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高一英语语法突破讲义
主讲:徐昊

欢迎使用新东方在线电子教材
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Unit 1 冠词

第一部分 不定冠词(a/an之间的区别) 口诀:听其音,忘其形!
语法上定义的标准答案: 如果一个单词以元音发音开头,则使用“an”; 如果一个单词以辅音发音开头,则使用“a”;
注意:在判断过程中,不能根据单词之前是元音或辅音开头,关键是看单词本身是元音或
辅音发音开头来判断。
例题:__a_usual book; an___ unusual book;_a__ horse ;_an__ hour
前一组单词都是以元音开头的,但使用的不定冠词却不同;
后一组单词都是以辅音开头的,但使用的不定冠词也是不同;
例题:There is _____"M" in the word "mouse".
因为发的为单元音,则填“an”
(M部分用O进行替换) 因为发的为单元音,则填“an”
(M部分用U进行替换) 因为是辅音发音开头,则填“a”
(M部分用S进行替换) 因为是辅音发音开头,则填“a”

第二部分 定冠词与不定冠词的辨析(区别a/an、the ) 何为口语化判断准则? 不需要怎么思考就可以判断的准则,称之为口语化判断准则。 回顾:1、第一次提到用“a或an”,以后再次提到用“the” ; 2、非特指用a/an,特指时用the. 遇见复杂问题时,使用强行翻译法;
强行翻译法如何使用?
1、在所需要辨别的空格内生硬的填入“这个”; 2、翻译“这个”所在的句子; 3、把翻译的句子带入到具体的语境当中; 4、并判断其逻辑是否成立(可以理解为因果关系是否成立); 5、如果因果关系成立——〉the;因果关系不成立——〉a/an.
例题:A:Have you seen ____pen? I left it here this morning. B:Is it ____ black one? I saw it somewhere. A.a ,a B. a, the C. the, a D. the,the
例题分析:第一步强行填入“这个”,译文为:你见过这只笔吗?
结合全文语境,可知不符合逻辑因果关系不成立。

1. 冠词
第一段 快乐大篷车 第三部分 零冠词与冠词 注:但凡遇见复杂的、零散的的知识点时,采用故事记忆法。 故事记忆:——看球痴绝食路 进行概念上的换动 ;(食——>冠词) 1. 绝食的原因: 球 思路分析:因为球而绝食,绝食即为绝冠词,绝冠词就是零冠词,所以遇球 就绝食,则可知遇见球类一定使用零冠词的。 例:打篮球 play basketball 知识扩展: 棋类(同样不使用冠词的) 笔记:have breakfast 吃早餐 have lunch 吃午餐 have dinner 吃晚餐 笔记:on Sunday 在周日这天 on Friday 在周五这天 笔记:in May 在五月份 in January 在一月份 in December 在十二月份 笔记:on Teachers' day 在教师节这天 2. 绝食历程:开始,只是一日三餐(have dinner)不吃;(遇见任意地一日三餐都不使用冠词) 之后,是一星期不吃;(遇见任意一周中的某天都不使用冠词)
接着,是一年都不吃;(遇见任意某个月份都不使用冠词)
所有节假日都不放假也不吃;(遇见所有节假日都不使用冠词) 在这种固定不吃任何物质的模式下,最后,go to hell了。 解析:固定与物质;在此,固定即为固定搭配;物质只指两类物质名词不使。 一类指可数名词中复数名词不使用冠词;另一类指不可数名词不使用。 笔记:Blood is thicker than water. 血浓于水. 原因:由于blood、water是不可数名词,所以前面都不使用冠词。 例:in __ morning(the) 在早上、在下午、在晚上都要加上“the” 特殊点:在中午 at noon; 在夜晚 at night; 重要补充:第一 凡是不在绝食路上的元素,正常使用冠词; 第二 绝食路上的四大元素,一旦具体化,必须使用冠词; 一旦具体化,必须使用冠词; (四大元素包括:一日三餐、一星期、一年、节假日;) 例:on __ Teachers' Day,1997(the) 原因:因为强调为具体某一年的教师节,则前面应该加“the” 例:play __ Erhu(the) 第三 中国传统乐器不加“the”; 第四部分 双枪老太婆
当两个词表示的是一个物体或者一个物体的不同组成部分时就使用一个冠词,否则冠词要分开使用。
解析:the red & white rose; the red &white roses.
第一句 the red & white rose. 当red、white同时表示同一物体rose时,则共用; 当red、white表示为不同物体时,则要分开使用 译文:第一句 红白相间的玫瑰; 第二句 白玫瑰和红玫瑰; 例:The teacher and the driver ___ (give) me the answer.(give) The teacher and driver ___( give) me the answer.(gives) 由例题可知,如果为单独地一个冠词,可知为一个物体; 如果为两个冠词,可知至少为两个物体。 回顾:第一部分 讲述关于a/an之间的区别;(听其音,忘其形) 第二部分 讲述a/an、the之间的区别; 解题方法:强行翻译法. 解题步骤:强行填入“这个”两字,翻译带有“这个”的句子, 代入整个语境中判断逻辑是否成立,如果成立使用“the”不成 立使用“a/an”. 第三部分 特殊记忆法(零冠词的故事记忆法) 重要补充:1. 凡是不在绝食路上的元素,正常使用冠词; 2. 绝食路上的四大元素,一旦具体化,必须使用冠词; 3. 中国传统乐器不加“the”. 第四部分 双枪老太婆(一个冠词时就一个物体,两个冠词时至少两物体)
第二段 词汇大会战
例题:1、She wants to be ___ student. A. a B. an C. the D. \
解析:由于student时以辅音发音为开头,所以先排除选项B;
将A、C、D都代入句子中;A项更符合题意。
例题:2、Do you have ____dictionary? A. a English & French B. an English & French C. a English &a French D. an English & a French
解析:由于dictionary本身以单数形式出现,则确定选项中只允许单数形式;
首先就排除C、D;根据a/an之间的区别,可知B项正确。
例题:3、I have had ____ good dinner at my uncle's. A. a B. an C. the D. \
解析:由于dinner之前有修饰词good,而且不断强调是“吃了顿好的晚餐”,
则可知重要补充第二点,当四大元素一旦具体化,我们将要恢复使用 冠词,即可排除B、D; 使用口语化判断准则可知,A选项正确。
笔记:rich 表示富有地、比较丰富地 如果在rich之前加上“the”,则rich表示一类人,为富人的意思。 the poor 穷人
例题:4、One should know what ____ true,_____ good ,and ____ beautiful are. A. a, a, a B. the, the, the C. \, \, \ D. the, a, a
解析:此题讲述the+形容词表示一类人或一类物的问题;
The true, the good and the beautiful ——真善美

