The Review of' Foundations of the Theory of Organization' and Bureaucracy

In: Other Topics

Submitted By DeusexmacinaPJ
Words 597
Pages 3
Foundations of the Theory of Organization
In this reading, organization is defined by Selznick as “a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more persons.” Usually, an organization can be viewed either as an economy, or an adaptive social structure. For Selznick, to view the organization as an economy is scientific and measurable, while an adaptive social structure leans toward the non-exact behavioral sciences. He thus advocated the wide adoption of ‘structural-functional analysis’ as the basis of theory and method of analysis of organization, which addresses the composite of mechanical structures and individual personalities that make up the cooperating, structured system of organization. The three major ideas in his theory of organization based on this reading are: organizations as cooperative, adaptive social systems; the conflict of personal and organizational goals and needs; and controlling conflict for the good of the organization. Finally, he talks about co-optation, which is a method of protecting the organization and its mission by inviting threatening elements into the policy making process.
From my perspective, Selznick seems to overemphasize the rational structures and mechanistic processes of organizational activities. What is clear in examining this reading is the idea that a well-functioning organization has to proceed in unison-as a whole unit rather than as individual parts attempting to meet individuals’ goals. The whole organization functions like the human body that when any of the elements within the structure begins to fail, it must has a deleterious effect on the entire body. And, like when our body is experiencing a conflict of some sort, it tells us by our experiencing pain or discomfort, the organization, as an adaptive structure, is elaborated to preserve and maintain its stability and continuity mechanically…...

Similar Documents

Bureaucracy

... distinct groups of people who are managed, organised and paid differently and with different expectations, the professional core, the contractual fringe and the flexible labour force. The professional core comprises qualified professionals, technicians and managers essential to the existence and effective performance of the organisation. The contractual fringe are people outside of the organisation who provide specialist service and undertake all non-essential work which can done by somebody else and in theory are able to do it better for less. The organisational principle is that the contractual fringes are paid for result not for time, in fees and not wages (McKenna, 2012). The flexible labour force represents all those part-time and temporary workers who make up the fastest growing group in the pattern of employment. According to Handy organisations now have three significant workforces each with different commitments and a set of expectations and each workforce needs to manage in different ways. A manager could use the concept of the shamrock and how this might best be adapted and utilised in a review of structure to suit the particular circumstances of the nature and operation of their own organisation. The flexible labour force has increasingly been used as a cheaper and more convenient means of dealing with the peaks and troughs of demands and as a means of adjusting the level of service to match changing customer requirements. Although casual and part-time staffs...

Words: 2045 - Pages: 9

Bureaucracy

...The bureaucracy is an agent for the fulfilment of the policies of the government. Rigid neutrality and rigorous impartiality regarding political issues are the basis of official conduct. Democratic objectives would be impossible to attain in modern society without a bureaucratic organisation to implement them. Bureaucratisation usually concentrates power in a few men and curtails the freedom of the individual, which is essential for democracy. Bureaucracy endangers democratic freedom but at the same time it serves important functions in a democratic society, which must not be ignored. Whatever the present state of administration, it seems clear that the art of administration implies democracy, which must be built on understanding of hierarchy as the structure of responsibility. The bureaucracy is an instrument to carryout public will, and this is expressed by parliament in the form of law. The principles of Weberian bureaucracy seem to be in use in the Bangladesh bureaucracy. Our bureaucratic institutions are centralised and hierarchical, they are professional and impersonal, and the staff is chosen on the basis of examinations. These principles might have worked well in Weber's day when the tasks were relatively simple and straightforward. But the world has changed rapidly: the situation is characterised by technological revolution, global economic competition, free markets, educated workforces, demanding customers and severe fiscal constraints. Bureaucracy has become...

Words: 1030 - Pages: 5

Foundation Review

...Review: Foundations Test #2 2012 What defines a classical society? Similarities and differences between them? (article) What is the definitions AND significance of the following? Rome Etruscans Latins Republic Greeks- influence? Patrician Legions Plebeian Senate Consuls Centuriate Assembly Tribal Assembly Tribunes Veto- Who had it? Praetors- How many? Twelve Tables Citizenship- who had it? Women? Times of emergency, who ruled? “Real Power” Geography? Punic Wars Hannibal? Scipio? Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus? Civil War Period? Shift from Republic to Empire? Describe Loyalty of soldier? Julius Caesar Triumvirate Crassus Pompey Ides of March Octavian? Augustus? Pax Romana? Trade system? Basis? Succession to throne? Gladiators? Entertainment? Problems with Empire? Why the Fall-specifics? Diocletian? Constantine? Huns? Germanic invasions? Attila? Byzantine Empire Romulus Augustulus? Virgil? Roman Achievements? The major contribution to Western CIF.? Dates of Republic/Empire/Byzantine Trajan? Arch/Architecture? Infrastructure? Greatest Roman Legacy? Gupta Major accomplishments of each Empire? Mauryan Chandragupta Maurya? Indian geography? Invasions into India? Arthashastra Ashoka Maurya? Kautilya? Buddhism and Hinduism? Brahmin? Collapse? Patriarchal/Matriarchal? Chandra Gupta? White Huns? Tamil? Trade...

