Premium Essay

The Quest for Universal Shared Value

In: Social Issues

Submitted By gumbum
Words 1473
Pages 6
"Ultimately, all human beings share core universal values, and apparent differences are merely variances of practices or interpretation."

The Pursuit of Universal Shared Values
Throughout the twentieth century, philosophers have struggled to understand the nature of human morality, namely, the underlying values that form it. Which factors form the basis of our conception of what is ‘right’ and ‘wrong’—‘good’ and ‘bad’? Do we all share certain values, or some approach, that helps us come about our moral judgments? Is there a universal ‘good’ and ‘bad’? This is really the crux of it, is it not?
This essay will present the argument that the pursuit of human happiness—or at least perceived happiness—is the only value that can be considered universal amongst all human beings, and that the differences and conflicts between us stem from different interpretation’s of happiness and the means that should be taken toward its actualization. That is to say that something is ‘good’ to the extent to which it enables perceived happiness, or, disables a lack of perceived happiness. The universality of this value will be suggested to extend to all sentient beings, regardless of human intelligence and the capacity to reason. This essay’s thesis is in agreement with the proposed statement that, “ultimately, all human beings share core universal values, and apparent differences are merely variances of practices or interpretation,” however not to the extent that the ideas of philosophers John Stuart Mill, Aristotle and Jeremy Bentham are. Instead, it will refute and pose counter-arguments to certain aspects of their ideas, specifically, the need to define and place values on happiness, while building upon others. It will argue humans do not need to agree on what the ‘good life’ is, but rather just that we are all equally entitled to its pursuit. It will suggest that ethical...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Study Gudie Quiz 1

...Belief barriers to communication Stereotypes Informed generalizations SUMMARY An introductory communication text rightly begins by defining its core concept, communication. After defining communication and showing how it comes into existence, this chapter distinguishes different types of communication from each other. Communication derives from the Latin root word communis. In English, this root word means common, general, universal, or public. When a person believes, feels, values, or acts as one with another person, communis exists. Communication can be studied in two basic ways. The expositional approach studies attitudes, values, beliefs, feelings, or behaviors that unify people as a whole or particular groups of people. The rhetorical approach studies the steps people take in their quests to establish shared attitudes, values, beliefs, feelings, or behaviors with others. Communication is the transmission of meaningful information from one person or group of persons (the sender) to another person or group of persons (the recipient) in a way that generates shared attitudes...

Words: 1730 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Margaret Atwood Analysis

...controversial and innovative writer, Margaret Atwood (born 1939) has emerged as one of the most eminent contemporary figures in Canadian literature. As a feminist, Atwood deals with portrayal of women, women’s perspectives and values, analysis, and myths and versions of what it means to be a woman. Atwood was born in Ottawa, Canada, the second of three children. She spent her early childhood in northern Quebec where her father was a forest entomologist. Her years in the wilderness influenced her writing which makes considerable metaphorical use of the place, its flora and its fauna. Later, Atwood’s childhood experiences of the bush provided material for her focus on rediscovering identity in the wild in Surfacing (1972). She has...

Words: 738 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Purfect Position

...of influencing other to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives (Yukl, 2006). Leadership is an interactive dialogue that draws employees toward being at ease with the language of special accountability and commitment. Leadership is not just for people at the pinnacle but everyone can learn to guide by discovering the authority that lies within each of us to make a difference and being prepared when the call of guide comes. Leadership is applicable to all aspects of life. This is a competency that one can gain knowledge of to expand perspectives, set the circumstance goal, understand the dynamics of human performance, and take the proposal to get the organization to where they want to be. Leadership is the universal idea of setting a innovative course or vision for a group that is followed by the leader. A leader’s effectiveness is the extent to which the leader’s organizational unit performs its task successfully and attains its goals (Yukl, 2006). It is also noted that a leaders efficiency is calculated in terms of the leader’s contribution to the value of the group processes, as perceived by the employee’s or outside observers. Developing a personal leadership style is not an easy quest. Anytime that one is trying to influence behavior is engaging in a leadership role. There are many ways to transform leadership; vision, planning, communication, or...