Unit 2 名词

Part 1
1.快乐大棚车
可数名词和不可数名词 可数名词数的变化以及不可数名词的量化 名词的格
Part 2
2.词汇大会战
名词的辨析
第一段 快乐大篷车 内容简介:第一 数; 第二 格; 第三 关于名词的“性别”问题
掌握重点:“数”为重点,而“格”只要求简单的了解。
例:book 复数形式books; apple 复数形式apples; 第一部分 “数” 规则变化: 1.直接在名词后+s; 2.特殊结尾的单词,以ch、sh、x、s结尾+es
例:box复数形式booxes;
3.以y结尾的;A 辅音+ y y——>i+es B 元音+y 直接+s
笔记:本身对于可数名词与不可数名词判别标准并不特别严格;
例如:water 表示水时为不可数;当表示水域时即为可数。 不规则变化:
注:判断可数名词与不可数名词基本准则 : 第一 一个单词如果可以用一个或两个来数,则称之为可数名词反之为不可数名词; 第二 有的单词可用一个两个来数,但没含义,则仍为不可数名词; 例: book 可以为一本书或两本书,则为可数名词; water, air 水与空气无法称为一个水一个空气,则为不可数名词。 例: hair 头发 仍为不可数名词; 记忆:通过统计,高中学习的三千五百个核心词汇中,仅有六个是以"o" 结尾而且必须加"es"变复数的; 记忆:六大单词为:Negro 黑人、hero 英雄、tomato 西红柿、 potato 土豆、echo 回声、volcano 火山。

记忆:强调单词Negro 黑人————>black————>African American 1. 看结尾;以"o"结尾的词,多数在词尾加"es",一部分加"s"; 以"f"或"fe"结尾的词,一般先把"f","fe"变为v,再加"es"; 记忆:通过统计,高中学习的三千五百个核心词汇中,仅有九个是以“f” 或“fe”结尾的,但需要去掉“f”“fe”变为“v”再加“es”的 记忆:九大单词:thief 贼、loaf 面包棒、wife 妻子、half 一半、leaf 树叶、 knife 刀、shelf 架子、wolf 狼、life 生命。 注:面对复杂地、知识点比较零碎的情况,采用故事记忆法; 2. 中间元音变化:第一类 人;man-men woman-women child-children 第二类 部位;foot-feet tooth-teeth 第三类 动物;mouse-mice 老鼠 goose-geese 鹅 3. 整体变化;第一 以不变应万变;sheep-sheep 绵羊 deer-deer 鹿 第二 各国人的变化;口诀"中日瑞不变,英法变中间,其他s加后边" 解析:“中日瑞不变”Chinese单复一致、Japanese单复一致、Swiss; 解析:“英法变中间”English、French保持单复不变; 解析:“其他s加后边”排除中日瑞英法之外的,都直接加“s”; 注意,口诀仅适用于比较常见的国家的人的变化。 第三 成对出现用复数形式; 例:trousers 裤子 glasses 眼镜 而对于鞋子shoes 它是分开的,所以不使用复数形式。 注意:advice如何变?它是不可数名词 ! 规则变化以及不规则变化共同的前提是在可数名词的变化问题。
二、名词
第一段 快乐大篷车 第一部分 “数” 不可数名词的语法特征 不可数名词的具体“量化”问题: 情况一:对于单一的不可数名词如何量化?固定结构 a/an + 量词+of+u.n 例句:一条建议 a piece of advice 情况二:当出现大量地不可数名词如何量化?固定结构 量词+s+of+u.n 例句:很多条建议 some pieces of advice 结论:不可数名词永远不可以加”s“。 重要提示:1、单数可数名词永远不可以单独存在; 例句:牛在天上飞。关于牛的单词:ox,cow,bull,cattle cow表示奶牛(母牛);bull表示公牛;ox阉牛;cattle牛的统称。 cow、bull直接加“s”;ox加en变复数形式; Ox is flying in the sky.(错误的) 在ox前加不定冠词an,即为An ox is flying in the sky.(正确) 使用复数形式,即为Oxen are flying in the sky.(正确) 解决方案:第一 把单数变为复数形式;第二 在单数前面加不定冠词。 2、形如“num-n-adj”结构内的名词永远单数。 例句:三米长 three-meter-long
如果没有连字符,则正常变化复数形式;如果有,则不变复数形式

第二部分 名词所有格
| |有生命的 |无生命的 |其他 |
|属格 |主要 |次要(从大到小) |无 |
|Of所有格 |次要 |主要 |平衡 |
| |(The+adj) | | |

解释:属格应用在无生命的物体中,可按从大到小的顺序; (大)1. 宇宙; 2. 国家、城市; 3. 人名+'s; a. 人名+'s 家 表示这一家 the Green's b. 人名+s 家人 这一家人 the Greens c. 人名+s+' 住所一家的住所 the Greens' 例:1. the sun's rays; (小)4. 买菜的过程体现四大元素距离,时间,价格,度量衡 eg:three years PS time
解释:Of所有格用在有生命的物体上
the+adj表示一类人的时候,才可以使用; eg:the need of the poor 穷人们的需要 回顾:“数”与“格” “数”包括:可数名词与可不可数名词; 可数名词的变化为规则变化与不规则变化; 规则变化方式:第一 直接加s; 第二 ch,sh,x,s结尾+es; 第三 y结尾 A 辅音+ y y——>i+es B 元音+y 直接+s 不规则变化方式:第一 以“辅音字母+o”结尾的词,多数在词尾加“-es”, 一部分加“s”;以-f,-fe结尾时,一般先把“f”,fe变为 v,再加“es”; 第二 中间元音的(七个词汇)包括人、动物、部位; 第三 整体变化的以不变应万变;各国人的变化; 口诀“中日瑞不变,英法变中间,其他s加后边!” 成对出现用复数形式. 不可数名词的“量化”问题; 重要提示:第一 单数可数名词永远不可以单独存在; 第二 形如“num-n-adj”结构内的名词永远单数。
“格”包括:ps属格与of所有格;
重点了解:of所有格应用在无生命的物体当中;ps属格应用在 有生命的物体当中。

