Free Essay

The Representation of Masculinity in Men's Beauty Product

In: Other Topics

Submitted By syaeful
Words 3643
Pages 15
Abstract: This study attempts to investigate the representation of masculinity in the printed advertisement of Mens Biore Double Scrub. All phenomena in the advertisement are described. To present more analytical description, the signs found in the advertisement are analyzed based on Barthes’ orders of signification. Besides that, this study also employs Kress and Van Leeuwen’s method of reading images and intertextual analysis in order to obtain more comprehensive analysis. The result of this study shows that Mens Biore Double Scrub advertisement represents two different concepts of masculinity. The first one is the traditional concept of masculinity. The second one is the new concept of masculinity offered by the advertisement. Generally, words that are used to represent both concepts of masculinity are power, confidence, aggressiveness, competition, challenge, and bravery. The connotative signified success, financial independence, and physical attractiveness are emphasized to change the concept of traditional masculinity to be in line with the company’s need.
Keywords: advertisement, semiotics, masculinity
Abstrak: Penelitian ini berupaya untuk menganalisa representasi maskulinitas dalam iklan cetak Mens Biore Double Scrub. Seluruh fenomena dalam iklan tersebut dideskripsikan. Untuk menyajikan deskripsi yang analitis, tanda-tanda yang ditemukan dalam iklan tersebut dianalisa berdasarkan gagasan orders of signification milik Barthes. Selain itu, penelitian ini juga menerapkan metode reading images yang digagas oleh Kress dan Van Leeween dan juga analisa intertekstual guna mendapatkan analisa yang lebih komprehensif. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa iklan Mens Biore Double Scrub merepresentasikan dua konsep maskulinitas yang berbeda. Yang pertama merupakan konsep maskulinitas tradisional. Yang kedua merupakan konsep baru yang ditawarkan oleh iklan tersebut. Secara umum, kata-kata yang digunakan untuk merepresentasikan kedua konsep maskulinitas tersebut adalah kekuatan, kepercayaan diri, agresivitas, kebebasan finansial, dan daya tarik fisik.
Kata kunci: iklan, semiotik, maskulinitas
Advertisement is considered as one of the most effective and persuasive tools which is commonly used by a company. By using advertisement, a company can reach its potential consumers efficiently and encourage (if not dictate) them to buy or use its products or services. That is by convincing them (the consumers) that they need the products or services being advertised. This clearly shows that advertisement is very powerful, in the sense that it can make people need something that they may previously think unnecessary (Rajpal, 2010).
According to Akbar (2012, p.2), the power of advertisement lies within the information or messages it provides. Moreover, by implementing certain values to the information or messages in advertisement, a company can change consumers’ way of thinking to fulfill the company’s need. In line with this Pollay as cited by Mayr (2013, p.86) stated that a company can control consumers by weighing values differently or by implementing new values. In the case of men’s skincare advertisements, producers try to change men’s perception of skincare products by implementing certain values. In other words, men as target consumers are “brought into a value of life or ideology offered by the advertisements” (Ririn & Amalia, 2012, p.140). The value of life or ideology that is offered by the advertisements is masculinity, or, more precisely, new concept of masculinity.
With regard to masculinity, in Oxford Online Dictionary, it means possession of the qualities associated with men. Although the word ‘men’ is mentioned in the definition, it does not mean that masculinity is always connected to certain sex (men). The term sex is used to refer to “biological differences, chromosomes, hormonal profiles, internal and external sex organs“(Nobelius, 2004). It is what distinguishes men from women. On the other hand, masculinity is socially and culturally constructed. Therefore, it is more appropriate to use another term, instead of sex, to talk about masculinity, namely gender. The term gender is used to describe the characteristics that a society or culture delineates as masculine or feminine” (Nobelius, 2004).