Words: 1468 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

No Title

...business faculty have come to realize the role that understanding human behavior plays in determining a manager's effectiveness, and required courses on people skills have been added to many curricula. Diff: 1 Objective: Management and Leadership Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 1 2) Which of the following is not a reason why business schools have begun to include classes on organizational behavior? A) to increase manager effectiveness in organizations B) to help organizations attract top quality employees C) to expand organizations' consulting needs D) to improve retention of quality workers E) to help increase organizations' profits Answer: C Explanation: C) Understanding human behavior plays an important role in determining a manager's effectiveness. Developing managers' interpersonal skills helps organizations attract and keep high-performing employees. Positive social relationships are associated with lower stress at work and lower turnover. Finally, companies with reputations as good places to work have been found to generate superior financial performance. Expanding a company's consulting needs is not a positive reason to teach organizational behavior. Diff: 2 Objective: Interpersonal Skills Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 1 3) ________...

Words: 10785 - Pages: 44

Free Essay

Belonging

...An individual’s interaction with others and the world around them can limit or enrich their experience of belonging. Belonging can emerge from the connections made with people, groups or community. It is something we all feel whether we mean to or not. This belonging gives us an attachment to other people or things and we can gain other certain feelings such as security, happiness, pride, sense of value and acceptance by others as social human beings. It gives us an awareness of identity and builds our self-confidence and self-esteem as we feel part of something bigger. There are also implications for not belonging, our inability to connect can lead to isolation, alienation, vulnerability and dislocated from society. These universal experiences are explored through the poetry of Peter Skrzynecki’s “Immigrant Chronicle”, in particular, Migrant Hostel where barriers limited the migrant’s experience of belonging and Feliks Skrzynecki which portrays the father and son’s contrasting experiences to belonging in a new land. Sean Penn’s 2007 film Into the Wild also examines a person’s quest for a sense of...

Words: 1347 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Role of Ethics in Business

...| The Role Of Ethics in Business | | | | 1/16/2014 | | In this paper I will discuss the role of business ethics as it relates to business operations and the challenges of starting and maintaining an effective business ethics program. I will begin with Jennings' (2012) definition of ethics in business and its role from his perspective. I will then make comparisons with other authors' opinions for discussion, including Peter Drucker’s (1981) take on business ethics and Carr’s (Jennings, 2012) viewpoint as well. How business ethics' role relates to the notion of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and ongoing challenges will also be discussed. I will conclude with my own comments on the relationship between personal and business ethics and my thoughts on how to start and maintain company ethical standards. Business Ethics And Its Role: Definitions and Discussion The concept of being ethical in business is a mercurial topic these days; given the expansive and rapid global reach of today's multimedia, it can take mere hours for a reputable business image to get tarnished because of one ethics-related incident. In his text, Jennings' definition of business ethics is "...not the study of what is legal but of the application of ethics to business decisions. (Jennings, 2012, p.45)" Many business leaders today focus on what is legally allowed--they are aware of the legal parameters within where they can operate, and simply execute their profit-driven...

Words: 2963 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Nokia

...International Management NOKIA Nokia Corporation History Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational communications corporation that is headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo, a city neighboring Finland's capital Helsinki. Nokia is engaged in the manufacturing of mobile devices and in converging Internet and communications industries, with over 132,000 employees in 120 countries, sales in more than 150 countries and global annual revenue of over €42 billion and operating profit of €2 billion as of 2010. It is the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones: its global device market share was 31% in the fourth quarter 2010, up from an estimated 30% in third quarter of 2010 but down from an estimated 35% in the fourth quarter of 2009. Nokia's estimated share of the converged mobile device market was 31% in the fourth quarter, compared with 38% in the third quarter 2010. Nokia produces mobile devices for every major market segment and protocol, including GSM, CDMA, and WCDMA (UMTS). Nokia offers Internet services such as applications, games, music, maps, media and messaging through its Ovi platform. Nokia's subsidiary Nokia Siemens Networks produces telecommunications network equipment, solutions and services. Nokia is also engaged in providing free digital map information and navigation services through its wholly owned subsidiary Navteq. Nokia also has greater dependency on England based company duo namely Symbian Corporation for its mobile operating systems and OVI for......

Words: 2818 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Medieval Characteristics

...Medieval Characteristics ENG/106 Survey of Literary Masterpieces March 25, 2013 Comparison and Contrast Paper: Medieval Characteristics Heroes The early epic poem may have served to reinforce shared cultural values within a nation and provide a mythic history for a people. Ancient classical epics contain references to gods and magic and often feature a hero beset by mystical forces. Many later epics imitate these earlier works and may use similar literary conventions, depending on the culture. Early poems based on oral traditions are often called primary epics, while the later works are called secondary or literary epics. (The longman anthology of world literature: Compact edition, 2008). The ancient peoples of Mesopotamia, Greece and India produced several important epics that have continued to influence the development and study of literature for thousands of years. The ancient epic poem first emerged as an oral tradition to be re-told by storytellers throughout a culture. The development of writing in these areas allowed these stories to be written down and preserved for later generations. The Iliad and The Odyssey are early examples of the epic poem. Later Roman and other civilizations continued this literary tradition through the rest of the classical era. (http://ancienthistory.about.com) Pre-classical or ancient period hero; “The Aeneid is epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who...

