Premium Essay

The Prevalence of Heart Disease for African Americans

In: Science

Submitted By lkroll16
Words 999
Pages 4
The Prevalence of Heart Disease for African Americans
Lucinda Kroll
Grand Canyon University

The Prevalence of Heart Disease for African Americans American physicians have drastically reduced cardiovascular mortality and the death rates have decreased 17% since the 1990's (Nash, 2003). Their have been so many advances in open heart surgery, heart transplantations, and thrombolysis in the past decade. Their have also been great strides made in medications with heart disease patients (Nash, 2003). Unfortunately, the African American culture has not seen as much advancement as other cultures (Nash, 2003). African Americans have the highest rate of heart disease compared to all other ethnic groups (Nash, 2003). The CDC reports the 24.5% of deaths caused by heart disease in 2008 were African American and they had the highest percentage compared to other cultures (CDC, 2015). African Americans are at three time's greater risk to develop heart disease than Caucasians and two times more at risk of death from heart disease (Winham and Jones, 2011). For example, African Americans have been diagnosed at younger ages than Caucasians and are more likely to die from heart failure (Nash, 2003). They are also at a younger age when they experience their first myocardial infarction than Caucasians (Nash, 2003). Sadly stage 3 hypertension (ie., blood pressure >180/110), is reported to be the highest in the world for the African American community (Nash, 2003). This cultural also has a large incidence of end stage renal failure than most other cultures (Nash, 2003). Some of the more prevalent risk factors that have been identified for African Americans are "diet, lifestyle choices (eg., smoking), neighborhood characteristics, socioeconomic status, sociocultural attitudes toward disease, persistent racial discrimination, and genetics (winham and Jones, 2011)".…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Heart Disease

...Artery Disease The term heart disease is used to describe various types of heart conditions. Heart disease is the leading cause of deaths in the United States. It is also a leading cause in disability in the United States. More than 616,000 Americans die each year because of heart disease (National Center 2012). In 2010, all cardiovascular diseases together projected to cost $444.2 billion according to the American Heart Association (National Center 2012). In the United States, coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common heart disease. Coronary heart disease can cause heart attacks, angina, heart failure and arrhythmias (CDC 2009). The coronary arteries are the first blood vessels that branch off from the ascending aorta on the heart. They supply blood to the atria, ventricles and septum of the heart. These arteries supply oxygenated and nutrient filled blood to the heart muscle. They consist of a right and left artery that surround the heart anterior and posterior (Bailey 2012). Coronary artery disease occurs when there is a buildup of plaque in the arteries. The plaque that builds up is made up of cholesterol deposits (CDC 2009). With the buildup of the plaque, the lumen of the arteries narrows over time (CDC 2009). When this process happens, it is known as atherosclerosis (CDC 2009). Atherosclerosis is a serious condition because it can lead to angina or discomfort. The most common symptom a person can experience is chest pain or discomfort because the......

Words: 1017 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Cardiovascular Disease in African American Women

...CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN Richard Allen Williams, M.D. Clinical Professor of Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine President/CEO, Minority Health Institute, Los Angeles, California Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has long been considered a disorder which principally affects men in our society; consideration of the occurrence of heart attacks in females, for example, has been largely an afterthought. In the past few years, however, it has become increasingly obvious that this is not a problem limited to males, but that it occurs with great frequency in women. We now know that CVD is the cause of death more than any condition in women over the age of 50, including cancer (1) and in fact is responsible for more than a third of all deaths in women (2). It is estimated that 370,000 women in the United States die from heart disease each year. However, our knowledge base regarding CVD in African American (AA) women has not kept pace with the accumulation of data on white females. Thus, there is a deficit of information about this subgroup and the prevalence of CVD despite the fact that black women have more risk factors for CVD than do white women (3). The purpose of this paper is to review the subject of CVD in African American women and to focus upon four principal CVD categories: Coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, stroke, and congestive heart failure (CHF).The impact of gender and race on each of......

Words: 2577 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

African Americans and Chemical Dependency

...African Americans and Chemical Dependency Name: Insitution: African Americans and Chemical Dependency Abstract Chemical dependence is the use of chemicals, which may include alcohol, drugs, and other substances that may affect normal physiologic or psychological processes, in an uncontrolled, compulsive way. It is often referred to as substance abuse. Substance abuse has been the subject of many a discussion, due to the adverse effect it has on human health, relationships, and many other spheres of human life. This paper will evaluate the incidence and prevalence of substance abuse in differing populations, with a special emphasis on African Americans. This paper will also review the steps of care that victims of chemical dependency are taken through in the rehabilitation program, with a focus on Africa American populations. Additionally, the paper will review the professional resources that are used in the treatment of chemical dependency victims among African Americans, and finally, the paper will explore the issues that impact treatment and recovery from chemical dependency among African Americans. African Americans and Chemical Dependency African Americans have historically been consistently ranked among the racial/ethnic groups with the highest rates of substance abuse. In recent years, however, the statistics seem to have improved when compared to overall ratings. According to Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), alcohol use......