第二段 词汇大会战 第一组 job/work之间的区别; 基本思路:如果二词都为名词,则考虑单词本身的词性。 job 典型的可数名词,而work典型的不可数名词。
Eg: (1) I want a good ___. (job)
原因:题目出现不定冠词“a”,决定后面必须使用可数名词。
第二组 crowd/group之间的区别; Crowd指“无序的人群”,group指“井然有序的人群”。
Eg: (周杰伦的fans——>crowd ;解放军:部队的队伍) 第三组 clothes, cloth, clothing之间的区别; 第一 clothes统指各种衣服,谓语动词永远是复数; 第二 cloth指布,为不可数名词; 第三 clothing 服装的总称,指一件衣服用a piece of, an article of。 第四组 incident, accident之间的区别; 第一 incident指小事件; 第二 accident指不幸的事故。
Eg:He was killed in the accident. 第五组 family, house, home之间的区别; 第一 family;强调的是家人的感觉; 第二 house;强调的是房子、住宅、别墅; 第三 home; 家,抽象家的感觉; 第六组 sound, voice, noise之间的区别; 第一 sound;指自然界各种各样的声音;(范围最广) 第二 voice; 仅指人的嗓音; 第三 noise; 指噪音。 第七组 cook, cooker之间的区别; 第一 cooker 指厨具; 第二 cook; 指厨师; 第八组 vocabulary, word之间的区别; 第一 vocabulary;强调词汇,一个人拥有的单词量; 第二 word;具体的单词。
Eg:He has a large vocabulary. 第九组 population, people之间的区别; 第一 population;强调的是人口、人数; 第二 people;具体的人。
注意:当people后加上“s”,就不再表示人,而是强调民族。
Eg:China has a large population.

第十组 weather, climate之间的区别; 第一 weather;天气;一天内具体的天气状况; 第二 climate;气候;长期的气候状况。

Unit 3 形容词和副词

Part 1
1.快乐大棚车
词序(形容词副词纯粹词序以及混和词序) 比较(三种比较以及结合数词表达倍数)

Part 2
2.词汇大会战:
形容词副词的辨析
三、形容词和副词
考察内容:第一 顺序问题;第二 关于它的比较。
第一部分 快乐大篷车
一. 词序 纯粹的形容词词序问题;(使用故事记忆法) 如何形成的?对于形容词,可能会出现许多种不同性质的形容词;
Eg:There is a ___ desk. black, wooden, Chinese, small
故事记忆法: 配角:老俞 主角:徐昊 原由:老俞帮我找对象(本故事纯属虚构,如有雷同,纯属巧合!)
过程:身高(大小) 年龄(新旧) 颜色 国籍 材料 用途 表示大小的词汇居首位;表示新旧的放在第二位;表示颜色的第三位; 表示国籍的第四位;表示材料的词汇第五位;表示用途的放最后面。
解题思路:身高(大小)则1. small 2. black 3. Chinese 4. wooden
答案:There is a small black Chinese wooden desk. 纯粹的副词词序问题;(歌词记忆法) 方法:《月亮代表我的心》 第一句 你问我爱你有多深 "多深"表达程度的词汇,则第一位程度副词; 后一句 月亮代表我的心 表达爱的一种方式,则第二位方式副词; 唱歌的环境,表示地点的词,则第三位地点副词; 唱歌的时间,则最后一位时间副词.
判断状语的顺序:程度状语、方式状语、地点状语、时间状语。
Eg:I go to school by bike everyday. 混合词序问题;(公式法) 1. adv > adj (一般情况副词都在形容词之前) 但enough特殊
Eg:The boy is old enough to look after himself.
原因:enough在表示足够时,修饰形容词或副词时,只能缀后。
2. adj > n 但后置定语特殊 第一种:以a开头的形容词;例如along、asleep、alike; 第二种:完全为了结构的平衡而把形容词放名词之后。

英语比较包括三种:原级比较、比较级比较、最高级比较。
问题:为什么比较依然是讲解学习过程中的重点呢?
原因是比较可以达到比较好的效果,尤其是在表达抽象概念的时候。 原级比较; 形式: as……as……第一个as: 副词 第二个as: 连词; 问题:为什么连续强调第一个as与第二个as的词性呢? 原因:由于它们词性的不同,决定了后面所要连接的词也不同。 注意:第一个as后必+adj! 第二个as后必+名词或者句子!
Eg:FW is as handsome as ZBS. 原级比较的否定式:not as……as /not so(as)……as
Eg:FW is not so handsome as ZBS. 比较级问题;(1)构成: 形容词比较级+than
思考:第一 形容词的副词比较出现,后面是否一定要出现than? 第二 than出现,是不是一定要出现形容词或副词比较形式?
答案:形容词或副词出现了比较级形式,不一定要出现than;但是,反过来
是成立的。 (2)形容词、副词比较级的形成; 第一类:单音节形容词;规则变化+er;特殊形式变化; 第二类:多音节形容词;more+形容词原形.
Eg:FW is more handsome than ZBS.
Eg:It is less colder today than the day before yesterday. 错误 It is colder today than the day before yesterday. 正确
Eg:FW is more handsome than any male actor. 错误 FW is more handsome than any other male actor. 正确
Eg:The weather of China is more comfortable than Canada.错误
1. 比较级不可以重叠;2. 比较的对象不可以重叠;3. 比较的对象要对等。
Eg:The weather of China is more comfortable than the weather of Canada.
Eg:The weather of China is more comfortable than that of Canada. that代替后面的“the weather” 最高级的问题;构成:(1)单音节形容词:形容词+est或特殊形式; (2)多音节形容词:the+most+形容词原形.
附:数词的比较
倍数表示 I S + be + 数字 + time/times + adj/adv比较级+ than+被比对象; II S + be + 数字 + time/times + adj/adv原级+as+被比对象; III S + be + 数字 + time/times+n.of+被比对象; IV S + be +数字 + time/times+that+of+被比对象. 重点:形容词、副词的比较结构;尤其是它的形式 以及表达的方法 。