Words: 597 - Pages: 3

Bureaucracy

...A bureaucracy is an organization made up of many departments and divisions that are administered by lots of people. The administrative structure of any large organization, public or private. Ideally bureaucracy is characterized by hierarchical authority relations, defined spheres of competence subject to impersonal rules, recruitment by competence, and fixed salaries. Its goal is to be rational, efficient, and professional. Max Weber, the most important student of bureaucracy, described it as technically superior to all other forms of organization and hence indispensable to large, complex enterprises. However, because of the shortcomings that have in practice afflicted large administrative structures, the terms bureaucracy and bureaucrat in popular usage usually carry a suggestion of disapproval and imply incompetence, a narrow outlook, duplication of effort, and application of a rigid rule without due consideration of specific cases. Bureaucracy existed in imperial Rome and China and in the national monarchies, but in modern states complex industrial and social legislation has called forth a vast growth of administrative functions of government. The power of permanent and nonelective officials to apply and even initiate measures of control over national administration and economy has made the bureaucracy central to the life of the state; critics object that it is largely impervious to control by the people or their elected representatives. The institution of the ombudsman...

Words: 459 - Pages: 2

Bureaucracy

.... He explained that in order to be successful as a business you must have rules and regulations, a system to keep organization within the company. This organization is like a strategy and can either have a positive or negative effect on the organizational design. Depending on the approach, if a low-cost leadership strategy is utilized, the focus is to continuously keep costs lower than their competitors, as well as achieve and maintain higher profitability. This leadership strategy emphasizes strong standard procedures, strict rules, centralized authority and micromanaging subordinates; leaving no room for creativity or having an opinion (Daft, 2013). The focus of differentiation strategy, in comparison, is based upon learning & flexibility. Employee’s are encouraged to be creative and are rewarded when they come up with new innovation designs and take risks. This design values and focuses on building and maintaining business relationships with customers (page 70, Table 2.6). Their strategy focuses on differentiating themselves from other businesses in the industry through the use of unique advertisement, outstanding service, or even through technology use to make the business stand out. When dealing with customers their primary focus is those who do not have price limit, resulting in high profitability (Daft, 2013). Also, customers become loyal, and this lowers the level of duplicate products and competition among other businesses. To end, bureaucracy is a system, an......

Words: 1011 - Pages: 5

Organization Theory

...Organization Theory Name Instructor Course Date 1.0 Title………………………………………………………………………………………2 1.1 Organization theory………………………………………………………………………4 1.2 Strategies of the new firm…………………………………………………………….4 2.0 Organizational structure………………………………………………………………….4 2.1 Organization culture……………………………………………………………………...5 2.2 Missions, visions and values……………………………………………………………..5 2.3 Data……………………………………………………………………………………....5 Organization Theory In this case merging takes place when the two separate hospitals come together. Here one hospital acquires the other through purchase or agreement. Differentiation is the main reasons that PRMC and BRMC may opt to come together. It helps in reducing risk in the market. Acquisition will enable PRMC to spread its risk through diversification. Another reason is to gain financial upper hand in the market since the hospital is operating at loses. These are mostly done by firms that are almost closing or becoming bankrupt. When firms merge, they enjoy the benefits of tax reduction. Economies of scale are another reason why PRMC and BRMC merged. This involves operation costs which are reduced when two firms merge. Both hospitals benefit in their operations. Merging takes place when two separate entities come together. Here one hospital acquires the other through purchase (Collins & Porras, 1996). Merging helped PRMC to reduce risk in the market. Acquisition enables a company to spread its risk through diversification...

Words: 1027 - Pages: 5

Bureaucracy

... behavior and actions of each employee more predictable. Tasks given are then controlled through rules, SOPs and norms while the rules eliminate direct supervision and management can delegate responsibility with subordinates knowing these rules. When it comes to informal organization it can affect the way the formal hierarchy works. When discussing formal organizations the decisions made and the coordination that occur both the rules and norms will emerge out of the informal organization and over time personal relationships will begin to develop. Informal organization will affect not only individual behavior but group behavior as well. This will result with an altering of the formal structure disrupting informal norms which make up the organizational work. Although it could actually enhance the company’s organizational performance mainly from the many accomplishments that had been passed through the informal network and not revealed through the formal hierarchy. Bureaucracy can and will become a problem within an organization. It will become a problem when management tends to fail to control the development of the organizational hierarchy. If members rely only on the rules then they will become non-responsive to the stakeholders needs. According to Max Weber, there are six principles in which distribute responsibilities and authority in order to maximize their company’s effectiveness. The first principle is that of a person’s authority which is due to a position within the...

