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The Neo-Classicism Is an Architectural Moment

In: Historical Events

Submitted By sharon07007
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The neo-classicism is an architectural moment that was flourished after the American and the French Revolution. In this period explorers study the past and distant civilizations for an understanding of other cultures; to find new ways how to create mechanical devices to facilitated transportations and commerce. Historian got a closer look to the dates in which important architectural events happened and also became aware of the accomplishment of the various western civilizations. Foremost among these were ancient Greece and Rome, architect will travel to this ruins to study and measure; and after published their findings. It was the century of change, colonial expansion, age of enlightenment, and technological revolution.
Neo-classicism was a reaction against the Rococo style, this new language of architecture is evocative and picturesque, a recreation of distant and lost civilizations, framed within the Romantic sensibility that later influence modern architecture and took it to a new direction. The neo-Palladian in England was the first movement to study the revival of classic architecture from the past; its leader was Colen Campbell (1676-1729), a Scottish architect and editor of book “Vitruvius Britannicus”. He designs the Mereworth castle (1723) in kent, like a near replica of the Palladio’s design of Villa Rotonda, but in a larger scale. Campbell attached four Ionic porticos to a simple cube and crowned it with a pyramidal roof and dome. Mereworth also has an incorporated fireplace flues in ribs of the dome, with the cupola used as the chimney exit.
Another architect that brought attention to Palladian movement was Richard Boyle (lord Burlington), also known as the “architect earl”, he was the privy councilor and member of the House of the Lords. Burlington also got his inspiration from Scamozzi and Indigo Jones, Burlington thought of them as his interpreters of the classic traditions. Burlington designs Chiswick House, on the outskirts of London England (1725); he drew his influence from Palladio (Villa Rotunda), with one colonnaded portico storey, the frescoed ceilings and velvet rooms. The plan has two suites of apartments around an octagonal drum saloon and a pavilion for entertaining to his estate. Burlington also designs Holkham Hall in the country side of England in 1734 along with William Kent. Holkham design was based on Palladio’s never built Villa Moncenigo but in a bigger scale, with a central planning two floors high containing on the piano nobile level a series of symmetrically balanced state rooms situated around two courtyards. The courtyards were for lighting not for architectural recreation, the main central block is flanked by four smaller rectangular blocks and at each corners are linked to the main house by a short two storey wing with only one bay.
The leading exponent of Neo-classicism in Italy and an unabashed promoter of ancient Roman architecture was Giovanni Battista Piranesi (1720-78). He was not known for his architecture, but for his 3000 or so engravings of architectural subjects, like the map of ancient Rome including actual buildings and imaginary projects composed of complex geometric shapes. He also issued a series of engravings called “views of Rome”; this view of ancient ruins rising mysteriously and provocatively. Perhaps even more provocative and melancholic were Piranesi’s Prisons empty vast spaces with unidentified toilers whose labors are illuminated by obscure light sources.
Piranesi’s views of Rome were used as inspiration of many architectural students like Robert Adam a Scottish interior designer and furniture designer. After his father William Adam death, Robert decided to travel to Rome where he became friends with Piranesi. Robert then met and accompanied Charles-Louis Clerisseau to Nimes. Together they traveled to split, in the former Yugoslavia, where they measured drawings, which Adam published in 1764 as “Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalato, in Dalmatia”. When Robert returned to Britain he developed the “Adam Style”, and his theory of “movement” in architecture based on his studies of antiquity. Robert was the originator of the first phase of the classical revival in England, and his work influenced the development of western architecture. Robert was employed to redesign the interior of Syon House (1762-63), the entrance hall of Syon, is based on a roman basilica with a rectangular planning divided into three areas by two rows of columns and half domed ends. The house is composed by an ante-room, dining room, red drawing room and a gallery. Robert help Horace Walpole in the modification of Strawberry Hill (1749-77), he incorporated many of the exterior details of a gothic cathedral with arched windows and stained glass.
James Wyatt (1746-1813), was an English architect, a rival of Robert Adam in the neoclassical style. Wyatt spent six years in Italy, were he study draughtsman and painter. William Thomas Beckford hired James Wyatt as the leading architect, for Fonthill Abbey (1795-1807). The Abbey had four long wings radiated from the octagonal central room and it was decorated with silver, gold, red, and purple.
John Nash (1752-1835), he was an English architect and director of the Regent’s canal. Nash’s work came to the attention of the Prince Regent who commissions him to design the Royal Pavilion (1787-1823). The royal is a formal resident located in Brighton, England with Islamic architectural elements and Chinese architecture express inside it fanciful interior. The Royal is a fine example of the exoticism that was an alternative to more classicizing mainstream taste in the Regency style. Nash enlarged the building and added the domes and minarets. The entrance porch was a domed and the great kitchen was a cast iron palm tree columns. The Royal Pavilion had a royal banqueting Hall with a spectacular chandelier held by a silver gilt dragon.
Henry Flitcroft (1697-1769), he was a major English architect in the second phase of Palladianism.The English landscape Garden Stourhead Park (1744-65) Henry Flitcroft & Henry Hoare. Lancelot Brown- C apability Brown Blenheim palace.
The englis architecture
Stourhead park 17744-65
Henry flitcroft & henry hoar
He want to have a collection of pavilions, there a gothic future
Lancelot brown capability brown
Blenheim palace
Chatsworth house He decided the landscape of the houses there is a natural look
Italy

