Premium Essay

The Stages of Decision-Making Process of a Shopper

In: Other Topics

Submitted By jjane95
Words 655
Pages 3
This article is the first in a series of articles about the factors and variables that influence the behavior of consumers.

The consumer is a complex individual. His purchase behavior varies greatly depending on internal and external stimuli to which he is subject. For brands, the understanding of this behavior is a major challenge in order to meet the expectations of consumers, trying to convince them to buy their products and thus, increase their sales.

Why a consumer chooses one product instead of another? What led him to prefer one brand instead of another? What are the factors that influence his choices and purchases?

Many factors come into account in consumers’ behavior and how they decide what brand or product to buy.

Today, let’s focus on the decision-making process that guide consumers in their choices of brands and products and determine their level of involvement as well as their need for information before buying a product. the decision-making process of consumers are divided into three stages

The decision-making process of consumers are divided into three stages

According to the famous model developed by John Howard and Jagdish Sheth, two famous Professors of marketing, in their “Theory of Buyer Behaviour”, the decision-making process of consumers are divided into three stages:

Extensive problem solving (EPS): It is when the consumer discovers a new product category or wants to buy a product he does not know well and / or is particularly expensive and / or which present a significant risk regarding his economical or psychological point of view. His lack of “experience” in the matter leads to his lack of decision criteria to make his choice. He has no preference for a brand or a specific product. The level of consumer involvement is high. He will invest a lot of time looking for information and benchmarks to make his choice. The…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Decision Making Process

...Decision Making Process Approximately five years ago I made a decision to leave my job. At that time I was working in Santa Barbara for a valet company. I was Director of Special Events and in charge of managing over 100 employees at close to 400 events a year. There were many aspects of the job that I enjoyed, but after working for the company for almost eight years it was time for me to move on. The decision to leave the company was one of the hardest I've ever had to make, and the way in which I implemented that decision ended up causing me a few problems. The first step in the decision making process is to identify and diagnose the problem which includes recognizing that there is room for improvement (Bateman & Snell, 2011). In my decision to leave the company I recognized that I had become a bit stagnant. I was no longer challenged by the position and my day- to- day happiness was replaced by boredom. These negative feelings forced me to recognize that I had to make a change in my career for a fresh start. The first step was not something that I set out to accomplish. It really just kind of hit me one day while I was at work. I reflected on my current feelings and saw it was negatively affecting my performance. I expected better of myself and it became clear that I had to make a change. The second step in the decision making process is generating alternative solutions to help reach the stated goals (Bateman & Snell, 2011). My goal was to find a new job, so......

Words: 999 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Decision Making Process Paper

...Decision- Making Process Makesia Penny MGT 230 July 16, 2012 Millicent B. Lann Throughout life people will have to make many decisions. Some of these decisions will be easy, some will be difficult. Some decisions we make in life require little or no thought, but the more important decisions, life-changing decisions, require a lot of thought. For instance, we make decisions about what we wear every day, what we will have for breakfast, lunch, and dinner, what time we go to bed each night and what time are we going to get up in the morning. These decisions do not take a process to come to the conclusion of what we will do. We sometimes have to make decisions that can be life-changing decisions. These decisions will affect our lives in a big way. Some examples could be buying a new home, changing jobs, enrolling in school, or relocating to another state. For me, it was enrolling in school. I graduated high school in 1996. I did not attend college after high school like most children because I had a baby my senior year. My grandparents suggested that I go ahead to school but I refused because I did not want to leave my son. In 2004, I enrolled in our local Technical College. I attended school for a year before I was involved in an incident that almost claimed my life in May 2005. I did not go back to school after the incident because I had to take physical therapy and was dealing with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). When I could return to work I was on work......

Words: 648 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Decision Making Process

...Decision-Making Process Making the decision to stay apart of the United States Air Force in the active component was extremely daunting. The reenlist or separate clock started to countdown on 27 November 2010. A decision was required 120 days out, so a deadline was set for 14 May 2011. The Process Following the six steps of the decision-making process, I made a career changing choice. The six stages of the process, as outlined by Bateman and Snell (2011) are “identify and diagnose the problem, generate alternative solutions, evaluate alternatives, make the choice, implement the decision and evaluate the decision” (p. 89). An emphasis on time management played a major factor in the decision to reenlist also. Identify Problem Exiting the military with no educational achievements created uncertainty on obtaining a quality job with respectable wages and benefits. Enrolling into school as a 27-year-old freshman was also very intimidating. Maintaining the current lifestyle seemed nearly impossible. These situations presented cons of exiting the military on 27 November 2011. The problem was discharging from the military was not what I wanted but transferring from McGuire was. After numerous requests for a transfer over an eight-year period and constant rejections, it seemed hopeless. The only option appeared to be a discharge. It created the......