Words: 1375 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Case Study

...CHAPTER 6 A CRITIQUE OF THE EIGHT PSYCHOLOGISTS Sigmund Freud While Freudian theory is vulnerable to criticisms of being unscientific and too reductionistic (though behaviorists criticize it for not being reductionistic enough), classic psychoanalysis does offer a comprehensive system of personality, pathology, and therapy that has made a lasting contribution to an understanding of human behavior, especially in such areas as defense mechanisms, the reality of unconscious mental dynamics, and the psychodynamics of dreams. Freud’s work was characterized by originality, boldness, and power of communication. In his theory of neurosis, he captured the tragic dimension of human existence, particularly in the selfdestructive antithesis of instinctual conflict. The locus of these destructive impulses is internalized in the individual and not merely derivative from civilization. In this respect, Freud’s portrayal of the human condition has more depth than romantic humanism and yields significant points of correlation with the Christian understanding of sin, guilt, and the need for redemption. Regarding Freud’s theory of personality, there appears to be no unified structure or functional unity between the id, the ego, and the superego, and these personality components are described in intuitive and literary terms that elude scientific analysis. Instead, they are often personified as homunculi that operate in monochromatic ways, yielding a......

Words: 6820 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Applying the Lesson of History to Modern Police Leadership Training

...The Bill Blackwood Law Enforcement Management Institute of Texas _________________ Applying the Lessons of History to Modern Police Leadership Training _________________ A Leadership White Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment Required for Graduation from the Leadership Command College _________________ By Kenneth W. Sidenblad Bee Cave Police Department Bee Cave, Texas Date Submitted (month year) ABSTRACT Law enforcement continues to move in the direction of a profession and away from being only a vocation. Police officers of today are better trained and educated than at any time in the past. This demands police leaders be up to the challenge to lead them. Law enforcement leaders must enhance their knowledge and incorporate training ideas in use by other professions. Applying lessons from academic subject material is an important part of leadership development in many professions, and should be emphasized in training future police leaders. This will enable law enforcement leaders to develop as leaders in a profession. One academic subject used in other professions to develop leaders is the study of history. History provides a wealth of material from which valuable insights and examples of leadership may be drawn from. Lessons drawn from history are used by other professions to enhance the quality of leadership within those professions. Leadership lessons from history should be incorporated into modern police......

Words: 4976 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Heritage Tourism

...Introduction Heritage Tourism Heritage tourism is define as the activities and services which provide international and domestic visitors with the opportunity to experience, understand and enjoy the special values of a region’s heritage, are sometimes referred to as heritage tourism (Lorton, 2013). According to Leigh Burns “heritage tourism is a personal encounter with traditions, history and culture. Heritage tourism is based upon the concept that each community has a story to tell. This is a rapidly growing niche market that is directed towards experiencing the local customs, traditions, arts, history, sites, and culture that authentically represent a particular place (Burns, 2010) Objective of the study The study includes the following objectives: * To identify the heritage destination and the overall satisfaction of tourists who visit heritage destinations. * To observe and understand the trend of heritage tourism in Nepal. * To analyze heritage destination and tourist’s overall satisfaction, and travel behavior characteristics. * To understand the impact of heritage tourism in Nepal. Hypotheses of the Study The study includes the followings hypotheses in order to analyze the relationship between heritage destination attributes and tourists’ satisfaction and their behavior characteristics, to understand the difference in derived factors in relation to their demographic and to identify the differences in the overall satisfaction of tourists’ in......