Words: 742 - Pages: 3

The Review of' Foundations of the Theory of Organization' and Bureaucracy

...Foundations of the Theory of Organization In this reading, organization is defined by Selznick as “a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more persons.” Usually, an organization can be viewed either as an economy, or an adaptive social structure. For Selznick, to view the organization as an economy is scientific and measurable, while an adaptive social structure leans toward the non-exact behavioral sciences. He thus advocated the wide adoption of ‘structural-functional analysis’ as the basis of theory and method of analysis of organization, which addresses the composite of mechanical structures and individual personalities that make up the cooperating, structured system of organization. The three major ideas in his theory of organization based on this reading are: organizations as cooperative, adaptive social systems; the conflict of personal and organizational goals and needs; and controlling conflict for the good of the organization. Finally, he talks about co-optation, which is a method of protecting the organization and its mission by inviting threatening elements into the policy making process. From my perspective, Selznick seems to overemphasize the rational structures and mechanistic processes of organizational activities. What is clear in examining this reading is the idea that a well-functioning organization has to proceed in unison-as a whole unit rather than as individual parts attempting to meet individuals’ goals. The whole...

Words: 597 - Pages: 3

Foundation

...This was my first footstep of starting my degree life. First day of attending the Foundation of Business course, the feeling of tension filled me up. The main reason was because I have to adapt the new course and environment. This course is taught by Ms. Khor Siu Gek, an approachable and friendly lecturer. When I first glance over the module guide, this is quite a different course since it contains 100% coursework mark. In the first lecture class, Ms. Khor explained about what we are going to do throughout this course. The 100% coursework mark is divided into four categories which are portfolio, group project, essay on a given assignment and attendance. We need to provide evidence such as draft, notes and pictures as a proof to show the accomplishment of learning process. Some activities will be carried out in every tutorial class to ensure that students are participating in classes. Then, we need to express our feeling and provide relevant theories learnt in the reflective report weekly. This is to improve our learning skills, communication skills, time management skills and critical thinking skills. I can still remember clearly that Ms. Khor had made the introduction part became very interesting. She gave us a roll of toilet paper and asked us to take how many pieces we wanted to take. I felt nervous because I did not know what activities would be carried out. Finally, I took a piece of toilet paper. After that, she asked us to tell our secret according to the number...

Words: 411 - Pages: 2

Organization Theory

... by different factors namely the modernist and critical perspectives. Modernist Theory Modern theory perspective believes in objectivism and that objective truths are vital in the management of an organization (Green & Crother, 2004). Modernist seeks truths that are objective and honest. First and foremost, employing the use of electronic technologies such as surveillance can enlarge the managerial power where it is used to monitor the workers and keep track of their work behavior. (Volti Rudi 2012). An example can be found in the device called the Business Microscope which will send information on the duration that each staff spends out of their seats even to the extent of the duration they spent in the toilet.(John Hall, 2014) This displayed a high level of agency theory whereby managers are given the power of supervision so that they will act according to the owner's best interest. Also, by making use of surveillance control, the management will be able to access the workers' performance and based on their performance, the performing staffs will be rewarded accordingly. In the modernist point of view, the usage of surveillance technology might be a good way to monitor and keep track of every staff's movements to ensure that they do not skive. From the critical theory point of view however, the staffs are working under a very stressful working environment as they are constantly being "spied on" by the management. Although a working environment whereby everyone in...

Words: 1973 - Pages: 8

Bureaucracy

...Introduction: Structure of an organisation can impact on effectiveness and efficiency of the company, also it will influence on employee’s motivation and productivity. This will directly connect to the loss or profit of a firm. That is the difference between a company which achieves success through its appropriate systems and the other company that struggles with unwanted severe time during its activity. Organization structure is the way that a firm carry out its activities and the levels of hierarchy that people within an organization report, receive orders and the level of autonomy among the organisation’s workers. This essay will look at the case study’s primary structure, the matter of transition from that structure to a new structure after sold out, influence of the later structure and finally advantages of the recent structure. With an attention to the ICY Foods’ start-up plan and its activity during 1999 to 2005 and then from 2005 to 2010, it is clearly identified that the ICY Foods which was a commercial family company managed by an organic structure. (Theory of Burns and Stalker 1961) An organic structure is an informal organisation with a flat structure in which there are few level of management, not much rules and procedures, very flexible to changes, and large number of employees work under span of control of few managers, as can be seen in ICY Foods. In such organisation information is shared quickly between workers because of horizontal interaction among...