Words: 721 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Decision Making Process

...The Decision Making Process MGT / 230 January 20, 2013 Stewart Binder Abstract Managers have to make decisions every day whether or not they are simple or complex to achieve the goals they have set for themselves. These decisions managers take are to achieve goals that they have set for themselves or the company. Decision making can be very challenging because there are many factors involved. “Most managerial decisions lack structure and entail risk, uncertainty, and conflict” (Bateman, Snell (2011). These factors cause managers not to take action or ignore problems that are occurring. Managers can create efficient solutions for problems by following the decision making process. “The model decision making process has six stages that the decision should follow, which include (1) identify and diagnose the problem, (2) generate alternate solutions (3) evaluate alternatives, (4) make the choice, (5) implement decision, and (6) evaluate the decision” Bateman, Snell (2011). Everyone has had to have made decisions in their lives whether or not they were simple or complex. People may have even used the decision making process without even knowing what it was. I have used the decision making process without knowing what it was when I decided to attend University of Phoenix. I read about the decision making process and realized I had followed the model in some way or another. The Decision Making Process Most people set goals for themselves. Goals are...

Words: 1477 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Decision Making Process

...Decision Making Process There are six stages to decision making process, each stage helps decide what would be the best decision to make for the problem at hand. The first stage is identifying and diagnosing the problem in this stage the problem is recognized and that it must be solved. The next stage is to generate alternative solutions to salve the problem there are two types of alternatives ready-made solutions is using an idea that has been tried before or use the advice of another that has had the same problem. Then there is the custom-made solution this is a solution that is designed for the problem at hand. Stage three of the decision making process is to evaluate the alternatives to decide which would be the best solution for the problem. In the fourth stage is where a choice is on which solution to use. In stage five it is time to implement the decision to see if it will work, then stage six is to evaluate the decision to see if it is working like it should. Collect all information and fix things that are not working. When I made the decision to buy my home 12 years ago I had to decide what would be best for me. Do I continue renting or do I buy and have something to show for all that money. I had to weigh the pros and cons of owning my own home. The good outweighed the bad, the idea of owning a home was pleasing to me because there are things that can be done to something you own then with renting. I had to identify what I wanted to do and then I diagnosed......

Words: 378 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Decision Making Process Paper

...Decision-Making Process MGT/230 Management Theory and Practice July 25, 2011 Sylvia Ramirez-Cahan Decision-Making Process For the past year I have been struggling with the decision of whether or not to continue my education. The factors that influenced my decision to pursue my Bachelors degree were the financial commitment, time, personal responsibilities, professional responsibilities, and the affect a Bachelors degree would have on my career. My decision process involved the following steps. First, I carefully reviewed my financial obligations, researched expected educational expenses, and researched options to finance my educational expenses. Next, I considered the time I would need to commitment to my courses, and examined my ability and readiness to prioritize my educational responsibilities with my personal and professional responsibilities. Last, I researched the benefits of a Bachelors degree and the potential affect it could have on my career. According to Bateman and Snell (2011), the decision-making process consists of the following stages: identify and diagnose the problem, generate alternative solutions, evaluate alternatives, make the choice, implement the decision, and evaluate the decision. In comparison, my decision process to continue my education involved three steps: identifying the problem, making the decision, and implementing the decision. In April I started classes one week after making my decision. If my......

Words: 567 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Decision-Making Process

...Decision-Making Process XXXXXXXXX MGT/230 XXXXX XXXXXXXX Decision-Making Process Decision-making plays a key role in life regardless of the situation. People make decisions, simple to complex daily. Before any decision can be carried out there are steps to consider that will make the process of making a decision simple. In my lifetime there have been times when I had to make important decisions that affect my family. Every decision was thought out thoroughly, planned, analyzed and put into action. The most recent decision involved moving my family 20 miles away from my home town, in Columbia. Deciding to move was a problem and an opportunity at the same time but I chose to focus on looking at it as an opportunity. The first step of my process was looking at this as an opportunity instead of a problem. By defining this as an opportunity, I could focus on what good this change will do for my family instead of the hassle and work required to make the move possible. I began asking family and friends questions about the best areas to move my family. This process helps me collect as much information about various areas and the process of buying a home. After a year of planning and researching, I made the decision to buy a new home in the Northeast area. Although the plan did not go smoothly, I did buy my dream house and despite a seven-day delay in closing I was very happy with my decision. Making a decision regardless of the situation involves a step by step......