第二部分 词汇大会战
第一组:live/living之间的区别;
两者都可用作adj.,“活着的”,但用法也有不同. (1)alive意为“活着的、在世的、活泼的、热闹的”,作表语形容词时,可指人,也可指物;alive作定语时要放在所修饰名词之后作后置定语;alive还可以作宾语补足语. (2)living“活着的、现有的”,指人、物是活着的,没有死的,可作表语,也可作定语;作定语时放在修饰词之前,living还可用做名词表示“生计”,在其前加the,还可指复数名词,指活着的人. 第二组:alone/lonely之间的区别; (1)两词都表示“单独”时,侧重点不同.alone强调“独自一人”,而lonely不只指独自一人,而着重“冷清,寂寞”之意.alone作adj.,意为“单独的”,作表语,作adv.意为“独自地”是状语,alone用在名词或代词后,意为“只有,惟有,仅仅”. (2)lonely一般只用做形容词,表示“孤独的,寂寞的”,在句中可作表语,也可作定语,还可以修饰物,意为“荒凉的”.
注意:辨析两个词汇,首先着眼点是它们的词性。
第三组: please/pleased/pleasure/pleasant之间的区别;
(1) please作v.,多用于祈使句中,也可以表示“使高兴,使喜欢”之意.
(2) pleased为adj.,表示“高兴的,喜欢的”,相当于happy或glad,常作表语,与with 连用表示“对……感到满意”.
(3)pleasure为n.,意为“愉快,高兴,乐事”.
(4)pleasant为adj.,表示“令人愉快/高兴的”,常作定语、表语. 第四组: interest/interested/interesting之间的区别;
①interest用作n.,意为“兴趣,趣味”,其主语为人或物均可.
-ed:自身……;-ing:令人……; Excited:自身兴奋的;exciting:令人感到兴奋的; 例题: ______ news(Exciting) 例题: an _____ boy(excited/exciting) 表示男孩自身很兴奋/表示令人兴奋的男孩 第五组: good/well之间的区别; 1. well 作adj时,well仅指身体好;well作adv时,作好地, 满意地; 2. 形容词使用好的、满意的时,则用good; 区别: 第一 从词性上分析; 第二 well存在特殊性,当它作为形容词时,它只有唯一含义, 指身体好的意思。
整体思路:第一 先找单词与单词之间的词性差异; 第二 根据在句中所充当地成分进行辨析; 第三 从含义上进行辨析;(一定找到本质的差别)

