Free Essay

The Rugged Road to True Freedom

In: Social Issues

Submitted By andrewenright
Words 1609
Pages 7
Andrew Enright
Professor Long
EXPO 1213-008
October 10 2015
The Rugged Road to True Freedom The United States of America is a place some people only dream of residing in. During the early twentieth century, hundreds of Japanese people ventured towards America—a land of freedom, equality, and justice. These people left an unstable homeland in search of peace and prosperity with the hope of providing a better future for their children. Ronald Takaki, in his book titled Strangers from a Different Shore, remarks that “America represented liminality,” and so Asian immigrants “could imagine what they could do in an unformed America, and their dreams inspired them to take risks. They wondered what they could become, unfurled before the winds of change and challenge”(42). This represents Japanese extravagance as a whole—traveling beyond known boundaries in pursuit of new freedom. Yet what seemed free wasn’t free at all, but rather a future of harsh treatment. Japanese-Americans crossed the boundaries of their homeland only to come into contact with more boundaries in America—of racism, American legislation and ultimately internment—which taxed the extravagance of Japanese-Americans. Throughout the next several decades, Japanese extravagance morphs to deal with America’s act of yarding them in through its legislation. In 1885, the Japanese government announced it would be sending six hundred immigrants to Hawaii. Many who crossed the frontier were financially distressed and viewed “themselves as dekaseginin—laborers working temporarily in a foreign country. Their goal was to work hard in order to ‘return home in glory’ after three years”(44). Many immigrants had the goal of working only a short time quickly returning back to Japan with their acquired sum of money. Americans, from the start, tended to dislike these new immigrants because they were good at what they did. Americans were also unhappy with the fact that hundreds of Japanese immigrants were not going to stay in America indefinitely. Likewise, the Japanese involvement in the American economy was often seen as a bad thing because they took jobs from Americans. The more they settled and prospered, the more Americans envied them.
Due to the financial opportunity proposed in Hawaii, Japanese migrants became attracted to the opportunities on the mainland United States. A large majority of the immigrants who came to America were young, well-educated, and “had a higher literacy rate than their European counterparts”(45). Filling the needed jobs with young, well-educated Japanese-Americans seems as if it would have a positive impact on American society. Japanese-Americans found themselves being driven out of their jobs by the white labor league, however. Japanese workers “adopted a strategy designed to avoid ethnic antagonism in the labor market,” specializing in new areas of work where they wouldn’t have to compete with white laborers. For the Japanese did not see the true problem they faced: “white workers resented not only Japanese competition but their very presence in America.” A California farmer describes the Japanese threat “as a germ of the mightiest problem that ever faced this state; a problem that will make the black problem of the South look white”(204). Under the influence of racism, a group of Japanese laborers took sides with Mexican laborers to form the Japanese-Mexican Labor Association. Prejudice in the working world did not extinguish Japanese extravagance, but rather enhanced it. Their confidence grew, and they strived to break threw new boundaries in society.
Alongside racism, Japanese-Americans found themselves being ratcheted up by American legislation. The alien land laws passed by California legislature in 1913 and 1918 denied landownership to Japanese immigrants. The laws were put in place to limit Japanese “presence by curtailing their privileges, for they would not come in large numbers and stay if they could not acquire land”(206). The inability to own or lease land was a major obstacle for the Japanese immigrants and these laws “threatened to turn the immigrant’s dream of settlement into a chimera. An Issei from Santa Paula, California, called the land law a ‘death sentence’ for the Japanese”(206). Japanese migrants came to America with the idea of purchasing new land and establishing new farms and businesses, but because they were not allowed to own land, these ideas were extinguished. As a result of the Ozawa case in 1922, a law was passed that denied eligibility for the Issei to gain citizenship. The Ozawa case not only solidified the Issei’s citizenship status, but also handed anti-Japanese supporters justification for their discrimination. During the same year, Congress passed the Cable Act which meant that anyone marrying an Issei would automatically lose their citizenship. This act added restrictions to who the Japanese could marry. Realizing their lack of a prosperous future in America, the Issei’s extravagance was becoming tarnished and their focus was shifted to the future of the Nisei generation. The Issei knew they had paved the path for the future generations and looked toward the future, trusting that their children would be able to do things they could not.