Despite the sex-versus-gender distinction explained above, in reality the terms sex and gender are used interchangeably, i.e. masculinity is often associated with men whereas femininity with women. This is because people tend to relate gender to activities that men and women do. For example, smoking is associated with men because of the high frequency of men’s engagement in this activity. This association of a pattern of behaviors with sex is what causes gender stereotype. Brannon (2010, p.160) stated that “gender stereotype consists of beliefs about the psychological traits and characteristic of, as well as the activities appropriate to, men or women”. This is in line with Darwin (1999, p.3) who claimed character or personality, role attitudes, occupation, physical appearance, or sexual orientation to be the aspects that distinguish the masculine from the feminine. As an illustration, men and women can be identified from their characteristics, for instance men are considered to be aggressive, strong, and rational while women are often seen as graceful, weak, and emotional. In terms of interest, technologies, cars, and motorcycles are associated with men while beauty products are associated with women.
Skincare products, such as facial foam and moisturizer, if they are seen from the concept of gender stereotype, tend to fall into the category of beauty products. However, with the power of advertisement, the image of femininity in skincare products can be distorted by transmitting a set of signs which can make skincare products for men differ from those for women and appear masculine. To investigate the representation of masculinity (and how it is represented) in Mens Biore Double Scrub advertisement, the present study employs an analytical method that is commonly used for analyzing advertisement, namely semiotics.
Semiotics, in its narrow sense, can be defined as the study of signs. Umberto Eco gave broader definition of semiotics, he (as cited in Chandler, 2002, p.2) stated that “semiotics is concerned with everything that can be taken as a sign”. The word sign itself is “the smallest unit of meaning. Anything that can be used to communicate (or to tell a lie)” (Semiotics Terminology, n.d). Chandler (2002. p.2) states that signs (in semiotics) can take various forms, such as words, images, sounds, gestures and objects. However, Peirce (in Chandler, 2002) claimed that something is considered as a sign only if it is interpreted as a sign.
Ferdinand de Saussure and Charles Sanders Peirce set forth the two dominant models of what makes up a sign. For Saussure (as cited in Chandler, 2002, p. 18), a sign is the marriage between a ‘signifier’ and a ‘signified’. A signifier is the form which the sign takes, for e.g. word, whereas signified is the concept to which the sign refers to. He believed that the relation between the signifier and signified is always arbitrary, that is there is no direct relation between both.
Peirce, meanwhile, offered a triadic model of sign, i.e. the representamen, an interpretant, and an object. Chandler (2002 p.33) explained Peirce’s representamen is equal to Saussure’s signifier, whereas the interpretant is equal to the signified (with a different quality, i.e. interpretant is another sign created in the interpreters’ mind). Unlike Saussure, Peirce claimed that signs are different in terms of their degree of arbitrariness, and can be categorized into three modes. The modes are, respectively, symbol, icon, and index. The relation between the signifier and signified in symbol is completely arbitrary, just like what Saussure stated. Whereas in icon, the relation is motivated, i.e. the signifier imitates the signified, e.g. a photograph. In index, the signifier is perceived as having causal relation with the signified, e.g. smoke as the index of fire.
To interpret signs, the interpreter has to relate them with the codes. Codes are sets of rules for connecting signs and meaning. Like in advertisement, the codes, such as, fashion, color, and camera angle determines how the viewer (interpreter) interprets the sign.
In terms of meaning, a sign can be divided into two categories denotation and connotation. Denotation is the literal meaning of the sign. Meanwhile, connotation “is used to refer to the social-cultural and personal associations of the sign” (Chandler, 2002). Barthes’ orders of signification, as shown in the table below, describes how denotation and connotation work. signifier | signified | SIGNsignifier | signified | SIGN |
Source: Semiotics the Basics p. 142
The sign in the second row is the denotative sign, which consists of the denotative signifier and signified (in the first row). The denotative sign, then, functions as the connotative signifier which together with the connotative signified forms the connotative sign.
This study employs descriptive qualitative approach because this study describes the phenomena found in Mens Biore advertisement using semiotic theories. To investigate the representation of masculinity, the signs found in the advertisement are analyzed based on Barthes’ orders of signification. Besides that, this study also employs Kress and Van Leeuwen’s method of reading images (2006) and intertextual analysis in order to obtain more comprehensive analysis.