In France the Neo-Classical movement developed somewhat differently than in England. French architects were interested in the primary geometric solids and their buildings were based on the cube, square, and pyramid as the logical basis for architectural expression. The most ingenious French Neo-Classicists were Etienne-Louis Boullee (1728-99) and Claude-Nicolas Ledoux (1736-1806), both of whom designed many imaginary projects as well as real ones. Boullee’s imaginary projects give prominence to spheres, cylinders, hemispherical domes, pyramids, and cones, most often at a gigantic scale. He designs the Cenotaph for Sir Isaac Newton in 1784, in this design Boullee wanted to show admiration to the inventor of the clock-like universe. The Cenotaph was immense in scale, it was a hollow sphere 500 feet in diameter, the top half of which represents the dome of heaven and it was suspended inside the sphere in a giant lamp representing the sun. Another project of Boullee, is the Library of the King in 1788, in here he design the walls as books and they support the vast columns that form a huge coffered barrel vault. Library was houses of books inside an enormous semi cylinder lit by an equally enormous skylight cut into the coffered barrel vault.
\
He was given a project to desing Saltworks- Chaux (1780-1800)
It was a place to cool things and it was a place to his the workers a place to live with their families
The geometries are neo classic approach
House of the director
Ihe does a lot of sketches but there were never realized
Cemetery Building

Inspector’s house
Worker’s houses
Projects for barriers,paris 1785-89
It was a plase where there were toll plazas Enfer and there are now used as enterce of metros Trone
Villette it looks like the atonda
Etienne-Louis Boullee
Newton’s Cenotaph (1783)
Civic Building proposals, Metropole, opera, Project for a museum, Cenotaph.
Marc-Antoine Laugier-Rationalism
Church of Ste.-Genevieve-Panteon, Paris (1756-90) Jacques-Germain Soufflot = free standing colums & lintels.
Ecole de medicine ET DE Chirurgies (school of Medicin and Surgery) 1770-75 Jacques Gondoin. Petit Trianon, Versailles (1761-68) Ange Jacques Gabriel . Madame de Pompadour-Van Loo. Petit Trianon-Queen’s theater . Hameau, Versailles (1778) Richard Mique

Neoclassicism in germany a unify nation , bach in the 18th century had kings and p alazes it was compose of different empires
Berlin was partision of the western and west
Karl friederich schinkel (1781-1841) Polis-civis consciousness
Greek apiraments schauspielhaus, Berlin(1819-21) he was ask to redesign it and he building on the ruins of the last teater the opera houses are entertain people can express their feeling against the government , the theater was the place to be. There are two pediments the stairs are looking down . place to go and see wonderfull performance. You have to play with the sound barriers on the other side is the French church
Is at east berlin and is now the most expensive part of germany/.
Neue wache - Royal Guard House unter der linden the german army and today is a memorial for all german solidiers that fell fighting.
The unique project to show art work Altes Museum,Berlin (1824-28) is very neo classic
Schloss Charlottenhoff, Potsdam(1826-27) picturesque- Romanticsm Lustgarten, Propylea, Munich (1846-50) Leo Von Kleuze the original cathedrial the mane according to the English garden design it is famous of because of it design
Neoclassicism in England
Sir john Soane (1753-1837) he convert his house on a prived house and he accommodate his praved classes he brought natural light to his projects he had multiple spaces
Bank of England (begun 1792) the sun never set in the England empire London is a financial center and the back of England is a multiple building and there is not of windows.there is a lot of open spaces and it look like roman bath. Positive and negative spaces clear story to illuminated with natural light. His students were giving tacks he will have mirrows to direct the light. The building still a finace center. The first true school of architect.
Residence (1792-1824) 13 lincoln’s Inn Fields.
Natural light a lot of opening in the roof plaster casting the students have to learn how to draw this diteal s work studios for his students, classical and you have to draw it by memory
Neoclassicism in the US
The architects came from England Benjamin Henry Latrobe . Us Capitol the original capitol and there is till pices of the old design
Bank of Pennsylvania in the interior is like a greak temple, the white house
The first cathedral Baltimore Cathedral (1804-8) Benjamin Latrobe the only professional Architecture. Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) he is a loyer he spents time in the waschinton he is from Virginia he became the father of the university of Virginia. Monticello, Charlottesville (1771-82), sky room. Maison Caree
One was the honeymoon, jeff love the country house he saw the city as ivel please and he makes the grounds (campus college)
SE the boll room in the second floor the sky room he is a greet inventor he wrote a lot of letter he put is bet between to walls
Virginia state capitol, Richmond 1785 he got his inspiration of maison carree
University of Virginia, Charlottesville (1804-17) You got the loan and two elevations each of this pavilion had
Was ment to educated his student the rotunda the pavilion are reserve to honor students
Is the first American college and it was done by an American letrove helping
Rural studio auburn University Supershed & Pots
Yancey Chapel they design and they building

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