Unit 4 动词的时态语态

1.整体介绍 时态的概况;学习的重点;学习的方法——非常9+1; 时态:独孤九剑+特殊时态;语态:结合考察以及单独考察;
2.时态学习:
独孤九剑A 心法 B 一招一式 时态的推理学习 特殊时态的对比
3.语态学习
结合类题目的做法 单独考察的题目的做法
四、动词时态和语态
问题:动词为何成为学习的重点?
原因:它是组成英文句子当中的核心部分。
学习的三方面:第一 动词的是时态语态; 第二 动词的情态动词; 第三 非谓语动词. 第一部分 快乐大篷车 一、动词的时态
问题:为什么重点讲述时态问题?
原因:时态的使用决定了语态的使用。 学习的方法——非常9+1
介绍时态的整体构成:
1. 与汉语的区别: 吃!
2. 时态的组成部分为时间和状态; 时间包括:过去时间、现在时间、将来时间 、 过去将来时间; 过去将来时间:从过去的时间里面,讨论未来还没有发生的事情. 状态包括:一般状态、进行状态、完成状态 、完成进行状态; (共计:4×4=16种时态) 例:现在时间,对应四种不同的状态; 一般现在时、现在进行时、现在完成时、现在完成进行时; 独孤九剑(方法) 总:(轴)——修炼心法 时间轴: (从左往右)
过去时间点、现在时间点、将来时间点
过去进行时、现在进行时、将来进行时 共同点:都为进行状态;所有进行状态共同特征为"正在发生"; 过去时间点、现在时间点、将来时间点 过去完成时、现在完成时、将来完成时 定义:过去的某时间点停止,并对过去某时间点产生影响,称之为过去完成时; 定义:过去的某时间点开始发生,持续现在停止并对现在某时间点产生影响,称之为过去完成时; "完成"二字的特征:影响;只有在完成状态中,才会有"影响"的出现; 过去时间点、现在时间点、将来时间点 一般过去时、一般现在时、一般将来时 定义:大量的过去时间里,普遍发生的动作,称之为一般过去时; 共同特征:在一段时间内发生的; 回顾:如果一个时间点上发生的动作正在发生,称为进行状态; 如果一个动作对某时间点产生某种影响,称为完成状态; 如果一个动作普遍地在一段时间内发生,成为一般状态. 一招一式:死穴&怪招(重点讲解四种时态) 【一般现在时】 死穴关键词一:存在性真理;关键词二:习惯;关键词三:反复发生。 Eg:1 太阳从东边升起——>存在 2 我每天六点起床——>习惯 3. I love you.——>反复发生 (1)死穴:反复发生; (2)怪招:第一 在条件状语从句和时间状语从句中,表示将来发生的动作. 第二 规定好的动作,必须不易改变. Eg:如果不付诸行动,一切梦想都毫无价值。 All dreams are of no value unless they are followed by action. Eg:The plane will take off at 9:00. 由上可知:The plane takes off at 9:00.(一般表将来) 【一般将来时】 (1)死穴:尚未发生; (2)怪招:第一 will/shall:shall:第一人称;will,第二三人称;现代英语中,will 也可用于第一人称;当will在条件句中的时候不表示“将来”,而是表示“意愿、推论” 第二 be going to+V与be about to+V: be about to+V必须是马上、眼下发生的将来; be about to+V比be going to+V表更近的未来 问题:如果出现tomorrow,该使用哪种引导? 首先确定不使用be about to; 第三 be to + V:强调将来的“义务、命令、吩咐等”
注意:当表达"义务、命令、吩咐"这些概念时,只能使用"bo to do"; Eg:You are to come back by 9:00. (此句只能够使用bo to do结构) 【现在进行时】 (1)死穴:正在发生; (2)怪招:现在进行时态与频度副词连用时, 而是表示一种极其强烈的个人情绪; 注解:和动作发生频率相关的副词,即为频度副词.(offten、always等) Eg:You are always laughing at me!!! You are laughing at me!!! 你正在嘲笑我!!! Eg:You are always laughing at me!!! 你老是嘲笑我!!! 【现在完成时】 (1)死穴:影响; (2)怪招:第一 在"It is the +序数词+ time that"句式中使用现在完成时; 注意:此句中的time为可数名次,表示次数. 第二 have been和have gone; 前者侧重已经回来,经历;后者表示去了没回来。 Eg:It is the 50th time that Yingmu has been deserted. 【一般过去时】 (1)死穴:过去的一段时间内反复发生的动作; (2)怪招:现在已经不了; 条件:在读时,必须将该动词重读;在写时,必须将该词写称斜 Eg:I was a student .was为斜体的,强调,表示我已经不是一个学生了. I was a student. 我过去是一个学生.. 【过去/将来完成时】 什么为过去完成呢?即为过去的过去。 在过去的某时间点开始发生动作,一直到过去某时间停止,并对该时间 点产生某种影响. 将来完成时:即为对将来的某时间点产生过影响; 现在完成时态的结构:have/has+过去分词; 由上可知,过去完成时的结构:had+过去分词; 将来完成时的结构:will+have+过去分词; 【过去/将来进行时】 (1)过去进行时为过去时间点上正在发生动作; (2)将来进行时为将来时间点上正在发生动作. 现在进行的结构:am/is/are+doing; 由上可知,过去进行时的结构:was/were+doing; 将来进行时的结构:will+be+doing. 【现在完成进行时】 现在完成进行时的结构:have/has+be+doing; 现在完成时:现在完成时本身在发生动作开始到结束,中间可能产生过间断; 现在完成进行时:从动作发生到结束,从未产生间断. 现在完成时:后接until+一段时间; 现在完成进行时:后接all+一段时间;
回顾:常对比的时态有,一般过去时、现在完成时。
2. 时态与时态的对比 常出现对比的时态为:一般过去时、现在完成时、过去完成时。 判断三种时区别: 第一 考虑是否有"影响",如果有使用完成时,如果没有使用一般过去时;如果对现在时间 产生影响则用现在完成时,如果对过去时间产生影响则用过去完成时.
回顾:非常9+1
“9”讲述的是4推5的问题; 四种重要的时态:第一 一般现在时;(牢记反复发生) 强调第一:在条件状语从句和时间状语从句中,表示将来发生的动作; 第二:动作已经规定好,不容易改变. 第二 一般将来时;(尚未发生)了解四组引导词的区别; will/be going to的区别:be going to强调的是计划; be going to/be about to的区别:前者表将来更长久些; be to do表义务、命令、吩咐等. 第三 现在进行时;(正在发生) 怪招:与频度副词连用时表示“抱怨,生气,崇敬等”情绪. 第四 现在完成时;(现在的影响) 怪招:1. 在“It is the +序数词+ time that”句式中使用现在完成时; 2. have been和have gone: 前者侧重已经回来,经历;后者表示已经不在这. 二、动词的语态 1. 主要考察与时态的结合;(构成:be + V_ed) 口诀: 先考虑语态,后考虑时态。 2. 不能使用被动语态的几种情况; 不及物动词不能使用被动语态;(exist、happen=take piace) 及物动词,并不是所有的都能使用被动语态; 一些固定的及物动词没有被动语态; 注:及物动词中凡是出现"含""有"的词都不能使用被动语态. 例如:hood、have、contain都是没有被动语态的。 例如:beg(祈求)、equal(等于)、fail(失败)、cost(花费)都没有被动语态。 3. 主动表示被动; 系动词后用主动表被动; 结论:当感官动词表示"什么...起来"时,使用系动词. Eg:The flower smells sweet. Eg:look 表示看起来时,则变为系动词。 sound 表示听起来时,则也为系动词。 Eg:The news sounds good. 当一个句子中不定式与他修饰的词之间有动宾关系,并且与句子 的主语在意思上有主谓关系时,主动表示被动. Eg:We have some problems to solve.
分析:不定式 to solve;被修饰词problems; 可知满足第一种动宾关系;第二种主谓关 系也满足。 特殊单词:want、need、require、worth,词后面+V_ing时,用主动语态; 但是+to do时,用被动语态. Eg:The book is worth reading.=The book is worth to be read. 总结:语态与时态之间的关系
每一种不同的时态都对应着一种主动语态和被动语态。
解决关于时态、语态问题时,首先考虑语态问题,再考虑时态问题。
注:非常9+1中,辨析的核心问题关于"影响";如果涉及"影响"使用完成状
态;如果不涉及"影响"则考虑完成状态之外的内容。 注:考虑动作是否完成连续不断,则考虑的是完成进行时或完成时。 如果有间断使用完成时;如果无间断使用完成进行时。 注:在判断状态时,先判断是否"影响",再考虑其它的时态。 Eg:当你看见.....ago时,则可判断为一般过去时。