The Ozawa case and the Cable Act were just the beginnings of anti-Japanese legislation. In 1924, Congress passed the Immigration Exclusion Act which barred all immigration from Japan. These instances of American legislation caused the Japanese immigrants to morph their extravagance and find new ways to overcome new boundaries. American legislation revealed the immigrants who truly wanted to live permanently in America with the hope of one day gaining national citizenship. Many immigrants left America and went home because they couldn’t see their future in America. Some immigrants persevered through all the racial prejudice and legislation, enhanced their extravagance in the process and “no longer entertained the slightest desire to return to their native country” and much like a carp, “they had swum against the currents of adversity”(212). Twelve years later, the Cable Act was repealed and gave immigrants more freedom towards marriage. Even though the Japanese immigrants had overcome one boundary and gained a little freedom in America, they would soon find themselves tackling the most significant boundary yet—internment.
Five years after the repeal of the Cable Act, Japan bombed the United States largest naval base, Pearl Harbor. As a result of Japan’s actions, “Japanese Americans were losers in this war right from the start.” Pearl Harbor changed thousands of Japanese immigrant lives in an instant. Suddenly, Americans became extremely racist towards the Japanese and through United States propaganda, Americans began to look at the Japanese immigrants as an inferior race. Challenges like never before arose for both generations of Japanese immigrants, and “a kind of hysteria about Japanese Americans began to spread”(Spickard 105). Racism towards Japanese Americans grew and American ignorance began to show. A lieutenant general stated that “‘A Jap’s a Jap. They are a dangerous element, whether loyal or not. There is no way to determine their loyalty.’” American opinions of the immigrants were based on the actions of the Japanese who were not brave enough to come to America and gain freedom. Many people tried to harass the Japanese and keep them from moving east. The Governor of Idaho, Chase Clark, said: “The Japs live like rats, breed like rats and act like rats. We don’t want them buying or leasing land or becoming permanently located in our state,” But this mistreatment and discrimination would only strengthen Japanese extravagance because they wanted to push through hardship and prove their loyalty to Americans.
The world of the Japanese-Americans was quickly flipped upside down and the Japanese-Americans were run out of society. The army “decided to move everybody out by force and to incarcerate them in concentration camps.” Japanese internment became the graveyard or birthplace of Japanese extravagance during the 20th century. Immigrants found themselves selling and leaving behind all they had worked towards here in America. They were forced into secluded areas surrounded with barbed wire and were separated from their family. Some thought this was the end of their journey in America. Some immigrants began to forget their extravagance and couldn’t see their future in America. During these times of internment, Japanese immigrants were yarded and secluded from American life. Other immigrants strengthened their extravagance and wanted to “proudly embrace the imprisonment of their people as their best chance to demonstrate their patriotism by doing whatever self-denigrating thing the White American populace asked of them”(110). For these Japanese Americans, internment became a boundary of racial prejudice that needed to be crossed. The continual stream of racism tested the immigrants’ loyalty to America. Submitting to American oppression, Japanese extravagance grew and they wanted to show their loyalty by coping with the discrimination.
After the conclusion of World War II, Japanese began to have hope once again and their extravagance soared. They could finally see an end to the oppression they found themselves under. In 1952, Congress passed the McCarran-Walter Immigration and Naturalization act, allowing Japanese and other Asian immigrants to become naturalized citizens for the first time. The exclusion of immigrants was no longer based on race, but now based on those who were unlawful, immoral, and who were diseased in any way. Those who were willing to assimilate into the American economic, social, and political structures were able to gain citizenship. Japanese immigrants had finally overcome the boundary of American citizenship. Overcoming these boundaries of citizenship showed Japanese perseverance through the hard times. Over the next several years, they broke through more boundaries of racism and prejudice. However, this would not be the end of anti-Japanese sentiment and Japanese extravagance will once again need to morph and deal with legislation in the times to come.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Inaugural Speech of Obama

