Free Essay

The Sufferings of a Stolen Generation

In: Historical Events

Submitted By rclarec
Words 2088
Pages 9

‘Given the history of the European colonisation of Australia, many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are wary of white institutions and social welfare’ (Chenoweth & McAuliffe 2012, p.274). Identify and discuss one or two of the historical events that have impacted on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and how the effects can be seen today.

This paper aims to discuss how the assimilation policy and forced separation of Indigenous children from their families and culture has affected the mental health and wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. A significant undertone of the assimilation policy is racial discrimination (Haebich 2001), which is an additional theme explored in this discussion. Racial discrimination is built on a belief of superiority that one race is better than the other (Khalafzai 2009, p.10), which is relevant to the actions of the assimilation policy; the Aboriginal culture was devalued and considered barbaric and inappropriate to the modern colonist nation (Haebich 2001). Victims of the forced separation suffered severe psychological consequences (Petchkovsky et al. 2004), which to this day, haunt and affect the lives of many Indigenous Australians (Koolmatrie & Williams 2000). Furthermore, remnants of the past are still seen present time, through the discriminating treatment of Indigenous Australians, adversely impacting on their health, mentally and physically (Khalafzai 2009, pp.10-11).

The forced removal of Aboriginal children from their families derived from an underlying racist judgment that Aboriginal culture was ‘inappropriate’ to the colonial attitude (Haebich 2001, pp.75-76). Aboriginal families were denigrated and deemed to be ‘bad environments’, neglecting the children’s welfare and teaching immoral and destructive behaviour (Haebich 2001, p.76). The Indigenous race was devalued and considered barbaric and irrelevant to the modern European settlers (Haebich 2001, p.75), which ‘according’ to the colonial mindset, required significant improvement and rescuing; the British settlers simply believed that their race and modern lifestyle was superior to the habitual Indigenous ways (Armitage 1995). Assimilation policies were enforced, primarily aiming to abolish and breed out the Aboriginal culture (HREOC 1997; Robinson & Paten 2008, p.501). These policies resulted in displacement, removal of children, institutionalisation and discrimination (Browne-Yung, Ziersch, Baum & Gallaher 2013, p.21). Aboriginal children were targeted, as they were considered to be more controllable, amenable and susceptible to assimilation than Aboriginal adults (Robinson & Paten 2008, p.502).

It is argued that the forced removal of children was ‘in their best interests’ (Atkinson 2005, p.76) and while there may have been some beneficial intent initially, the removed children suffered inhumane and discriminatory mistreatment once placed in out-of-home care (HREOC 1997). Majority of the Aboriginal children were placed into government institutions, while others were adopted or fostered by white families (Silburn, Zubrick, Lawrence, Mitrou et al. 2006, p.10). The living conditions in the institutions were often very harsh and controlled (HREOC 1997). Aboriginal children experienced contempt and denigration of their Aboriginality; they were not permitted to speak their languages and many were told that their families had rejected them or that their families were dead (HREOC 1997). Any cultural expression from the children was punished and censored with brutal beatings (Petchkovsky et al. 2004, p.2). A significant number of the children separated from their families reported experiencing emotional, physical and sexual abuse (HREOC 1997) which was predominantly perpetrated by staff or the older children (Atkinson 2005, p.82). Breaches of regulations and statutory obligations left many children malnourished, ill-clothed and poorly educated (Atkinson 2005, p.74).

The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people subjected to the forced separation and assimilation policies suffered severe psychological consequences (Petchkovsky et al. 2004), which significantly contributes to their poor mental health today (Koolmatrie & Williams 2000, p.158). Many indigenous people suffered from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which is caused from ‘exposure to a threatening event/s (threatened death or serious injury, or physical integrity of self or other). Response must be intense fear, helplessness or horror’ (Petchkovsky et al. 2004, p.4). As discussed, many Aboriginal children were victims of severe punishment, abuse and violence causing them to fear for their lives, which likely resulted in the development PTSD (Petchkovsky et al. 2004). The Aboriginal culture was continuously denigrated and discriminated, creating feelings of shame and humiliation amongst the Indigenous people (HREOC 1997). Many Aboriginals speak of their strong sense of not belonging to either the Indigenous or non-Indigenous community, directly causing feelings of alienation and trust issues (HREOC 1997). Several studies also report and focus on the high rates of depression and anxiety among people who experienced forcible removal in childhood (HREOC 1997; Koolmatrie & Williams 2000 & Petchkovsky et al. 2004).