Words: 1602 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Heart Disease

...Heart disease is accountable for more than 30% of all deaths; over 90% of the causes of this disease are preventable and controllable. The name heart disease is also known as coronary artery disease. The arteries are the blood vessels that supply blood to and from the heart. When the blood vessels are blocked, normal blood flow is lost to the heart. The blockage is caused by plaque, which contains large amounts of cholesterol. This plaque builds up on the inside of the coronary arteries and decreases the flow of blood that feeds the heart. Once the blood flow is impaired, it causes damage to the heart muscle. Even though the name heart attack sounds major, permanent damage only kills a portion of the heart. Death occurs, as a result of impaired blood flow, when the heart starts beating abnormally because it cannot effectively pump blood through the body. Many people today who have heart disease have lifelong disabilities like chest pains, fatigue, and shortness of breath. Living with these disabilities can certainly decrease the quality of life one may have. Knowing ways to control heart disease will empower the choices to change the lifestyle. Some changes give the ability to modify the risks while other changes are impossible. For example, if heart disease attributes to family history and environmental factors, there is likely chance the generations to come will encounter the disease. Controllable changes include any current behaviors such as smoking,......

Words: 770 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Heart Disease

...What is heart disease? Heart disease is a broad term used to describe diseases of the heart and the blood vessels around and through the heart. There are more than Eighty millions Americans that are affected by one or more types of heart disease. (Donatelle., 2011) This is a staggering number of Americans that have this disease. While this statistic does entail all of the different types of heart diseases we can get it still goes to show how much we are affect by problems with our hearts. While some people are born with defects or the disease may be hereditary, we can still avoid it. For some it may be a life change to avoid some risk of the disease. Having a heart attack will require a life change as well. Why not make the changes now before the disease hits us? It is important to be communicative with our doctors about our risk. It is good to research for information about how you as an individual can avoid certain risk factors. Knowing if there is family history of heart disease can help significantly with prevention. Even if some of us are diagnosed with heart disease there is help and treatment for the disease. Some may require surgery and some may not. There are usually some options a patient can take when being treated. Donatelle., R. J. (2011). Health: The Basics, Green Edition, Ninth Edition. Benjamin Cummings. Slide 2 It is highly important to be well aware of any risk factors that you may be susceptible too when it comes to heart disease. Since the heart is a......

Words: 2534 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Heart Disease and Stroke

...lot of diseases which affect our communities. These diseases end up causing a lot of deaths. It is therefore important that nurses come up with a strategy of managing these deadly diseases. Examples of these deadly diseases are the heart diseases and stroke. Heart diseases are the leading causes of deaths in America. Stroke is ranked the third most cause of death in America. A combination of the two diseases poses a great threat to the communities of the United States. An advantage which people have over these diseases is that, these are also the most preventable diseases. They are caused by various factors which may include diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking cigarettes, obesity and overweight. These diseases are controllable by one managing their own lifestyles and living a healthy life. The issue being looked in this context is to reduce the community health problems. (Kvan, 2008) The goal of the nursing assessments is to improve the various health care systems in various communities and hence improve the quality of life. This is done through treatment of risk factors which cause heart diseases. The only hope about heart diseases and stroke is that, an early detection of any cardiovascular diseases can be easily treated. The community development programs prevent the reoccurrence of repeated cardiovascular diseases.(Lloyd, 2010) However, this is not an easy task. First, controlling the factors which majorly contribute to stroke and heart......

Words: 2706 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Heart Disease

...Lifestyle Diseases Assessment Task : Report Health Unit 1A Contents 1. Introduction………………………………………………………………….Page 2 2. Risk Factors………………………………………………………………….Page 3. Personal Health Behaviours………………………………………………Page 4 4. Roles…………………………………………………………………………..Page 4 1. Roles of Family ……………………………………………………...Page 5 2. Roles of Friends………………………………………………………Page 5 3. Roles of Others……………………………………………………….Page 5 5. Future Implications…………………………………………………………Page 6 6. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………Page 6 Bibliography……………..………………………………………………………..Page 7 1. Introduction Lifestyle diseases are health problems that are brought about because of the lifestyle choices or the way a person lives. Lifestyle diseases can be prevented by altering the food you eat or the things you choose to do. Doing something as simple as walking to school instead of riding a car can influence your health. Heart disease is a disease that affects the function of the heart and impairs the normal functioning. It affects around 1.4 million Australians and kills 59 Australians each day; estimating one Australian every 24 minutes. Heart disease is caused by many risk factors that can be prevented. Shown by the graph below, in 2011 to 2012, the number of people who has heart disease increased with age. More than quarter of all Australians aged 75......