The figure shows a young man dressed in business suit trotting somewhere, probably to his office. The business suit that the man wears may indicate, as stated by Richards (1998), that he has high powered job. The choice of the suit’s color confirms the man’s presupposed social power. As can be seen from the picture, the colors of the man’s coat (and tie) and shirt are, respectively, black and white. According to Linschoten and Mansyur (as cited in Akbar, 2012) black connotes dark, mysterious, conservative, and prestigious. All of these connotations, prestigious connotation is the one that best describes the man. This is because, the man wears coat, which is often regarded as being formal, compared to t-shirts which is considered informal and casual. Therefore, the prestigious connotation fits this context. The white color also connotes something related to prestige, i.e. elegance. In line with this, Couisins (2012) stated that the combination of black and white represents power and perfection.
The word power itself clearly signifies masculinity. Kokopeli and Lakey (n.d.) state that ‘masculinity equals power’ either physically or socially. This advertisement mainly highlights the former type of power, which entails, among others, wealth and success. According to Alexander (as cited in Säkäjärvi, 2013), men’s ability to obtain wealth, fame, success and high status is what defines the masculinity of man. This is because wealth, fame, success and high status are commonly regarded as proof of man’s dominance, control, and independence.
The representation of power (hence masculinity) is also shown through the man’s (wearing business suit) appearance. The man’s hair is short and neat. The hairstyle also complements the business suit. In line with this, Seiler (n.d.) stated that short hair is often associated with, inter alia, a businessman or an executive. With regard to gender stereotype, short hair itself is considered as masculine. Moreover, the hair looks stiff, perhaps due to the use of hair gel/ wax, which gives strong and tough impression.
Regarding the man’s face, it is bright and clean, which is in line with the image of the product. According to Ririn and Bernadeta (2012) a man with bright skin stands for healthiness (besides beauty). Moreover, healthiness itself can be seen as one of masculine features because it is related to physical strength and vitality.
The smile on the man’s face (the signifier of the smile itself is the man’s corners of the mouth which moves upwards) is an index of something. Usually, a smile is thought as an index of happiness. However, smile can also mean many other things, depending on its shape and other facial expressions and gestures that follow it. According to The Meaning of Smiles (2013), the type of smile which is commonly associated with happiness is a wide smile. However, the man’s smile does not fall into this type. Therefore, it may stand for something else. Looking at his gesture, it is reasonable to assume that the smile is an index of confidence and success. This can be seen from the man who looks pleased and amused with himself. It has been mentioned before that success (and also confidence) is one feature that characterizes masculinity. Another reason why success is one of features of masculinity is that it is often associated with aggressiveness which has been stereotyped as men’s quality. Regarding aggressiveness, in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, it is defined as the quality of being determined in order to be successful.
When looking at advertisement, the viewer tends to relate the text (the advertisement) with other texts. For instance, the viewer may relate the actor in this Mens Biore advertisement with his movies. The actor in this advertisement is Iko Uwais who is best known as the leading star of the action movies Merantau and The Raid. Therefore, this is reasonable for people to associate the product with action, and hence masculinity.
Beside the man (on the man’s right side) is the icon of mirror. However, the mirror shows different reflection, i.e. a man who is playing football. From his physical characteristics, it can be seen that the man looks similar to the one wearing business suit. Therefore, there is a high tendency to think of the men as the same person. However, in semiotics both icon of men in the picture are considered as two participants.
The mirror’s showing false reflection is of course illogical since mirror in real life always reflects what is in front of it. According to Chandler (2013), when something/ someone does not conform to the rules or norms, it can be interpreted as ‘making a statement’. In this case, both the icon of the man wearing suit and the one wearing football clothing can be seen as the representation of two different, but interrelated, colors of masculinity. For the sake of simplicity, the man wearing football clothing will be referred to as participant 1 (P1), whereas the man wearing business suit will be referred to as participant 2 (P2).
As can be seen from the figure, P2 is positioned on the viewer’s right side, whereas P1 is positioned on the viewer’s left side. This kind of positioning of course generates certain meanings. According to Kress and Von Leeuwen (2006, p. 179-180), left and right denote the ‘given’ and the ‘new’. What is meant by ‘given’ is something the viewer/ reader is ‘assumed to know already (Kress & van Leeuwen, as cited in Chandler 2013). In this case, P1 is the given, namely something which is already agreed upon by the viewer as the image of a masculine man. On the other hand, ‘new’ is something which is not yet known by the viewer/ reader. In this case, P2 is a new image of masculinity, which is not yet agreed upon the viewer, that the advertiser attempts to introduce.
It can be seen from the figure that P1 is playing football, which can be seen from the ball icon and the clothing. In many cultures such depiction is often taken as masculinity. In Indonesia, for instance, football is stereotyped as masculine sport (although the word sport itself is often associated with men). This is because football connotes physical strength and stamina. Besides that, playing football also entails the picture of sweating which often connotes masculinity. P2, as has been explained before, also shows the features of masculinity, as already explained before, however in different manner. The representation of masculinity in P1 emphasizes on physical power, whereas in the P2 the emphasis is on social power. Besides, in P2 the features of masculinity are juxtaposed with feminine features. To be more precise, the advertiser tries to distort the feminine features that are attached to skincare product by offering new concept of masculinity.