Unit 5 情态动词

第一部分 快乐大篷车
基本理念:只研究考点,坚决不死缠烂打。
考察掌握内容包括两点:第一部分基本语法; 第二部分情态动词特殊用法对过去的推测。
一、情态动词的基本用法
1. 常识; must 它是情态动词中,语气最强的一个词汇. 否定形式:mustn't ? Needn't?
笔记:肯定句的must变为否定句时,一定要用needn't,而不是mustn't.
mustn't表示必须...如何,而needn't表示不需要...如何。
注意:笔记:must与have to区别: must表示必须;have to表示不得不. must强调主观意愿上的,而have to强调客观意愿上的.
Eg: I must work hard. 我必须努力工作。(内心深处主观想法) I have to work hard. 我不得不努力工作。(客观因素造成) can、may; 含义:can表示可以或能够;may只有可以这一个含义; 区别:can't表示不可以、不可能;may not表示可以不;
Eg: You can't do this. 你不可以这样做。 You may not do this. 你可以不这么做。 情态动词由语气的强到弱排列; must>can>may>might,could can't + too +adj.表示再……也不过分
Eg: You can't be too careful when crossing the road.
译文:当你过马路的时候,再怎么小心也不过分。
第二: 情态动词的比较; 所有的can、could与be able to区别; 区别:can、could强调的是天生的能力;(与生俱来的) be able to表示设法做成某事;(通过后天的努力) need与dare使用; 共同点:做情态动词时,只可在条件句、否定句、疑问句; 而且必须+to do;否定式直接加not即可。 2. 表示推测;(包含对现在的推测和对过去的推测) 第一 对现在的推测; can的推测表示理论上的可能; could的推测表示实际操作的可能; may/might+(be V-ing)或动词原型;表示对现在或者未来的推测,常用在肯定句内. must表推测时用法完全与may/might相同; 判断方法:利用基本的翻译理论. 第二 对过去的推测;(形式:情态动词+have+pp) 可能或不可能出题的地方: pp不可能出题; have 没有出题的地方; 情态动词唯一出题点(含义不同) 解题方法:对立统一原则解决一切问题!!! 判断前后句的关系; (1) 统一;前句和后句之间说的是一回事; (2) 对立;前句和后句之间说的不是一回事; 解题步骤; (1) 如果判断出是统一关系; A. 使用must + have + P.P仅从解题角度可知,解题结束; 表达含义过去一定发生过某事,口气绝对,无否定. B. 使用may/can/might/could + have + P.P; 可用在否定形式,还可用在肯定形式. 特殊之处:must不可以应用在否定句式中. (2) 如果判断出是对立关系; A. 使用should + have + P.P;仅从解题角度,解题结束. 表达含义:过去本应该做但是实际上没有做 补充:should=ought to 否定形式:should + not + have + PP; ought not to + have + PP; 表示含义:过去本不应该做但是实际上做了
例题一、Sorry I"m late.I ____have turned off the alarm clock and gone back to sleep again. A.might B. should C.had to D.will
例题二、I told Sally how to get here,but perhaps I____ for her. A.had to write it out B.must have written it out C.should have written it out D.will have written it out.
解析:例题二 关键词汇but,说明前后为对立关系,从而可以确定使用should或ought to.
解析:例题一 由句意可知,前后为统一的关系,可以使用must、can、may、might、could, 进行对比就可知道A正确。 知识回顾:
解题方法:第一 利用基本含义套入原题,进行翻译(翻译法); 第二 统一对立原则.(主要解题对过去推测的问题)

Unit 6 非谓语动词

六、非谓语动词
整体介绍:
非谓语包含三部分:第一部分 动词不定式; 第二部分 动名词; 第三部分 分词.(包含动词-ing现在分词和动词-ed过去分词)
第一部分 快乐大篷车
一. 动词不定式(形式 to do) 1.句型: too+adj/adv+to do 表示太……而不能; adj/adv+enough+to do 表示足以……
Eg:The boy is too young to look after himself.
译文:这个小男孩太小了以至于不能照顾自己。
Eg:The boy is old enough to look after himself. 2.不带to的不定式: help的结构:help sb to do sth/help sb do sth;(推荐使用后者) 表示感觉的动词(感观动词),后面接不定式做宾补时通常省to;
Eg:I feel the house shake. "do和to有仇"; 固定句型:第一 do+except/but+V(省to) 第二 当主语部分有实意动词do时,做表语的不定时可以省to
Eg:I can do nothing except learn English.
原因:由于句中出现do的形式,所以省略to。
Eg:What we can do is get used to the society.(无间道)
原因:由于前面主语从句出现do的形式,从而省略to。
注意点:第一 "do和to有仇"指的是do的一切形式都与to有仇; 第二 "do和to有仇"与其它单词没有仇。 why、why not+do(省to)
Eg:Why not go with me? 注意:重点掌握省to的不定式!
二. 动名词
1.固定句型:
It is no use/no good/fun/a good pleasure +doing; It is useless/nice/good/interesting +doing;
Eg:It is no use talking with him. 译文:和他谈话一点用都没有。
Eg:It is useless talking with him. 第一 Have difficulty(trouble,problem……)+(in)+doing; 第二 Be busy +(in)+doing; 第三 waste time +(in)+doing; 注:三者共同的结构,都含带了(in)+doing。
Eg:It wastes time (in)talking with him.
三. 分词
1.固定句型:
have sb doing sth;让某人老是做某事; have……done;请别人做某事; Eg:孙悟空 The monkey;
Eg:The monkey has him running forward and back.
译文:孙悟空让小鬼来回不停地跑。
Eg:You should have your hair cut.
译文:你应该去理发发了。
四.考点综合
知识回顾:
非谓语包含三部分:第一部分 动词不定式; 第二部分 动名词; 第三部分 分词.(包含动词-ing现在分词和动词-ed过去分词)
判断非谓语动词的三种方式:不定式(to do)、动词-ing形式、动词-ed形式。
解决方法:牢记方法、熟化步骤、糊涂行事!!!
观点:只关心考试的问题!!!
做定语或状语成分时;(即相当于做副词或形容词)
解题方法:先语态后时态进行判断。 解题思路:第一 to 动词原型:该动作主动发生且将来发生; 第二 动词-ing:该动作主动发生且正在发生; 第三 动词-ed:该动作被动发生且已经发生。 问题:如何区分、如何选择呢? 过程:首先判断语态、再判断时态问题。
另一种可能出现的问题:在第一步语态的判断上,可能直接得出答案。
做名词成分但除宾补外; 注:名词性成分指名词在句中可充当的成分.例如名词可做主语、宾语等. 解题方法:先时态后语态进行判断。 解题思路:第一 动词不定式:表示动作在将来发生,且主动; 第二 动词-ing:表示动作在正在发生,且主动; 第三 动词-ed:表示动作在过去发生,且被动。
做宾补成分;
1. 感观动词+名词+非谓语动词做宾补; (1) 解题方法和做定语状语完全一致先语态后时态进行判断; (2) 唯一的区别是后面接省to不定式。 2. 使役动词(have)sb/sth; (1) have sb do sth 表示使某人做某事; (2) have sb doing sth 表示使某人/某事一直处在某状态里; (3) have sb done sth 表示找别人做某事/替的含义.
注意:存在的唯一区别就是感观动词+名词+非谓语动词做宾补这种形式.
Eg:I saw XH drop into a lake. 我看见徐昊老师掉湖里了。
原因:由于前面出现感观动词,所以句中不定式要省to。
知识回顾:重点为考点综合。(分三类)
做副词或形容词(即定语或状语);先语态后时态;
做名词成分除宾补外;先时态后语态;
做宾补成分.第一 感观动词+名词+非谓语动词做宾补; (1)整体上方法同; (2)唯一一个区别是后面接省to不定式. 第二 使役动词(have)b/sth;