Aboriginal children were taken away at any age, many within days of their birth (HREOC 1997), which had significant effects on the child’s development (Bowlby 1951; HREOC 1997). Attachment in infancy benefits the child in several aspects of their development such as: achieving full intellectual potential, attaining cultural identity, developing future relationships, coping with stress and frustration and handling fear and worry (Swan 1988, p.4). Evidence has shown that disruption to the process of attachment at this stage of development is the most damaging (HREOC 1997). It has been identified that infant separation from the primary carer, disrupted parenting and institutionalisation is connected to a variety of psychiatric disorders in adolescence and adulthood, ranging from anxiety and depression to psychopathic personalities (Bowlby 1951; Wolkind & Rutter 1984, p.34). These instabilities at such a young age rendered many Indigenous people less secure, and more vulnerable to psychological and emotional disturbances in adulthood, as well as hindering their ability to trust others (HREOC 1997). As most removed children were denied the experience of being parented or cared for by someone to whom they were attached, they were unable to be effective and successful parents themselves (HREOC 1997), which consequently affected the development of their children also.

Evidence has shown that unresolved grief and trauma have also been inherited by subsequent generations (HREOC 1997). Children of depressed or mentally ill parents are at significant risk of developing greater levels of anxiety, depressive symptoms and mental illness than those of non-depressed parents (Silverman 1989). Low self-esteem and self-confidence, feelings of inadequacy, despair and hopelessness, social withdrawal, chronic fatigue or tiredness and difficulty in thinking and concentrating are additional psychological distresses common amongst Aboriginals in today’s society (Petchkovsky et al. 2004, p.9). The predominance of psychological issues amongst Aboriginal families influences the high rates of self-harm and suicides, while others rely on the use of drugs and alcohol to mask their personal pain and suffering (HREOC 1997; Atkinson 2005).

The discriminating acts that took place in the preceding years have ignorantly passed into present time, having adverse impacts on Indigenous Australians mental and physical health (Khalafzai 2009, p.11; Haebich 2001, p.76). Australia has a long history of racial discrimination inflicted on Aboriginal people due to the colonial enterprise (Haebich 2001, p.75). This discrimination is still seen today, as Aboriginals still receive reduced and/or unequal access to health resources and care (Paradies, Harris & Anderson 2008, p.9). When compared to non-Indigenous patients that required the same medical needs, Indigenous patients were one-third less likely to receive the appropriate medical care across all conditions (Cunningham 2002). Aboriginals are also reported to be of high risk of racially motivated physical and sexual assault (Paradies, Harris & Anderson 2008, p.9). Racial discrimination is significantly associated with a number of adverse mental and physical health outcomes such as, stress, depression and anxiety, high blood pressure, obesity, smoking, low birth weight and high morbidity and mortality rates (Khalafzai 2009, p.10).

Many Aboriginal Australians respond negatively to the discriminatory and racist treatment, often relying on health damaging coping behaviours such as drug and alcohol abuse (Zierch, Gallaher, Baum & Bently 2011). Unfortunately, there are numerous non-Indigenous Australians who are oblivious to the history and cruel treatment of Aboriginals (Haebich 2001, p.76), simply assuming that all Aboriginals are ‘reckless’ and ‘drunken’, negatively stereotyping and judging them, unaware of the underlying motives behind their behaviour (Ziersch, Gallaher, Baum & Bently 2011). Racial discrimination also affects major social issues which consequently impact Aboriginal health (Khalafzai 2009, p.10). These social issues include: low literacy rates, low income, high unemployment rates, incarceration, substandard housing and high prevalence of substance abuse, all of which are contributing factors to morbidity and mortality (Khalafzai 2009, p.10).