The sense of offer is also suggested by the vector. Kress and van Leeuwen (2006) stated that gaze at the viewer indicates demand, whereas absence of gaze at the viewer indicates offer. As can be seen from the figure, both P1 and P2 do not look directly at the viewer. However, it does not only suggest offer, but other ranges of potential meanings. Following the vector of both participants, it can be seen that they gaze at certain point which the viewer cannot see. Moreover, their arms and their body, which leans slightly forward, indicate that they are heading towards certain direction. Although the viewer cannot see where or to what object the vector ends, however from the gaze and gestures of the participants, it seems like they are certain about their direction. The word certainty is also associated with confidence which (as mentioned before) signifies masculinity.
The reason of not displaying where the vector ends also needs analyzing. If this is connected with the writing in the bottom of the picture “Tampil Terbaik What’s Next?!”, several potential meanings can be grasped. First, the sentence “tampil terbaik” can have two meanings in English. That is, it can mean “Do your best (in terms of performing tasks)” and “Give your best appearance (in terms of look)”. The sentence “Tampil Terbaik” in the first and the second sense is related to the word competition, which entails the word aggressive. The competition in relation to carrier suggests men’s nature to be more dominant than women and other men. The competition in terms of appearance, besides related to carrier, can be also seen as competition among men to attract the opposite sex.
The sentence “What Next?!”, if it is linked with the sentence which precedes it (Tampil Terbaik) and with the vector, explained before, it may mean that the man (P1 and P2) is “up for the challenge”. The connotative signified ‘challenge’ itself is generated from the meaning of the sentence “What Next” itself and the question mark that follows it. The sentence “What Next” which ends with the question mark complement the absence of the vector’s end. However, this sentence, also suggests confidence and bravery. This can be seen from the insertion of exclamation mark and the facial expressions (which include how the man gaze) and the gestures.
The continuation of the writing in the advertisement is also worth considering. The phrase “Double Scrub, Double Action” is related to the product as depicted right beside it. “Double Scrub” refers to the content of the product itself, i.e. black scrub and white scrub. The next line of the writing explains this: “Black scrub angkat minyak dan kotoran dengan lebih baik ” (Black scrub removes oil and dirt better); “White scrub angkat sel kulit mati” (White scrub removes dead skin). Moreover, the existence of the black and white scrub is also shown from the color of the product’s container. The phrase “double action, together with the choice of color of the product’s container is connected with the depiction of P1 and P2. That is the P1 and P2 are seen as the double action itself, the two colors of masculinity.
It can be concluded that Mens Biore Double Scrub advertisement represents two concepts of masculinity. The first one is the concept of traditional masculinity, such as strong, aggressive, and independence. The second one is a new concept of masculinity that the advertiser attempts to offer. The way the advertisement represents these concepts of masculinity is by using left and right positioning, with the first concept on the left side and the second concept on the right side. This way the two concepts of masculinity can be juxtaposed. The feminine features in P2 is distorted by emphasizing masculine features of P1 and the shared masculine features of P2.
Akbar, M. G. (2012). Color of Masculinity: Representation of Man in Cigarette Advertisements.
Brannon, L. (2011). Gender Stereotypes: Masculinity and Femininity. Gender: Psychological perspectives (6th ed.).
Chandler, D. (2002). Semiotics: The basics. London, NY: Routledge.
Chandler, D. (2013, January 3). Semiotics for Beginners: Paradigmatic Analysis. Retrieved December 24, 2013, from
Chandler, D. (2013, January 3). Semiotics for Beginners: Syntagmatic Analysis. Retrieved December 24, 2013, from
Cousins, C. (2012, April 3). Color and Emotion: What Does Each Hue Mean? | Codrops. Retrieved December 22, 2013, from
Darwin, M. (1999). Maskulinitas: Posisi Laki-laki dalam Masyarakat Patriarkis.
Interpreting The Meaning of Different Types Of Smiles | Lifetime Smiles. (2013, October 17). Retrieved December 23, 2013, from
Kokopeli, B., & Lakey, G. (n.d.). More Power Than We Want: Masculine Sexuality and Violence | Training for Change. Retrieved December 22, 2013, from
Kress, G. R., & Van, L. T. (2006). Reading images: The grammar of visual design (2nd ed.).
Mayr, S. W. (2013). Reading Culture in TV Commercials A Semiotic Analysis of A TV Commercial for The Purpose of Teaching Culture to Foreign Language Students. International Journal of Arts and Commerce, 2(1). Retrieved from
Media and Semiotic Theory: Key Terms and Concepts. (n.d.). Retrieved December 18, 2013, from
Nobelius, A. M. (2004, June 23). What is the difference between sex and gender? Retrieved December 18, 2013, from
Oxford advanced learner's dictionary (8th ed.). (2010).
Rajpal, M. (2010). The power of advertising - Retrieved December 14, 2013, from
Richards, S. (1998). A Semiotic Analysis of Wallis Ads. Retrieved December 20, 2013, from
Ririn, B., & Amalia, L. L. (2001). Two Faces of Masculinity in Axe Chocolate Advertisement. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1(2).
Seiler, R. M. (n.d.). Semiology // Semiotics. Retrieved December 22, 2013, from
Säkäjärvi, S. (2013). Myths of masculinity in luxury advertising - constructing an ideal male consumer. Retrieved from