Unit 7名词性从句

第一部分 句子结构
句子三大核心理论:句子唯一性原则:
句子的五种基本结构; 句子成分分析.
1. 句子唯一性原则:一个简单句只允许存在一套主谓关系. 当句子不能满足上述原则时,进行一下处理: 第一 把其中一个谓语动词变成非谓语动词; 第二 把谓语动词进行某种关系化的处理; 第三 把其中的一个句子变成另外句子的辅助或从属句关系.(主从复合句)
2. 五种基本结构; 主语+谓语;
问题:何为不及物动词?后面不可以再跟物体的动词.称之为不及物动词。
注:一个句子里的动作,称之为谓语;句子里动作的发出者,称之为主语.
Eg:It rained. 主语+谓语+宾语;(及物动词) 注:动作的作用对象,称之为宾语.
Eg:I love you. 主语+系动词+表语;
Eg:You are my girl.(《阿甘正传》台词-----用来替换“I love you.”)
引申:You are my world. 你是我的全世界。
Eg:I like English.——>English is my favorite subject. 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语; 注:宾语补足语,即对宾语的性质和内容进行补充和说明。
Eg:I saw XH drop into a lake. 主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语;
Eg:Give me the money back! 还我钱!
3. 句子成分分析; 定语; 定义:对主体词的一种修饰和限定,称之为定语. 区分:定语是缩小范围和内容的;宾语补足语是扩充、增加内容的。
Eg: 美女!女为主体,美是修饰和限定"女"的。 状语;(定义:对修饰和限定动词、形容词以及副词的部分,称之为状语.)
同谓语;
总结:
重要理论: 句子的唯一性原则;(判断句子是否正确的标准)
Eg: Study English well is important. (错误)
原因:存在两个谓语动词,study和is.违反句子的唯一性原则。
Eg: To study English well is important. (正确) 句子的成分分析;(判断句子是否写的地道)
Eg: To study English well is important.
分析:核心部分"is"做系动词,不够地道。
Eg: Is important to study English well.(错误)
Eg: It is important to study English well. it为形式主语 句子的五种基本结构;(熟记) 等式:10+2=1、13+2=1、2+1=1、1+1=1. 思考:如何解释1+1=1?
通过故事叙述:1.主语+谓语;
2.主语+谓语+宾语; 3.主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语; 4.主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语; 5.主语+系动词+表语.
第二部分 从句
包含:宾语从句和定语从句以及主谓一致。
1. 宾语从句 命令要求建议应该做; 我猜我想否定要前落; 说信互换气死你; 再猜再想回答要省略.
命令要求建议应该做;
虚拟语气:在decide、demand、order、suggest等表示“决定、要求”的词之后,that从 句中用“should+V”,或省should。
Eg: She suggested that I (should) continue my work.
我猜我想否定要前落;
否定转移:当主句谓语动词是believe、expect、guess、suppose、think等表示“认为、猜 想”等含义的词时,其后的宾语从句如果带有否定意义,通常将否定词向前移动到主句 的谓语上。 Eg: I think that he will not come. Eg: I don't think he will come.
说信互换气死你;
间接引语:××× said that…… that从句内必须是主语说的一句原话或者对原话的正确翻译;否则就将said改为 believed就可以了。
再猜再想回答要省略.
主要是省略回答的问题.
形成:A:It is a fine day today. B:I think it is a fine day today.——>I think so.同理:I guess so.
但变化成否定要注意:
I don’t think so. I guess not.
知识回顾:命令要求建议应该做;(虚拟语气的问题)
我猜我想否定要前落;(否定转移的问题) 说信互换气死你;(间接引语的问题) 再猜再想回答要省略.(省略回答的问题)