Words: 560 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Decision Making Process

...Decision Making Process Paper Tina Hay Management Theory & Practice/MGT 230 University of Phoenix December 9, 2013 Decision Making Process I was a stay at home mom with two children since 2003. I wanted to make my children’s lives better, I thought what better way to do that than to better mine. So, in 2008 I earned my GED and enrolled in classes at the University of Phoenix. I took online classes which allowed me to still be a mother. I was taking nothing away from my children while I was building them and myself a better future. This life altering decision took some time to think about. I had to weigh the pros and cons, and decide if it truly was something that I could, or should do. Identifying and diagnosing the problem “The first stage in the decision making process is to recognize that a problem exists and must be solved” (Bateman & Snell, 2011, pg. 89). Was my life going in the direction I wanted it? I asked myself this question redundantly. I knew that being a mother was one of the most rewarding jobs. However, I wanted more for my children. My past performances in a school setting were impeccable until I decided to drop out. This decision was not based on academics I only needed seven credits to graduate and would have done so a full semester ahead of my class. Instead, it was based on personal experiences. I was bullied while in high school and could not take it anymore. I had let my peers determine my course of action and I was not going to let...

Words: 818 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Decision Making Process Paper

...Decision-Making Process Paper Management Theory and Practice, MGT/230 September 30, 2013 Decision-Making Process Paper Every day, individuals are faced with some of the hardest decision making processes. Over the years, Marvenia have worked for several companies that have provided her family with a roof over their heads and several other things to be grateful for. In 2009, she was faced with an opportunity to take a position with another company that offered her a better pay increase, lifelong benefits including 401k, paid vacation time, holiday pay, pension and much more. On her current job at the time, she was working part -time making minimum wage with no benefits. This paper will speak about a job changing decision Marvenia had to make to improve herself as well as her family. The Process The first step she had to make was to identify the problem. The problem was that the company whom she was currently working for was not paying enough money to provide for her children. Second, her current job only offered benefits to the full-time employees and she was only a part-time employee who made her ineligible for company benefits. The second and third step did not meet any of her needs at the time, so she went to the fourth step. The fourth step was to make a final decision. So she decided to go along with the job opportunity that was best fit for her and her children. She chose to work for the company who provided a better living opportunity as well as benefits......

Words: 613 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Decision-Making Process Paper

...Decision-Making Process Paper Matthew Walker MGT/230 08/04/14 Tyler Allen Decision-Making Process Paper The process of making decisions can be broken down into various stages. These stages allow the decision maker to follow guidelines in making a sound decision. I can recall a big decision that I had to make in regards to transitioning our base of field operations to a separate city from where our corporate office was held. The process that I followed was a basic approach to making a business decision that best suited the business and would put the company in a position to maximize earning potential. I first identified the problem with running auto transport trucks out of a city where there wasn’t an abundance of loads to book from with even a smaller market for qualified auto transport drivers to operate our trucks. The company had taken part in a temporary contract shuttling vehicles out of Detroit where there was an overabundance of vehicles in need of transporting. I had previously identified another city, Chicago that was a healthy candidate to run the trucks out of. Both cities were within 3 to 5 hours of our corporate office in Indianapolis and had a significantly higher volume of loads to book from. I had to look at both cities and plan out how and where we could set up a terminal at. I identified locations and contacts in both metro areas and was prepared to make a move. The first city that I was leaning toward was Chicago. However when......

Words: 802 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Decision Making Process

...Decision-Making Process Paper People make decisions in their everyday lives. Some decisions are easy to make, while implementing others is quite difficult. An appropriately organized and controlled decision-making process will help with these issues and bring positive outcomes for all involved. The decision-making process may become challenging for people due to “the lack of structure and entail risk, uncertainty, and conflict”(Bateman and Snell,2012, p.86). These challenges can be avoided by using an appropriate model for solving important personal and professional decisions. Bateman and Snell identified six stages of the decision-making process that can be used to solve any problems or decisions. The first step is to identify and diagnose the problem. The problem that existed for me was that I really wanted to go back to school after being medically retired from the United States Army. I had been in the Army since 2005 and really did not know much else outside the military. My first step was to move to Georgia with my family and then look at the colleges around the area. Step two in the decision-making process is to generate alternative solutions. At this point in my life I really didn’t know what interested me and what degree program seemed to fit my personality. I would go on to look at all the schools in the area and which degree programs they offered. I would then look at the times of day they offered classes to figure out which school would work......