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Representation of Masculinity Through Ads

...Representation of Masculinity through ads I chose the Gucci ad that has two handsome men in suits and another Gucci ad that has James Franco on it. Though these two ads are from the same brand, they advertise two different products, one being suits and the other being cologne. Nonetheless these two ads are selling products suited for men. In the article “Men and Women's Women: How TV Commercials Portray Gender to Different Audiences” Steve Craig states “My previous research (Craig, 1990, December) supports the argument that advertisers also structure the gender images in their commercials to match the expectations and fantasies of their intended audience” (Craig). Advertisers expect to sell a product using what the intended gender of consumers will understand. Through these ads women expect men to have a good job, to be manly, and also be attractive. Women’s perspective of men as well as men’s perspective of themselves is influenced by High end brands representation of masculinity; these brands advertise masculinity through occupations, physical characteristics, and sex appeal. A man’s job/occupation is a factor in defining masculinity and what it takes to be a masculine man. For instance if a man were a nurse then many people would say that his occupation is the opposite of masculine, but if that man were a firefighter or surgeon than suddenly he is masculine because of his job. In the essay “Masters of Desire: The Culture of American Advertising”, Jack Solomon discusses......

Words: 1724 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Developing Communication for a New Brand in Skin Cream Category

...CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR Application Exercise - II Developing communication for a new brand in skin cream category Submitted to - Prof. S Ramesh Kumar Group 17 Gunjan Kumar Prashant Gutch Kartik Yeleswaram Prashant Singh 1111344 1111345 1111348 1111362 Table of Contents 1. Category and Brand Information ........................................................................................... 2 1.1 Category summary ........................................................................................................................ 2 1.2 Key Brands summary..................................................................................................................... 3 2. Category Analysis & Linkages to concepts ............................................................................. 4 3. Issues Identification ............................................................................................................... 6 4. Selection of Articles ............................................................................................................... 8 5. Addressing the issues using article ...................................................................................... 12 6. Recommendations for new brand communication ............................................................. 16 7. Process Employed ............................................................................................................... 17 8. References ..........

Words: 6601 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Violence Against Women

... -Bark like a dog (subordination of women is part of the “man” package) -Comparison to women as a challenging idea (you are a “bitch”) -Chyna becomes so strong, she is stripped of femininity (later rejects public image) -violence as “deserved,” even really crazy awful sexual violence (“bark like a dog”) -“'s only entertainment.” -Sex Trafficking (Trade) B)Gender, Beauty, Normalization -Wolf, beauty as a prerequisite for success for women -“girls learn that stories happen to 'beautiful' woman but don't happen to women who aren't beautiful” -beauty as a market and product -the female body as a constant -Kaw, Asian Americans (3% of pop., 6% of cosmetic surgeries), most likely ethnicity to get c. surgery -encouragement of self hatred -pressuring women to conform to standards of normality -media representation of Asians as “sleepy, dull, uninterested” -origins in facial reconstruction at WWI -now used to “fix” completely natural features -Valenti, beauty as a “shut the fuck up” tool -beauty is a distraction -women are too ugly or too pretty to be consequential/deserve public attention -Bordo, Slender Body -double bind: producer v. consumer -moral coding: fat is seen as lazy, thin as control -cultural value on tautness -thin is aristocratic C)Orientalism -constructed based on the West (Occidental) -rides on preconceived notions -denies aspects of humanity and collapses......