...20th January 2009 My fellow citizens: I stand here today humbled by the task before us, grateful for the trust you have bestowed, mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors. I thank President Bush for his service to our nation, as well as the generosity and cooperation he has shown throughout this transition. Forty-four Americans have now taken the presidential oath. The words have been spoken during rising tides of prosperity and the still waters of peace. Yet, every so often the oath is taken amidst gathering clouds and raging storms. At these moments, America has carried on not simply because of the skill or vision of those in high office, but because We the People have remained faithful to the ideals of our forbearers, and true to our founding documents. So it has been. So it must be with this generation of Americans. That we are in the midst of crisis is now well understood. Our nation is at war, against a far-reaching network of violence and hatred. Our economy is badly weakened, a consequence of greed and irresponsibility on the part of some, but also our collective failure to make hard choices and prepare the nation for a new age. Homes have been lost; jobs shed; businesses shuttered. Our health care is too costly; our schools fail too many; and each day brings further evidence that the ways we use energy strengthen our adversaries and threaten our planet. These are the indicators of crisis, subject to data and statistics. Less measurable but......

Words: 2408 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Harley Davidson

...Summary of Harley-Davidson case study Harley-Davidson is the first name that comes to our mind when the topic about motorbikes comes up. The rugged yet beautiful motorbike is a U.S. bound brand that inspires many to own its customized bike with the iconic engine (Kotler and Keller, 2012). Today, Harley-Davidson motorbikes are well known by all; bikers and non-bikers around the globe. The two big questions running through our minds would be how it is accepted globally and how their customers remain loyal. Well, the dealers of Harley-Davidson maintain close relationship with their customers via face-to-face communication and social media (Kotler and Keller, 2012). What helps Harley-Davidson to understand their customers need better is by conducting research to keep up with their customers changing expectations, which comes with the trend and their experiences. Greater brand loyalty and unique experiences is built when they know Harley-Davidson takes their opinion into account very seriously. Reflection of freedom, individualism, the ability to connect with their friends through the H.O.G program (Harley’s Owners Group) is what one would get when buying a Harley. This program allows the members to enjoy various benefits such as discounts, major rides, charity events, new model launches, fund raising, riders appreciation night and much more. Harley-Davidson feels that people development such as by providing training, sharing company values, philosophy, effective......

Words: 2574 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

The Obama Inaugural Speech

...(Full Text) By barangayrp My fellow citizens: I stand here today humbled by the task before us, grateful for the trust you have bestowed, mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors. I thank President Bush for his service to our nation, as well as the generosity and cooperation he has shown throughout this transition. Forty-four Americans have now taken the presidential oath. The words have been spoken during rising tides of prosperity and the still waters of peace. Yet, every so often the oath is taken amidst gathering clouds and raging storms. At these moments, America has carried on not simply because of the skill or vision of those in high office, but because We the People have remained faithful to the ideals of our forbearers, and true to our founding documents. So it has been. So it must be with this generation of Americans. That we are in the midst of crisis is now well understood. Our nation is at war, against a far-reaching network of violence and hatred. Our economy is badly weakened, a consequence of greed and irresponsibility on the part of some, but also our collective failure to make hard choices and prepare the nation for a new age. Homes have been lost; jobs shed; businesses shuttered. Our health care is too costly; our schools fail too many; and each day brings further evidence that the ways we use energy strengthen our adversaries and threaten our plannet. These are the indicators of crisis, subject to data and statistics. Less measurable but no......

Words: 2398 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Technology and War

...Eliot Cohen the author of a valuable study of supreme command raised the question: “where did the American way of war derive from?” Most have argued for a larger Western heritage dating to classical times of combining decisive battle, superior technology that is the dividend of rationalism, group discipline, and notions of freedom, audit, and constitutional government.(1) Of course, there was a particularly American variant of Western military practice that grew up on a vast frontier and was the result of the impatient nature of American popular culture and its familiarity with machines manifested best in something like George’s Patton’s romp across central France in the summer of 1944, or the dash up from Kuwait to Northern Iraq in the spring of 2003. Cohen, however, believes the U.S. way of fighting is more complex, incorporating all sorts of non-conventional elements. To make that point, he reviews warfare of the eighteenth-century along the northeastern seaboard of the American continent that rugged two-hundred-mile corridor of mountains, forests, and lakes from Albany to Montreal dubbed the “Great Warpath.”(1) His investigations reveal two less appreciated sources for the way Americans currently fight. One was the birth of a unique, and less remarked upon strain of raiding, ambushing, subversion, living off the land, ad hoc alliance building with indigenous peoples, long-range reconnaissance, and patrolling behind enemy lines.(1) The other was a sort of military......