Words: 2259 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Heart Disease

...TitleHeart Disease 1.What Is Heart Disease? The topic of heart disease usually centers on heart attacks but there are many other problems that can compromise heart functions, injure the heart tissues, or cause heart disease. Most of the major problems include coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy. The following slides will present these heart problems and their warning signs 2.Heart disease facts Heart disease refers to several conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. Arrhythmias, heart valve disease, congenital heart defects, and inflammation of the heart or its lining (the pericardium) are all diseases that affect the heart. However, this article will focus on the most common type of heart disease, coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as atherosclerotic heart disease (ASHD). Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in the United States. Over a million people each year will have a heart attack and 25% will die before they get to the hospital while or in the Emergency Department. Prevention is the key to treatment of heart disease. Diagnosis of heart disease is often made by careful history taken by a health care practitioner. Some individuals may have atypical symptoms, including almost none at all. The testing strategy to confirm the diagnosis and plan appropriate treatment needs to be individualized for each patient diagnosed with heart disease. Treatment of heart......

Words: 918 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Asthma Among African Americans

...coughing. Asthma is the most common chronic disease affecting people today. Asthma is described as an epidemic rather than and endemic because it is not restricted by age, sex, racial group or region. Asthma is widespread throughout the world but higher rates of prevalence are seen in African Americans. Asthma can affect anyone, despite the development of new treatment options; asthma remains a major health problem in the United States. According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), about 15 million Americans have or carry a diagnosis of asthma and it is the third leading cause of preventable hospitalizations in the United States. About 500,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths occur annually from asthma, and the mortality rate continues to rise. This rise is especially dramatic in the African-American community, despite the absence of a known racial preference for asthma. It is now well established that under treatment and inappropriate treatments are the leading contributors to asthma morbidity and mortality in the United States. The African-American community is the most affected from these two factors, and these sobering statistics should convince all of us who care for asthma patients that we could be doing a better job (Blackhealthonline.com). Although the exact cause of asthma is unknown, researchers linked genetic and environmental factors as causes for asthma. “Ethnic differences in asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality are......

Words: 1586 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

African American

...African American Health Issues Eric Nordberg Grand Canyon University: HLT-305 9-28-2014 The African American population within the United States is a rising minority. There are 44.5 million African Americans in the United States, making up 14.2% of the population. It is projected that by the year 2060, that demographic will rise to 18.4 %( Black or African American Populations, 2014). Similar to any other demographic, the top three causes of death in the African American population are heart disease, cancer, and strokes. Apart from high mortality rate diseases, African Americans have the highest infection rate of HIV and have the highest death rates from homicides (Black or African American Populations, 2014). According to the National Center for Biotechnology Information, “the health status of African Americans identifies a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and sexually transmitted infections when compared with Whites” (Health Status of African Americans, n.d.). So comparing to the most common population, Caucasians, African Americans across the board have a higher prevalence for many of the major diseases. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the national average for unemployment is 6.1%; the national average for African Americans is 12.6%. With a higher unemployment rate, African Americans experience a higher rate of not having health insurance (Black or African American Populations, 2014). Apart from......

Words: 455 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Heart Disease Among African American Women

...Heart Disease among African American Women Ciatta Jones, RN Excelsior College Abstract Heart Disease remains the number one killer among women. However, African American women have a higher rate of heart disease than any other ethnic group or demographics and subsequently have an increased mortality rate among other nationalities. They are disproportionately outnumbered when it comes to the obesity rate, stroke and diabetes amongst other groups such as the Caucasians and Asian’s. Contributing factors are decreased awareness and knowledge of heart disease, a low self perception regarding risk factors, ongoing behaviors that are not modified such as smoking, alcoholism, eating fried and salty foods and sometimes the inability to get to medical facilities and clinics. With more education about heart disease and an increased perception of risk, people’s minds will become transformed and will be motivated to modify risk factors related to heart disease. Differences in knowledge and comprehension levels are greater amid those that have a higher educational level. Continual health promotions, fairs, seminars and preventative efforts must continue for us to see positive outcomes associated with a desired behavior change. Keywords: African American, heart disease, women, risk factors, education Heart disease among African American Women The death threat of heart disease is greater than that of AIDS and breast cancer collectively. It is the number one killer of women...