Words: 1763 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Gender Display in Fashion Magazines Advertisements

...eating disorders and lower self-esteem. Moreover, gender is a routine, methodical, and recurring accomplishment that actually surfaces in everyday human interaction (West and Zimmerman, 1987), and gender relations are learned through these advertisements, which essentially serve as a distorted reflection of the real world. These sexualized and stereotypical gender images are teaching the viewers a vast array of social cues, a certain way to interpret social reality, and are eventually reconstructing the definition of femininity and masculinity. Various studies have been done regarding the covert ways that magazine advertisements construct masculinity and femininity. Assuming that significant differences in the portrayal of men and women would be found in terms of magazine type and its target readers, a content analysis will be used to examine and compare the selected fashion magazines to determine how contemporary advertisers define or portray masculinity and femininity to different readerships. Literature...

Words: 1780 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Changing Gender Roles in the Irish Society

...Gender has had a large effect on consumption of products and services in the Irish society. Gender roles have changed over time in the Irish society; women have gone from the traditional roles of housewives to having professional occupations. Changing gender roles in the Irish society has lead to many difficulties for marketers. To be male or female can be defined biologically, but masculinity and femininity are socially constructed. The image of masculinity and femininity differ due to cultural aspects and change over time. Early advertising and brand building were aimed at women in the Irish society as the consumer was seen as a female role. Products and services of less significance such as domestic brands were aimed at women. Adverts for domestic brands often represented women to be naive and foolish. The washing detergent adverts for Ajax Laundry Detergent in the 1960’s portrays the foolish housewife. “The housewife was a uniformed and classless persona precisely because marketers could for the first time unite women from different backgrounds under the same banner” (Giles, 2004) Due to marketers the perceived image of a woman’s role was a housewife. This image of a woman who cooks, cleans and takes care of the children was a learned image in the Irish society. From a young age we were exposed to housewife role through children’s programs, television soap operas films and television adverts. This image of the traditional housewife was broke in the late 1980’s and......

Words: 1482 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...Science Studies 2/2006 A Gendered Economy of Pleasure: Representations of Cars and Humans in Motoring Magazines Catharina Landström This paper analyses cultural signification in the co-production of gender and technology. Focusing on the popular genre of motoring magazines, it discerns a pattern organising men and women in opposite relations to cars. Men’s relationships with cars are premised on passion and pleasure while women are figured as rational and unable to attach emotionally to cars. This “gendered economy of pleasure” is traced in a close reading of motoring magazine representations of cars and humans. Further, a DVD representation of the Volvo YCC, a concept car developed by women for an imagined female user, is discussed in relation to this semiotic pattern. The paper is conceptual, texts are interpreted in order to bring forward aspects of meaning-making that are not immediately obvious. The objective is to critically illuminate one aspect of the cultural production of the car as a masculine technology. Keywords: cars, gender, pleasure This paper suggests a way in which to think about the cultural construction of the car as a masculine technology. Interpreting representations in motoring magazines, it traces a “gendered economy of pleasure” that organises the symbolical meanings of relationships between humans and cars. The objective is to contribute a critical perspective on cultural meaning-making to the feminist interrogation of the co-production of......

Words: 11429 - Pages: 46

Free Essay


...Karlstad University A Study of Factors Affecting on Men’s Skin Care Products Purchasing, Particularly in Karlstad, Sweden A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Master of Business Administration School of Graduate Studies Master Thesis – One year program (FEAD 01) Karlstad University Academic Year 2010 Thesis Advisors: Per Skålén Sofia Molander Chanintorn Moungkhem 860119-T219 Jiraporn Surakiatpinyo 860926-T204 Karlstads universitet 651 88 Karlstad Tfn 054-700 10 00 Fax 054-700 14 60 A Study of Factors Affecting on Men’s Skin Care Products Purchasing Page 1 of 77 ABSTRACT This study examines in some depth the influences of marketing mix, social factors, emergence of the metrosexual, evolution of femininity and masculinity, self-esteem and customer decision making on the male consumer behavior in purchasing skin care products in Sweden, particular in Karlstad. In do so, the theories of masculinity and femininity, customer behavior theory, customer decision making’s theory, theory of metrosexual and theory of the four Ps in marketing mix strategy are employed as a theoretical framework and also adapted with theory of the self esteem involvement. It also endeavors to find out the reasonable impacts of perception on the relationship between variables and consumer behaviors. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to men who are in the age range between 15-45 years old and......