Words: 1431 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Alaska the Brand

...Alaska Brand Audit Brand Inventory History Alaska has been a unique brand for many years. Originally known as Russian America because it was owned by Russia, the origin of the name Alaska is a misconception from the first Russian explorers to venture into Alaskan waters (the original Aleut word "alaxsxaq" literally meaning "object toward which the action of the sea is directed"[Alaska]). When the United States bought Alaska, even though the price was only two cents an acre, it was known for many years as “Seward’s Folly” or “Seward’s Icebox”, after William Seward, the Secretary of State who was primarily responsible for pushing the purchase from Russia through Congress. In the early days Alaska’s brand image was mostly negative. It was known as the “Frozen North”, the “land of ice and snow”, the “land without summer”. Many of these images are from the stories and poetry of Robert Service, Jack London and their contemporaries. A good example of this writing is the poem “Cremation of Sam McGee”— see appendix II, (Service). All these extreme brand images dominated perceptions of Alaska prior to the discovery of gold in the Klondike in the late 1800s. After gold was discovered these negative perceptions were softened somewhat, though they remained rather negative—in large part due to the difficulty of living in the far north. Our Brand Survey We did a brand audit of Alaska to see how well Alaska has worked past these harsh criticisms. To accomplish this we......

Words: 7487 - Pages: 30

Free Essay

Cultural Analysis of Italy

...into pre-history. Thousands of rock drawings discovered in the Alpine regions of Lombardy date from around 8,000 BC. There were sizable settlements throughout the Copper Age (37th to 15th century BC), the Bronze Age (15th to 8th century BC) and the Iron Age (8th to 5th century BC). In the north of Italy, the Etruscan culture took hold around 800BC, while Greeks settled in southern Italy from 700 to 600BC, namely in Apulia, Calabria and Sicily (then known as Magna Graecia). The Roman Empire (5th Century BC to 5th Century AD) The Roman Empire was one of the largest and most enduring in world history. The saying "All Roads Lead to Rome" alludes to this central hub of technology, literature, culture and architecture in the ancient world. The engineers of the Roman age created an unparalleled network of roads in ancient history. Approximately 50,000 miles of roads spread Roman civilization, influence and the mighty...

Words: 5559 - Pages: 23

Free Essay

Norway Paper

...Internat’l Bus Norway Paper NORWAY – Land of the Midnight Sun Signing the New Constitution on May 17, 1814 marked the beginning of Norway’s mission to gain independence. Sweden had forced a union with Norway on January 14, 1814, after 400 years of Norway being dominated by Denmark. It was in 1905, 108 years ago, before Norway could claim a secured, full independence and become a sovereign nation. Another important event in Norway’s history is their liberation from occupation by Nazi forces after five years, on May 8, 1945. So, it’s easy to understand why the people of Norway value their independence so much. Since Norway signed the Constitution in 1814, legislation resulted in the Prime Minister position. The Prime Minister and Cabinet (consisting of all the most senior government department heads) are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Storting (Parliament), to their political party, and ultimately the electorate. As of 2013, the political leader of Norway and the Head of His Majesty's Government is Prime Minister, Erna Solberg, of the Conservative Party. The King of Norway, Harald V, also Prince of Denmark and Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, succeeded to the throne of Norway upon the death of his father Olav V on January 17, 1991. Norway is a constitutional monarchy that divides responsibility between the parliament (Storting) and the King's Council of State, consists of a prime minister and......

Words: 3557 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Pestel Analysis of Royal Enfield

...*  2 BRAND ANALYSIS OF ROYAL ENFIELD       Acknowledgement We would like to thank all the people who were involved with this project and whose support and encouragement helped us complete the project. Indeed working on this project has been a truly enriching experience for us as a team. We are extremely grateful to Professor R.Kamle for entrusting our group with this huge responsibility. We wish to express a profound sense of gratitude to Professor Kamle for his generous suggestions and valuable insights, without which this project would not have been a success. Last but not the least, we would like to thank all our team members who participated and contributed towards the successful completion of this project. Entire Group * 3.   Brand  Analysis  of  Royal  Enfield   3     Table Of Content 1. Executive Summary 2. Introduction 3. Product Line 4. Change In Strategy After Year 2000 5. Communication & Distribution 6. Missing Communication 7. Brand Analysis of Iconic Brand 8. Conclusion & Recommendation Executive Summary Executive Summary * 4.   4 BRAND ANALYSIS OF ROYAL ENFIELD   Executive Summary The Research is aimed at the study of Royal Enfield Brand in Indian Markets – So far how they have performed and suggestions for them to grab more market share and be profitable. Every year, they have sold modest numbers but despite low numbers, they continue to command a position of respect and awe in the Indian motorcycle market. The objective of the study was to......