Words: 703 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Decision Making Process

... Decision Making Process Melinda Buford MGT/230 March 2, 2015 Robert Engle Decision Making Process Making major decisions, whether in life or on the job, requires time and thinking in order to make the best decision for all involved. Six stages have been developed in order to make the decision process easier and more organized. When wanting to move to from one state to the next, this decision making process can be used to be sure all points have been covered and researched. These six stages to decision making are: identifying and diagnosing the problem, generating alternative solutions, evaluating alternatives, making the choice, implementing the decision, and evaluating the decision. Identifying and Diagnosing the Problem The first stage of the decision making process is identifying and diagnosing the problem. The problem is the desire to move from Mississippi to Texas. Mississippi has been my home for the last 33 years and my son has asked me and my two daughters to move to Texas with him while he attends college there. Careful thought has to be made in order for this decision to be implemented. The decision has to be made within a four month time period in order to prepare for it. Generating Alternative Solutions The second stage of the decision making process is generating alternative solutions. Three solutions are present in this case. One solution is to not move at all but to stay in Mississippi. This solution would be the most......

Words: 738 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Decision Making Process

...Decision-Making Process: College Zykia Glover Management 230 08/31/2015 Dick Hobbs There are six stages to the decision-making process. According to Thomas S. Bateman and Scott A. Snell, the writers of "Management Leading and Collaborating in a Competitive World," those six stages are identifying and diagnosing the problem, generating alternative solutions, evaluating alternatives, making the choice, implementing the decision, and evaluating the decision. Before attending the University of Phoenix, I was a student at Alvernia University. I loved it there. The environment was excellent. My professors inspired me to explore a career in business. However, I couldn't afford to stay there, and that was the first stage, identifying the problem. The second phase was gathering my options, and they were to transfer, take out loans, grants, or scholarships, or take some time off. I didn't know what I was going to do. The third stage was to evaluate my options. I knew that if I transferred I would have to find a school that would take the majority of my credits. The education would have to be just as good as Alvernia's, and my financial aid would have to be accepted. I also knew, that if I took out any more loans I would be deeper in debt. My GPA wasn't the best, so I was not eligible for any more grants or scholarships. I knew that taking time off was not the best option because I didn't want to get too comfortable with life and......

Words: 503 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Team Process in Decision-Making

...Team decision-making, it is one of the excellent forms, to help individuals and organization and in everyday life. Put their heads together and come up with choices created from others concepts that aid them, in creating the best solution to the situation they are handling. To understand group decision a person must know the group decision process that they have to do. Then they must see the experience one successful side, of team decision making and the unsuccessful side of team decision making. Lastly, the factors affected the group’s effectiveness in general. By doing this, will help to understand fully group decision making and how it can be used personally and also business-wise to obtain success with a method as such. The decision process The team first has to understand and define the opportunity or the dilemma that is a stage of obtaining information, deliberating, to indicate, approximately, why the decision has also reached what it will achieve with it. This part of the process, of group decision making there are three mistakes that happen. This first step with decision-making is that the teams may describe the dilemma in a broader way. The next thing they do is team’s focal point on the symptom, with the dilemma, but not the reason the problem happens. Lastly, the teams might not pick the right dilemma to focus on in the matter. The next step in the process of group decision making is also discovering......

Words: 1464 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Decision Making Process Paper

...Decision-Making Process Fred Flintstone MGT/230 November 27, 2011 Mr. Ed Decision-Making Process After serving 24 years in the United States Air Force the time came to make a professional decision to search for a new career. The intent was to obtain a post military civil service job and capitalize on years of on-the-job experience while in the military. The risks and uncertainty of leaving the military to embark on new career was challenging to say the least. The processes of applying for and obtaining post military employment were relatively simple to accomplish. The decision-making processes were exactly as outlined within the textbook and additionally previously made decisions would not be any different. Exploring the actions taken to separate from the military, employment application processes, and subsequent decision-making steps will give a better perspective on the journey toward a second career. One of the first steps was to set a separation date from the military and establish eligibility for future hiring within the civilian sector. The next step is fairly simple and began with building a resume, gathering military service documents, and submitting online to USA Jobs approximately 10 months prior to separation from the military. After submitting the documents travel through several layers of the human resources department within USA Jobs to validate proper eligibility and consideration for job placement. ......

Words: 742 - Pages: 3