Words: 24266 - Pages: 98

Free Essay

Media: Mirror of Society

...hourglass corset, which shrunk the woman’s waist to a much smaller size, we still see these tactics used by today’s women. This issue isn’t only occurring in the United States, it is a worldwide problem that continues to grow. The media uses the social elite, such as athletes and actresses, to advertise products and goods; the use of these models can have significant outcomes, both negative and positive, on individuals in our society. The positive being that viewers of these magazines that advertise skinny models and fit athletes may be influenced to change their lifestyle from unhealthy to healthy. The negative being that viewer’s want to take the quickest and easiest ways in order to achieve results, which can lead to dangerous side effects and habits. So the question is, is it even worth it to try to look perfect if dangerous methods have to be used? We see all over the world, individuals trying to look their best by working out consistently, dieting, or both. All of which are done with one goal in mind, too look good to yourself and everyone else. Most of time individuals don’t try to look perfect for themselves but also for society. We try to adjust the standards of beauty and fitness that are perceived in magazines and...

Words: 2036 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Journal of Macromarketing

...Article Self-oriented Masculinity: Advertisements and the Changing Culture of the Male Market Journal of Macromarketing 33(2) 160-171 ª The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permission: DOI: 10.1177/0276146712463823 Blaine J. Branchik1 and Tilottama Ghosh Chowdhury1 Abstract This research chronicles the changes in the understudied and rapidly evolving male market segment using two related studies: (1) a content analysis of advertisements in fifty-one years of Sports Illustrated magazine and (2) an experiment involving age-based differences in consumer ad perceptions. Both investigate changing ad values and the ethnic diversity of ad models. Results indicate that the male market is becoming increasingly self-oriented in its values orientation as a result of broad societal changes and changing gender roles. Increasing use of black or African American models in key positions indicates a growing acceptance of minorities as representations of the ideal self among younger men, who express a preference for black or African American models. This finding speaks to the increasingly multicultural nature of society and the impact of minority celebrities on American culture. The results are indicative of the power of advertising in both reflecting and facilitating societal change. Keywords advertising, male market, societal change, ethnicity, gender, culture, macromarketing Introduction American men, as a......

Words: 10179 - Pages: 41

Premium Essay

Embodying the Gay Self: Body Image, Reflexivity and Embodied Identity

...437–450. Embodying the gay self: Body image, reflexivity and embodied identity DUANE DUNCAN Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia ABSTRACT The emphasis on a sexualised muscular body ideal in gay social and cultural settings has been described as facilitating body image dissatisfaction among gay men. Drawing on a concept of reflexive embodiment, this paper uses qualitative interviews to analyse gay men’s embodiment practices in relation to discourses and norms that can be found across and beyond any coherent notion of ‘gay subculture’. The findings reveal body image to be more complex than a limited focus on subculture or dissatisfaction can account for. In particular, gay men negotiate a gay pride discourse in which the muscular male body generates both social status and self-esteem, and deploy notions of everyday masculinity that imply rationality and control to resist gendered assumptions about gay men’s body image relationships. KEYWORDS: body image; gay men; reflexive embodiment; sociology INTRODUCTION Body image dissatisfaction and gay men Following the shift from individual pathol-ogy to cognitive-behavioural and feminist perspectives in psychology (McKinely 2002; Pruzinsky and Cash 2002), a significant volume of psychological and health research has identi-fied a greater incidence of body image dissatis-faction, and eating disordered behaviour among gay men......

Words: 7590 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay


...was placed on men) in order to draw attention to inequities in their portrayal in relation to men (in quantitative terms as well as in terms of the use of stereotypes). Since the 1970s, however, the scope of social constructionism has greatly expanded in feminist theory. Some suggest that the distinction between the biological and the social has, as a result, eroded to such an extent that it is no longer possible to understand the difference, while others question the need for this distinction. For instance, in queer and transgender theory and feminist cultural studies, theorists have sought to make strange the ‘sex/gender’ distinction. The key argument made is that biology is no less a cultural construct than gender socialization into masculinity and femininity. While the point is that biology, like gender, is thought to be socially constructed, that does not mean that there is no such thing as biology. While it is notoriously difficult if not impossible to identify exactly what is driven by biology or by culture, identity scholars insist that this is not the central question that needs to be asked. Instead, identity...

