Premium Essay

The Pharmacology of Aliskiren


Submitted By stylishgirl801
Words 1416
Pages 6
The Pharmacology of Aliskiren, and its Safety and Efficacy in the Treatment of Hypertension
Kiandra Arnold
PHM 813, Summer 2015

Hypertension is a common condition in which blood pressure in the arteries is elevated. A number of conditions can cause blood pressure to spike, but in hypertension there is a chronic elevation of blood pressure. There are two types of hypertension; primarily (essential) and secondary hypertension. 90-95% of patients have essential hypertension, which is a form with no identifiable underlying cause. Essential hypertension can be treated with drugs in addition to lifestyle changes. The remaining 5-10% of hypertensive patients have secondary hypertension, that is caused by an indefinable underlying condition such as renal artery disease, thyroid disease, primary hyperaldosteronism, pregnancy etc. Patients with secondary hypertension are best treated with drugs that alleviate the underlying disease or condition, however they still may require antihypertensive drugs. This paper will focus on essential hypertension since it is more common ( Jackson 2015) .

Decreasing cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, or central venous pressure can reduce arterial pressure. Therefore, antihypertensive drugs either reduce blood volume(which reduces central venous pressure and cardiac output), reduce systemic vascular resistance, or reduce cardiac output by depressing heart rate and stroke volume. One particular class of anti-hypertensive drugs; angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors affect the renin-angiotensin system(RAS) and produces vasodilation by inhibiting the formation of angiotensin II. RAS plays a key role in blood pressure regulation , acting primarily via the effects of angiotensin II. Excessive RAS activity is a major underlying cause of hypertension because angiotensin II increases blood pressure and exerts

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System

...How the RAAS system works? The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) this system helps keep the body’s sodium and water in balance. The system also helps maintain a close to normal blood volume and blood pressure. “The enzyme renin will be secreted when afferent arteriole’s sense a drop in blood pressure, in response to sympathetic stimulation, and when the macula densa senses decreased numbers of chloride, potassium, and sodium ions” (Shier, Butler, & Lewis, 2012 pg.476). The juxtaglomerular cells will secrete renin (enzyme) in response to the stimuli. Once the renin is secreted and in the bloodstream it acts with the plasma protein angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I. Angiotensin I will act to a second enzyme angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE (in lungs and plasma) will quickly convert to angiotensin II and angiotensin II will stimulate aldosterone from the adrenal glands (Shier, et. al 2012). Why will the body activate the RAAS system? For example when there is a drop in blood pressure in the body the RAAS system will sense the change and secrete renin once activated by the stimuli (drop in blood pressure). Renin binds or acts on angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I and converts to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II will cause vasoconstriction on the efferent arterioles, thus in simple terms will help raise blood pressure. Another aspect is that angiotensin II will act on the kidneys and stimulate the adrenal gland to secret the hormone aldosterone. Aldosterone...

Words: 598 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...effects. It also results in the accumulation of bradykinin a potent vasodilator, which is usually broken down by ACE, resulting in cough as a side effect for some patients. Figure 1. Pharmacological action of ramipril Introduction Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are used for the treatment of cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes. Ramipril is a second-generation ACE inhibitor, and is prescribed in patients with diabetes for several clinical indications including the management of hypertension, following myocardial infarction (MI), in chronic heart failure, in diabetic nephropathy and in patients with increased cardiovascular risk, where it has been shown to reduce the risk of death and cardiovascular events. Pharmacology Figure 1 outlines the pharmacological action of ramipril, a monoethyl ester prodrug. Following oral ingestion and...

Words: 2113 - Pages: 9