Words: 2846 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Parable of the Sadhu

...An analysis of The Parable of the Sadhu Table of Contents Table of Contents Pg 2 Introduction Pg 3 Background Pg 3 Analysis Pg 5 The teleological approach Pg 5 The deontological approach Pg 6 The virtue ethics approach Pg 7 A better Solution Pg 10 Conclusion Pg 12 References Pg 14 Introduction The Parable of the Sadhu, by former Morgan Stanley executive, Bowen McCoy, is a narrative illustrating the differences between individual and group ethical values and the need for today’s business managers to have a plan to help guide their team through ethical problems that may suddenly arise. This paper will examine McCoy’s story to see how the actions of the group players relate to teleological, deontological, and virtue ethic theories, as described in Managing Business Ethics. Finally, I will recommend how those actions could have been managed better using proper preparation and fostering an environment where individuals are supported and encouraged to take charge of any crisis. Background In 1982, Bowen McCoy spent several months hiking through Nepal as part of a sabbatical program offered to executives of Morgan Stanley. Midway through the difficult trek, as he and several others were preparing to attain the highest point of their climb, they encountered the body of an Indian holy man, or sadhu. Wearing little clothing and shivering in the bitter cold, he was barely alive. McCoy......

Words: 2271 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

The Japanese Invasion: Yohji Yamamoto and Issey Miyake

...“All the things that adorn woman, all the things that go to enhance her beauty, are part of herself… making… the woman and her dress, an indivisible whole.” (Baudelaire 1972: 423-4) For a long time, femininity is often defined by how the female body is been perceived and represented, ‘a woman’s character and status are frequently judged by her appearance’ (Betteron 1987) Clothes, make-up and demeanour constitute identity, sexuality and social position are some of elements that constitutes a feminine body. And for centuries, Western fashion has resolutely inclined towards a more structured and tailored kind of silhouette, which exalted the virtues of sexuality, glamour and status—the backbone of the European haute couture design. Western female clothes have historically been designed to exemplify the contours of the body. While 1980s was majorly characterized by everything glitzy and glamour – with people earning big money and spending conspicuously, the era saw a emergence of a new generation of young Japanese designers whose designs exemplified the ideology of “anti-fashion” and some of these designers were Issey Miyake and Yohji Yamamoto. The purpose of this essay is to see how Miyake and Yohji’s emergence and their unconventional design philosophy, silhouettes they created and techniques they have adopted, have called forth a new interpretation of the existing regulations and norms of clothing and fashion; and how women should be perceived and represented. To see how...

Words: 1271 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Al Gore' Nobel Lecture

...years ago, a wealthy inventor read his own obituary, mistakenly published years before his death. Wrongly believing the inventor had just died, a newspaper printed a harsh judgment of his life's work, unfairly labeling him "The Merchant of Death" because of his invention – dynamite. Shaken by this condemnation, t he inventor made a fateful choice to serve the cause of peace. Seven years later, Alfred Nobel created this prize and the others that bear his name. Seven years ago tomorrow, I read my own political obituary in a judgment that seemed to me harsh and mistaken – if not premature. But that unwelcome verdict also brought a precious if painful gift: an opportunity to search for fresh new ways to serve my purpose. Unexpectedly, that quest has brought me here. Even though I fear my words cannot match this moment, I pray what I am feeling in my heart will be communicated clearly enough that those who hear me will say, "We must act." The distinguished scientists with whom it is the greatest honor of my life to share this award have laid before us a choice between two different futures – a choice that to my ears echoes the words of an ancient prophet: "Life or death, blessings or curses. Therefore, choose life, that both thou and thy seed may live." We, the human species, are confronting a planetary emergency – a threat to the...

Words: 2830 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Culture of Pakistan

...emotional features that characterize a society or social group. It includes not only arts and letters, but also modes of life, the fundamental rights of the human being, value systems, traditions and beliefs." PAKISTANI CULTURE Pakistan is the country full of natural and cultural wealth. Pakistan has its own unique and specific cultural identification. Culture and heritage of Pakistan reflects the extra ordinary skill and devotion of Pakistani people. Pakistani people are playing a vital role in the presentation, development and promotion of Pakistani culture. The Pakistani culture is dominated by Islamic tradition and heritage. Islamic heritage has great impact on Pakistani culture. In ancient times, Pakistan was a major cultural hub. Many cultural practices and great monuments have been inherited from the time of the ancient rulers of the region. One of the greatest cultural influences was that of the Persian Empire, of which Pakistan was a part. In fact, the Pakistani satraps were at one time the richest and most productive of the massive Persian Empire. Other key influences include the Afghan Empire, Mughal Empire and later, the short-lived but influential, the British Empire. Punjabi Objectives Pakistan is a country of diverse communities with cultural traditions, belief systems, value systems, life styles, dialects and aspirations which determine the objectives of the policy, which are listed below. They aim at providing an environment......

Words: 1592 - Pages: 7