Words: 8766 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

Gender Roles

...that: “Stereotype is a preconceived, oversimplified, exaggerated, and often demeaning assumption of the characteristics possessed by an individual due to his or her membership in a specific group. [It] usually functions to deny individuals respect or legitimacy based on their membership in that group. They are the hardest to dislodge in situations where a dominant group desires to keep another group subordinate”. The purpose of this essay is to generate an understanding of how gender roles are shaped and defined in society due to an overwhelming amount of stereotyping and the influence of the mass media that has left an undeniable impact on our everyday life. When talking about gender, we are referring to “culturally learned notions of masculinity and femininity” (Tepperman et al., 2007, p. 187). As noted by Tepperman (2007), “From a social standpoint, gender is the social enactment of a biological difference.” The result of this is males are treated as men because they play masculine roles, and females are treated as women because they play feminine roles. Gender roles on the other hand, are “learned patterns of behaviour that a society expects of men or women, and they are a widespread aspect of social life” (Tepperman et al., 2007, p. 187). Hence, there are qualities of men and women that society will expect distinctly from one gender or the other. For example, in most culture men have assumed less of a nurturing...

Words: 2783 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

False Image, Real Effect

...Research Paper False Image, Real Effect Advertisements do not always present the truth but people can still choose to accept it as truth. Advertisers have always stretched the truth in order to sell a product. Advertisements present everything as an extravagant, over the top, perfect for all, necessity. Throughout time, new techniques for advertisements have developed. Because of technological advancements there are more ways to advertise as well. Before, news and anything good would have been spread through word of mouth. Now, there are voices coming through radio stations telling people what they want and need. Advertisement pictures and videos are constantly being played on the television screens, cellphones and almost any other electronic gadget. Advertisers still manage to stretch the truth, now in more creative ways. Advertisements, especially print, are photo-enhancing and distorting images to create a false image. Photographs of human beings, taken to help sell a product, are now being altered and becoming the product. There are many studies that have been conducted on the effects of these altered images, however a majority of these studies revolve around the female body. Targeting men with other men on advertisements is something that has spread widely and effected men's body image. Advertisements give a false image of how men and women should look; these advertisements need to reduce or label the level of retouching or possibly stop retouching photographs all......

Words: 2369 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

50 Key Concepts in Gender Studies

...50 Key Concepts in Gender Studies Jane Pilcher & Imelda Whelehan Fifty Key Concepts in Gender Studies i Recent volumes include: Key Concepts in Social Research Geoff Payne and Judy Payne Key Concepts in Medical Sociology Jonathan Gabe, Mike Bury and Mary Ann Elston Forthcoming titles include: Key Concepts in Leisure Studies David Harris Key Concepts in Critical Social Theory Nick Crossley Key Concepts in Urban Studies Mark Gottdiener The SAGE Key Concepts series provide students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension. JANE PILCHER AND IMELDA WHELEHAN Fifty Key Concepts in Gender Studies SAGE Publications London • Thousand Oaks • New Delhi iii © Jane Pilcher and Imelda Whelehan 2004 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission in writing from the Publishers. SAGE Publications Ltd 1 Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP SAGE Publications Inc 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd B-42 Panchsheel Enclave Post Box 4109 New Delhi 100 017 British......

Words: 86432 - Pages: 346

Premium Essay


...“Behind the Fair Façade” Representations of Femininity in Three Walt Disney Animated Features Bachelor Thesis Bethany Schouten, 3278972 Media en Cultuurwetenschappen Genderstudies Supervisor: Domitilla Olivieri May 31st, 2011 “Behind the Fair Façade” Representations of Femininity in Three Walt Disney Animated Features Bachelor thesis by Bethany Schouten, 3278972 Index Introduction 3 Methodological and theoretical Framework 4 Corpus 9 The Research: SNOW WHITE AND THE SEVEN DWARFS 11 The Research: THE LITTLE MERMAID 18 The Research: THE PRINCESS AND THE FROG 24 Findings and Interpretation 31 Identity Formation 35 Conclusion 38 Literature 41 Media 43 Introduction The Walt Disney Company’s cultural products have been a great influence on popular culture since the 1930s and an inspiration for generations all over the world ever since. For many, including myself, the Princes, Princesses and fantastical creatures of Disney’s animated fairy tales have become symbols of their youth. Seeing the films gives rise to a feeling of nostalgia, they become a memento of one’s childhood world. But what kind of world is this? What kind of realities do Disney’s fantastical representations construct? In my thesis, I will analyze a specific element of Disney films: gender roles constructed through the representation of femininity in their......

Words: 16127 - Pages: 65