Words: 9790 - Pages: 40

Premium Essay


...|Welcome to Automobile India | |A treat to all the car lovers is this website Automobile India. This site is for people who are looking for information on car| |in india and who want to buy car in India whether it is new car or used car. is your one stop solution for| |all car related problems. The site provides you accurate information with the details of genuine products, be it spares, | |batteries, tires, and authorized service station near you or finding the right petrol station. | |To top it all here you can directly contact these company-authorized distributors of genuine spares or service providers and | |avail of their services right at your doorstep. This has been made possible by coming together of vehicle manufacturers, auto | |component suppliers and petroleum companies to provide you genuine and complete service. | |So step into this grand world of wheels and speed ride all you ever wanted to know about Cars and Auto in india. | |Commercial Vehicles | |[pic][pic] | |  ...

Words: 5006 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay


...Machiavelli's Tiger: Lee Kuan Yew and Singapore's Authoritarian Regime By Uri Gordon (student at the Department of Political Science, Tel Aviv University, Israel) Between being loved and being feared, I have always believed Machiavelli was right. If nobody is afraid of me, I’m meaningless. Lee Kuan Yew, 6.10.1997 Introduction ‘History’, observes Adorno, ‘is the unity of continuity and discontinuity’. Even a basic awareness to this reality should be enough to prevent anyone – especially the new sojourner into the realm of political science – from making coarse comparisons between past and present. And yet, sometimes the picture is so compelling, so painfully clear, that it simply cannot be ignored. Faced with it, all one can do is carefully explore the contours of the ancient and the new, hoping to retain enough responsibility to open his eyes to the differences when they manifest themselves. This is what the current paper sets out to do. Though hundreds of years and thousands of miles stand between 16th century Italy and 20th century Singapore, between the writings of Niccolò Machiavelli and the statecraft of Lee Kuan Yew, the similarities are extraordinary. This paper will argue that the political views and actions of Singapore’s ruling elite – more precisely, those of the country’s ‘founding father’ Lee Kuan Yew – can be powerfully interpreted through an application of Machiavellian principles. This interpretation takes place on two levels. First, the political actions of......

Words: 7718 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Summary of as You Like It

...As You Like It Summary How It All Goes Down Sir Rowland de Boys has recently died, leaving behind sons Oliver and Orlando. Since Oliver's the eldest son, he's inherited just about everything. This includes the responsibility of making sure his little bro finishes school and continues to live the kind of lifestyle he's become accustomed to as the son of a nobleman. (By the way, this lifestyle looks like a sixteenth-century version of MTV's Teen Cribs.) Oliver, however, treats his little bro like a servant – he refuses to pay for Orlando's education and never gives the kid any spending money. Also, he tells the local court wrestler it would be a good idea to snap Orlando's neck, but Orlando doesn't know about this. Naturally, Orlando is ticked off that Oliver treats him so badly and he's ready to "mutiny" against his older bro. Instead, he channels all of his pent up anger into a wrestling match, where he beats the court wrestler to a bloody pulp. Orlando's wrestling skillz catch the eye of a local girl named Rosalind, who has her own family drama to worry about. (Ros is the daughter of Duke Senior, who used to rule over the French court but was overthrown by his snaky, backstabbing brother, Duke Frederick. Because Rosalind's dad is living in exile in the Forest of Arden, Rosalind has been crashing at the palace with her BFF/cousin, Celia. Did we mention that Celia is the daughter of snaky, backstabbing Duke Frederick? And you thought your family had......

Words: 7831 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay

Buddhist Socio-Political Philosophy

...state is governed by experts (Philosophers), as it is only they who have a true concept of what is right, and what is wrong. He gave us the concepts of the philosopher king, according to him: ?Unless philosophers become kings in their countries, or those who are now called kings and rulers come to be sufficiently inspired with a genuine desire for wisdom; unless, that is to say, political power and philosophy meet together, there can be no rest from troubles for states, nor yet, as I believe, for all mankind.?[footnoteRef:22] [22: Paul Sithi-Amnui, N. 4, p. 5.] Plato?s definition of a philosopher king refers to one who is going to seek the truth; and the truth can only be won by knowledge and wisdom. The best government for him is the one which has a philosopher king in power.[footnoteRef:23] [23: Ibid.] Aristotle (born 884 B.C.) wrote how the powers of the government should be expressed. According to him, the government would be good if it worked for the interest of the community as whole, and on the contrary it would be bad if it worked for the governing body and for selfish purposes.[footnoteRef:24] Aristotle focused on the practitioner of government, who, by his power, would make the common good, good life for all. [24: Ibid., p. 83.] According to Aristotle, political justice exists among people who are associated in a common life with a view of self-sufficiency and who enjoy freedom and equality. Justice must be administered not merely for a private group,......

