fibula

* Still functional, evolved as a jewelry piece

Tablion

* Decorative applique to the left of the paludamentum
*Communicate status!
*Colour indicate rank

Patterns

* Weaving of complicated colored and metallic patterns inspired by Middle East and the Orient * Opulent patterned silks were encrusted with jewels and gold thread

Symbols

The Cross * The Church of Constantinople became the most influential and richest center of Christendom (6-11th centuries) |

Romanesque
900 - 1150 CE

Women Early Romanesque

Tunic

* Early Romanesque, men & women wore similar long tunics

Robes

* Long simple robes with woven gold band trims (influenced of the Byzantine Empire)

Note: woman of early Romanesque will wear diadem/long hair - one braid?

Women Romanesque | Bliauts | * Robe with wide sleeve cuffs | Chainse | * Linen long sleeves under - garment worn under the bliauts | Girdle | * Often belted with metal or leather belt | Men Romanesque | Tunic | * Long sleeves, belted. Knee or ankle-length, worn with an under-tunic | Chlamys | * Mantle, cape (as women) short version called chlamysNote: similar to cape, wear on top of the clothes | Braies | * Fitted trousers worn under tunic | Knight | Haubert | * Mail armor worn by knights for the Crusades (11th - 13th century) | Cyclas | * Surcoat decorated with heraldry (emblem), worn over the haubert to protect it from the heat and rust. |

Early Gothic
1150 - 1500 CE

Women & Men | Surcoat or Surcote | * Sleeveless overtunic | Cote/tunic or kirtle | * Long sleeves tunic (also called cote) worn under the surcote. | Cotehardie | * Fitted tunic with long or elbow length sleeves; short for men, long for women worn over the cote (kirtle) * Lower class only wore cote | Chausses / Hose | * Socks or tights worn by men with cotehardie | Cotehardie & Tippets | * Long bands sewn on the short sleeves of the cotehardie | Women | Lacing | * 14th century garments move from “flat, draped garments belted for shape to the cutting and curved pieces”, tailoring. * Buttons and lacing were essentials to new fitted garments * Sleeves were at times removable | Open Surcoat (Open Surcote) | * Sleeveless surcoat open wide at the sides | Women & Men | Mantle | * Long cape or cloak, attached on the front or on the side with round brooch, later will be tied with strings. | Women | Veil | * From the Romanesque era, women covered their heads with veils influenced by Christian modesty. * Married women always covered their hair. |

Weaved Patterns | Crusaders traveled to the Middle East and became in contact with luxurious silks.Sicilian silk, renown silk weavers |

Women Headdress | Crespines or Caul | * Metal mesh that held in place hair rolled around the ears. | Circlet (or Fillet) | * Metal headband | Wimple (or Gorget) | * Chin band covering the neck of married women, often worn with veil covering the head inspired by Muslim’s modesty custom (crusades) | Men Head Covering | Hood | * Shoulder cape with hood | Liripipe | * Hood with long tail |

Parti - Colored (Trend) | * Mixing of colors, patterns, and fabrics. * Stripped, checkered related to coats or arms of the knights. | Heraldry | * Parti - colored also included heraldry, which was used by knights in armor to identify themselves in battle with the use of colors and symbols. |

Women Late Gothic | Novelty Silhouette | * Around the XVe c. the women silhouette was long, with a high waist. * Close fitted gowns had wide necklines and were not belted * Women were holding their gowns up, and adopted a posture that suggested pregnancy, which balanced the long train, sleeves and large headdress. |

Women &Men | Houtppelande | * Full belted robe, with long wide (often dagged) sleeves, dragging on floor, high collar, often fur lined. | | Ermine | * White fur with black tips | | Women Late Gothic | Robe | * From 1430s a robe replaced the houppelande, now with narrow cuffs, and an open and folded down collar (v-neck). | Horned Headdress | * Padded rolls and veil | Heart- Shaped Headdress | * Padded rolls in form of a heart-shape and veil | Wired Structure Headdress | * Many headdress were based on wired structure and covered with a veil. |

Men | Doublet and Hose | * First used for battlefield, closed with many front buttons, will become part of the costume, often worn under the houppelande. | Hose | * Hose were attached in front to a triangle by “aiglets” (ribbon or strings) | Excessive Shapes | * Exaggeration and excess (material and shape) could be seen in clothing as well as in architecture. * Verticality (cathedrals and hats) and length (shoes). * Poulaines - name the shoes Note: The longer the point - the higher class (up to 2 feet length) | | |

Duchy of Burgundy

Mid XVe c.

* The concept of fashion appeared in the late 14th c. through the opulence of the bourgeois, the arrival of tailors’ corporations (guilds) and the ostentatiousness of the Burundian courts.

Dagged Edges | * Decorative shapes around the edge of garments. (Scalloped or castellated adges) | Women Late Gothic | Double Cornet Headdress | * Padded rolls with split effect (clamshell)Note: the more important person the more embodiment the garment was. | Henin | * Worn with VeilNote: The longer it is the closer to royal family. |

Women BeautyFashionable women shaved (plucked) their hairline and eyebrows. |

Men | Jacket & HosesShort, pleated and belted with broad shoulder, sleeves and high black collar. | Men Head Covering | Chaperon Turban | |

Black was in FASHION

Charles the Bold (Burgundy) -> in black velvet, poulaines, chaperon turban hat

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