Words: 1070 - Pages: 5

Theory Review

...personal criminological theory review Janise harris ajs/542 instructor reyes january 19, 2015 personal criminological theory review Janise harris ajs/542 instructor reyes january 19, 2015 Personal Criminological Theory Review In criminology, analyzing why individuals perpetrate wrongdoing is imperative in the progressing level headed discussion of how crime should be taken care of and prevented. Numerous theories have developed throughout the years, and they keep on being investigated, individually and in combination, as criminologists look for the best solutions in eventually diminishing sorts and levels of crime. During the six weeks of this course we have examined several theories. Here is a review of some of the key theories: * Rational choice theory: Individuals act in their venture toward oneself and settle on choices to perpetrate wrongdoing in the wake of measuring the potential dangers against the rewards. * Social disorganization theory: An individual’s physical and social situations are basically in charge of the behavioral decisions that individual makes. * Strain theory: Many people have similar desires, yet they don’t all have the same opportunities or abilities. When individuals neglect to attain society’s desires through approved means, for example, hard work and delayed gratification, they may attempt to accomplish accomplishment through crime. * Social learning theory: Individuals create inspiration to commit crime and the...

Words: 321 - Pages: 2

Bureaucracy

...A bureaucracy is defined as a form of organisation that centres on precision, speed, reliability, and efficiency achieved through the creation of job specialisation, hierarchical structure and detailed rules and regulations. (Visitchaichan, n.d. p.5) Bureaucratic organisations have been around for a very long time. They began as primarily the structure for just a few political and religious organisations (e.g. the US Government and the Roman Catholic Church). But by the second half of the 19th century, businesses were becoming larger and more complicated, and there was a move from small, primarily family run organisations to huge companies with hundreds or even thousands of employees. It became clear that a new form of organisation was required to deal with the increasing administrative problems of these larger companies. (Volti, 2008, p.80) Max Weber created the idea of bureaucratic structure of organisation that he believed would counteract these issues. His theory, however, is permeated by scepticism. He describes the bureaucracy as the most dominant form of modern control, both positively and negatively. Although he describes bureaucracies as the fairest and most efficient method of control, he was alarmed by their rapid spread through state, business and institutions and concerned about the effect that they would have on the people within the bureaucratic structure. He argued that due to their technical superiority, bureaucracies would come to dominate all forms of...

Words: 2222 - Pages: 9

Review of Kant's Theory

...English 121 November 12 2015 Kant’s theory While Immanuel Kant was one of the greatest thinkers to date, I found myself left with questions with no real clear answers about his work. One of my major questions I had actually came to me while I was reading though this chapter for the first time. I found difficulties involving his uniquely perceived dissimilarities differentiating a priori and a posteriori knowledge. In my personal opinion the main bulk of our individualistic conception and interpretation of the world stems almost solely from our personal involvement and observations of said world. It was this line of questioning I followed to my true problem with his theory: does all knowledge begins a posteriori; and can there truly be a form of a priori knowledge? Immanuel Kant's proposed classification of what it is that establishes a priori knowledge, knowledge of a subject with no previous experience or observations, seemed to impress upon me that all our perceived a priori knowledge must have originally streamed from, or been reasoned out from a previous a posteriori knowledge. Even a simple suggested "a priori knowledge" such something as trivial as “the sky is blue” is dependent on experience. When we think of the statement “the sky is blue” our subconscious minds unknowingly affirms this bit of information with prior memories associated with the sky or colors, which all originated through first-hand experience. Consequently, as time passes on, the grouped...

Words: 1554 - Pages: 7

Organization Theory Behaviour

... be difficult for you to compete with them. If you undertake the SWOT analysis and make it part of your annual or quarterly business appraisal, you are likely to spot market opportunities more quickly, improve on your products and service levels and reduce the effects of external influences on your business. This analysis is a very good tool to ensure that you make the right decisions as regards the future of your business. 2 Motivation in an Organization Ordinarily, people see certain things as motivators, for example money, competition, recognition and disciplinary action. This is true to limited sense. All these things motivate people to a certain extent and under certain conditions. By: Charitha Rongala Published Date: 04-12-2010 Ordinarily, people see certain things as motivators, for example money, competition, recognition and disciplinary action. This is true to limited sense. All these things motivate people to a certain extent and under certain conditions. . On the other hand when a person is intrinsically motivated, he feels the activity itself is very rewarding. Recognition, i e the appreciation of good work is very necessary. The following ways could be used to help create an environment where intrinsic motivation is high: • Ensuring that the employees have the relevant tools and enterprise required for the job. The employees must consider themselves competent to handle the job. The right tools, right office...

Words: 3132 - Pages: 13