Words: 3067 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Hypertension in African Americans

...Hypertension or High blood pressure is a prevalent cardiovascular disease in the United States and other nations around the world. It is estimated that 1 billion is affected with the disease and about 7.1 million hypertension related mortalities annually. It is a condition in which the long-term force of blood against artery walls is high enough to ultimately cause heart attack, aneurysm, stroke or left ventricular hypertrophy leading to congestive heart failure. Many people with hypertension do not realize they have because the symptoms are subtle and that it generally develops over a long period of time. Most often, vital organs like the kidneys and eyes may damage or other diseases may occur before it is detected; for this reason, it is often called the "silent killer (American Heart Association, 2014). According to Woo & Wynne (2012), a report from the World Health Organization indicates that suboptimal blood pressure higher than 115mm Hg (systolic) is liable for 62% of all cardiovascular disease and 49% of all ischemic heart disease. A normal blood pressure level is systolic reading of blood pressure (SBP) less than 120mmHg with diastolic level (DBP) less than 80mmHg. Hypertension disease has the following stages. A pre-hypertensive level is SBP 120-139, and DBP 80-89. Hypertension stage 1 is SBP 140-159, with DBP of 90-99. Hypertension stage 2 is SBP greater than or equal to 160 with DBP of 100 or more. Stress and emotional tension may temporarily increase blood......

Words: 3316 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Heart Disease

...Running head: HEART DISEASE Heart Disease Victoria Martin Grand Canyon University: NRS-427V-0500 October 3, 2015 Heart Disease Heart Disease is a big term used to describe a lot of heart conditions but the most common type in the United States is known as coronary artery disease. This is where the flow of blood through the heart is slowed down due to plaque buildup in the arteries within the heart which blocks the blood flow and can lead to a heart attack. In the United States about one in every three adults or seventy million people has high blood pressure. Only about half of these have this under control by either diet and exercise or medication. Blood Pressure is a very common condition but if not under control it increases the patients risk for heart disease and stroke significantly. High blood pressure is known as the silent killer as it has no warning signs or symptoms so often patients do not even know that they have it and this is very dangerous (CDC, 2015). In the United States and most other societies, there is a strong tendency for Blood Pressure to rise progressively with increasing age; however, epidemiologic studies indicate that age-related increases in BP and the occurrence of hypertension are uncommon in societies whose members live in isolated settings. These findings indicate that high BP is not an inevitable consequence of aging and that prevention of hypertension is a realistic goal (Epidemiology and the Prevention of Hypertension.......

Words: 1665 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

African American Health Care Analysis

...African American Health Care Analysis Cheryl Robinson Capella University CST5500 Multi-Cultural Issues in Health Care Crobinson82@capellauniversity.edu Dr. C Vaugh Abstract It is a cliché of health education that programs and interventions will be more effective when they are culturally appropriate for the populations they serve. In practice, however, the strategies used to achieve cultural appropriateness vary widely. This paper briefly describes African American history and how it relates to health care services. It explains the culture, value and belief of African American when it involves health promotion and disease prevention. Some major health concerns and barriers are noted within the black communities and population as well as way to promote health and disease prevention throughout the African American communities. History of African American population African Americans first arrived to the United States as a crew on a pirate ship in the year 1619. The American population saw these new immigrants as an opportunity and captured many of the six million African immigrants and sold them as slaves (Bennett, 1992 as cited in Edelman & Mandle, 2002). The African American community suffered through a history of slavery and discrimination which has led to their current health and wellness problems. Many of their current problems have been linked to the segregation and cruel treatment that they were subjected to in the past, but African Americans......

Words: 2207 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Heart Disease

...ways of lowering the chances of developing heart disease. Regular exercise helps the heart to become stronger, so it can pump more blood around the body with less effort. Smoking avoidance not only reduces the risk of developing heart disease, but also the risk of many other serious illnesses, like cancer and emphysema. High blood pressure increases the chances of developing heart disease. There are usually no signs or symptoms of high blood pressure, so one may not be aware of having it. Therefore this needs to be checked with the doctor regularly. Alcohol avoidance is another preventive step to prevent heart diseases. People who drink heavily are more likely to die of heart disease than those who do not. Therefore, alcohol consumption should be in moderation. Eating habits are another important factor. Eating well can also help prevent heart disease. No one food can provide all the nutrition you need, so one must eat from a variety of foods every day from the following four food groups: 1. Bread, other cereals and potatoes 2.fruits and vegetables 3.low-fat milk and dairy foods 4. Meat, fish and alternatives such as beans and lentils. Although the heart is designed to last one well for one's whole life, but one must take care of it and follow the healthy life style measures and steps as discussed above. Types of Heart Diseases Summary: The main focus of this paper is to highlight the types of heart diseases Heart disease is a name given to a variety of conditions......

Words: 808 - Pages: 4