Unit 8 定语从句

第一部分 定语从句(爱你一万年)
问题:为什么要重点讲述定居从句?
原因:今后无论是写作还是口语,都会大量地使用定语从句。
解析"爱你一万年":1.爱考;2.爱用;3.爱错;
1. 爱考;
了解定语从句基本形式及其变形:n/pron + 定语从句的引导词 + 不完整句子. n/pron(先行词)不完整句子(类比宾语从句).
注意:that引导的宾语从句,后面必须接完整的句子;定语从句后面接的是不完整的句子.
第一 只能用“that”的情况: all/nothing/little/much/few/none/等作先行词 + that;
Eg:Much that I learned in the book is very useful.
译文:我在这本书学到的大部分内容是非常有用的。
no/every/some/any/only/very/最高级/序数词 + 先行词 + that;
Eg:The only thing that you have to face is to pass every exams.
译文:你必须面对的唯一一件事情就是通过每一次的考试。
关系代词在从句中作表语时,必须用“that”作引导词;
Eg:He doesn't seem to be the man that he was. 定语从句是“there be”结构时,其前的关系代词必须是“that”.
Eg:The number of mistake that there are in this homework is surprising.
原则:在定语从句中,使用that来引导定语从句,几乎是永远安全的。
特例一:在限定性定语从句中,如果关系代词前有限定词,则不能that引导; 如果先行词是人,则用whom;如果先行词是物,则用which.
第二 判断类: 非限定性定语从句;(永远不出现that) 限定性和非限定性的区别不要求通过意义判断!
(1) 非定中,先行词=物,则which,which可以代表前句整句的意思; 先行词=人,则who/whom(不用“that”) 关系代词&关系副词的选择; 判断方法:看引导词在句子所充当的成分即可。 如果充当是名词性成分,使用关系代词; 如果充当是状语成分,使用关系副词。
笔记:关系副词包括where、when、while、how.
第三 琐碎的考察: 先行词是“the way”时,用that/which,不用how; 引导词作介词的宾语时,用which不用that; the same as/that对比,用as:相似,同类事物; 用that:同一个,同一事物.
Eg:This is the same pen as/that I lost yesterday.
分析:用as时,译为这是同样一支笔和我昨天丢的一样。
分析:用that时,译为这是同样一支笔和我昨天丢的同一支笔
2. 爱用; Pumas are large. Pumas are cat-like animals.=Pumas,cat-like animals. Pumas are found in America. which are found in America.
由上可改:Pumas are large ,cat-like animals, which are found in America.
2. 爱用; LH is young. LH is a student.=LH,a student. LH is from China.
由上可改: LH is young, a student, who is from China.
;例句:College is a fountain where some students come to drink, some tosip, and most come to gargle. 分析:第一方面 小牛;College is a fountain 大学就是一个喷泉 第二方面 二牛;come to drink, some tosip, and most come to gargle 此处手法称为排比。 第三方面 大牛;利用三个完全不同的级别的词汇描写出对大学三种不同的态度。3. 爱错;(或多或缺东西) 从句多了主语、宾语; A、Chemistry is a science that it deals with the composition and properties of substances. 译文:化学是一门科学,它是研究这个物质的组成和成分的科学。 改错:去掉"it". B、The finger I dipped it into the cup was not the one I put it into my mouth. 改错:仍是去掉"it". 从句少了主语、prep. A、He is the professor gave us a speech yesterday. (错误) 改为: He is the professor who gave us a speech yesterday.

Unit 9 主谓一致

第一部分 快乐大篷车
主谓一致中心点:一个中心,两个基本点。
1. 一个中心:指的是一对相互作用力;
2. 两个基本点.问自己两个问题: 主语到底是谁? 主语到底是单数还是复数? 1. 所有的“of”型; each of/ each, another of, either of, a series of +V_sing; 看这些东西构成的主语是单数还是复数. Eg: Each of us loves remembering English words. 译文:我们当中的任意一个都喜欢记忆英文单词。 many/many of, a few/a few of, a lot of/lots of,most of+V_sing; much/much of, a little/little/a little of,+ V_sing; 看这些东西构成的主语是单数还是复数 Eg: A few of books are stored in YMH's home. Eg: Much of time is spent in looking after his son because he is busy working all the time. 关键点:much of time enough of/a majority of/a minority of +u.n /sing./+V_sing; pl/V_pl; 如果接不可数名词,则使用单数谓语; 如果接复数名词,则使用复数谓语. Eg:A minority of pigs stay in a house. 经典原则探究;(就近原则与就远原则) 就近原则:not only……but also,either……or,neither……nor以及以or 或nor连接的并列主谓,使用就近原则。 Eg:not only A but also B. 不仅A而且B。 Eg:Not only the students but also their teacher objects to the change of our school. 思考:as well as Eg:A as well as B. A和B一样... Eg:The students as well as their teacher______(object)to the change of our school. 就远原则: along with,together with,as well as,except(but),such as……,使 用就远原则.
2. “n”分类纵观; 专有名词+V_sing;
Eg:The New York Times is a kind of good newspapers for English learners. 纽约时报对于英语学习者是非常好的阅读刊物。 学科名词+V_ing; (它表示一类学科) 仅仅有复数的名词+V_pl;
Eg:My trousers are broken.
分类:(1)衣服类:pants,trousers…….
(2)工具类:glasses,scissors….. (3)其它:arms(武器),customs(关税)….. 集体名词表示整体概念时,+V_sing;表示个体含义时,+V_pl; Eg:My family is full of love. 我的家充满了爱。 My family like sports. 两个数或者名词做运算时,加乘法,谓语动词单复数均可;减除法时,+V_sing; Eg:5 times 2 is/are 10. 15 divided by 3 is 5. 笔记:加:plus;减:minus;乘:times;除:divide. 3. “联系型; 与定语从句联系:定语从句中,that做从句中的主语时,从句的谓语与先行词一致。 Eg:We can remember too many useless words that are important in the exams. 与同位语联系:谓语动词要与主语一致。 Eg:I, a teacher, ___(am, is, are) going to go back BJ tonight. 知识回顾:
1. 一个中心:指的是一对相互作用力;
2. 两个基本点.问自己两个问题: 主语到底是谁? 主语到底是单数还是复数?
提示:重点了解句法的组成部分。
词法是为了更好的附和句法的构成而去服务的。通过句法的学习加深对词法的掌握和 了解。
3. 句法的三大核心内容: 句子的唯一性原则;(判断句子是否正确的标准) 句子的五种基本结构;(熟记) 句子的成分分析;(判断句子是否写的地道)

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