Words: 5940 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Global and Domestic Security Management

...GM 594: Global and Domestic Security Management Table of Contents I. Introduction i. An example of an international company ii. Introduction to the subject of the paper II. Background i. Geographical location ii. History and its consequences of on this region iii. Current financial and economical situation III. Differences in the cultures i. Common ways of doing business ii. Understanding the culture and traditions IV. Security issues i. Benefits of establishing a business in this region ii. Business security issues facing an organization iii. Adverse effects on an organization V. Recommendations on reducing the risk i. Protection of assets and information ii. Protection of labor iii. Adhering to the laws and regulations VI. Conclusion VII. Works Cited Business Opportunities in Eastern Europe I. Introduction How safe is it to explore the business markets outside of the USA, particularly in the undeveloped markets? A good example of a company willing to take the risk to discover new business opportunities in such economic markets is the Coca Cola Company. Its early recognition of the global demand for their products led them to explore investing in the yet unexplored, and politically and economically challenged markets including the markets in the region of Eastern Europe. In the early 1990s, after some significant political and economical changes in this region,......

Words: 4049 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Suv Market in India

...IIM-C SMP09 Marketing Nuggets Project – SUV Market in India Success of Mahindra XUV 500 By: Amit Ahi Samir Chitkara Dr. Bhaskar Sonowal Anirban Sarkar Amit Dass J.Mohapatra Dwarka Nath Sharma Table of Contents Current market Size & key market trends 5 India’s Socio demographic profile 5 Indian Automobile Market 6 Size of Indian Automobile market 7 Key Market Trends for SUVs / Automobiles 8 Key market trends of SUVs 10 Segmentation of the market 11 Price Based Segmentation 11 Entry Level 11 Mid Segment 11 Premium Segment 11 Luxury 11 Price Wise Segmentation for Indian SUVs 12 Usage Based Segmentation 13 Off Roading: 13 Soft Roading: 13 Consumer Behavior noticed in Buying SUVs 13 Psychological factors 13 Personal Factors 14 Social Factors 14 Positioning of different brands in SUV market in India 15 Entry Level SUVs: 15 Renault Duster 15 Mahindra Scorpio 15 Tata Safari 16 Mid Segment: 16 Tata Aria 16 Force One 17 MAHINDRA XUV 500 18 Skoda Yeti 18 Ford Endevour 19 CHEVROLET Captiva 19 HONDA CRV 19 TOYOTA Fortuner 20 Key Advertising and Promotion campaigns adopted by leading brands 21 Mahindra XUV 500 21 Digital Marketing – FAce Book & Twitter 21 Launch Campaign 21 Force One 21 Big B as the Brand Ambassador 21 Toyota FORTUNER 23 Campaign Tag: “The Art of Power” 23 Toyota Fortuner Marketing Campaign: Experience the Power of Art on your Mobile 23 Results and achievements...

Words: 9485 - Pages: 38

Free Essay

A.P.J.Abdul Kalam

...A. P. J. Abdul Kalam From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Redirected from APJ Abdul Kalam) Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the former President of India. For the freedom fighter, see Abdul Kalam Azad. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam | | Abdul Kalam at the 12th Wharton India Economic Forum, 2008 | 11th President of India | In office 25 July 2002 – 25 July 2007 | Prime Minister | Atal Bihari Vajpayee Manmohan Singh | Vice President | Bhairon Singh Shekhawat | Preceded by | K. R. Narayanan | Succeeded by | Pratibha Devisingh Patil | Personal details | Born | 15 October 1931 (age 81) Rameswaram, British India (present day Tamil Nadu, India) | Alma mater | St. Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli Madras Institute of Technology | Profession | Professor, Author, scientist Aerospace engineer | Website | | Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam ( pronunciation (help·info); born 15 October 1931) usually referred to as Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, is an Indian scientist and administrator who served as the 11th President of India. Kalam was born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, studied physics at the St. Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli, and aerospace engineering at the Madras Institute of Technology (MIT), Chennai. Before his term as President, he worked as an aerospace engineer with Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).[1] Kalam is popularly known as the Missile Man of India for his......

Words: 4111 - Pages: 17