To conclude, this paper explored the impact of the assimilation policy and forced separation of Indigenous children from their families and culture. The effects of these events proved to have significant impact on the psychological and physical wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Stemming from a racist belief that one race was better than the other; the European Colonisation saw strenuous efforts to eradicate the Aboriginal culture through cruel, discriminatory and immoral movements. The removed children, now known to us as the ‘Stolen Generation’ suffered severe psychological damage, which has followed them through their childhood, adolescent and adult lives, having an impact on their children and their grandchildren. Today, through the ignorance of non-Indigenous Australians, racial discrimination is still amid our westernised society, seeing unequal treatment and narrow-minded attitudes towards Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Indigenous Australians had their childhood, their families, their culture and their identity taken away from them, and they have unfairly suffered ever since.

Word count: 1,476

Reference list:

Armitage, A 1995, Comparing the policy of Aboriginal assimilation: Australia, Canada, and New Zealand, UBC Press, Vancouver

Atkinson, R 2005, ‘Denial and loss: the removal of Indigenous Australian children from their families and culture’, Queensland University of Technology Law and Justice Journal, vol.5, no.1, pp. 71-88

Bowlby, J 1951, Maternal care and mental health: a report prepared on behalf of the World Health Organization as a contribution to the United Nations programme for the welfare of homeless children, World Health Organization, Geneva

Browne-Yung, K, Ziersch, A, Baum, F & Gallaher, G 2013, ‘Aboriginal Australians’ experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings’, Social Science & Medicine, vol.97, pp.20-28

Cunningham, J. 2002, ‘Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures among Australian Hospital Patients Identified as Indigenous’, Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 176, no. 2, pp. 58–62

Haebich, A 2001, ‘Between knowing and not knowing: Public knowledge of the Stolen Generations’, Aboriginal History, vol.25, no.22, pp.70-90

Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) 1997, Bringing them home: report of the national inquiry into the separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families, HREOC, Canberra.

Khalafzai, RU 2009, ‘Racial discrimination and health’, Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin, vol.14, no.3, pp.9-12

Koolmatrie, J & Williams, R 2000, ‘Unresolved grief and the removal of Indigenous Australian children’, Australian Psychologist, vol.35, no.2, pp.158-166

Paradies, Y, Harris, R & Anderson, I 2008, The impact of racism on indigenous health in Australia and Aotearoa: towards a research agenda, Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health, Australia

Petchkovsky, L, Roque, CS, Jurra, RN & Butler, S 2004, ‘Indigenous maps of subjectivity and attacks on linking: Forced separation and it psychiatric sequelae in Australia’s Stolen Generation’, Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health, vol.3, no.3, pp.113-128

Robinson, S & Paten, J 2008, ‘The question of genocide and Indigenous child removal: the colonial Australian context’, Journal of Genocide Research, vol.10, no.4, pp.501-518

Silburn, SR, Zubrick, SR, Lawrence, DM, Mitrou, FG, Demaio, JA, Blair, E, et al 2006, 'The Intergenerational Effects of Forced Separation on the Social and Emotional Wellbeing of Aboriginal Children and Young People', Family Matters, no. 75, pp. 10-17.

Silverman, M 1989, `Children of Psychiatrically Ill Parents: A Prevention Perspective', Hospital and Community Psychiatry, vol. 40, no. 12, p. 1259

Swan, P 1988, `200 Years of unfinished business', Aboriginal Health Worker Journal, vol.12, no.4, pp. 29-40.

Wolkind, S & Rutter, M 1984 `Separation, loss and family relationships', in M Rutter & L Hersov (eds), Child and adolescent psychiatry: Modern approaches, 2nd edition, Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, pages 34-57.

Ziersch, AM, Gallaher, G, Baum, F & Bentley, M 2011, ‘Responding to racism: Insights on how racism can damage health from an urban study of Australian Aboriginal people’, Social Science & Medicine, vol.73, no.7, pp.1045-1053

Similar Documents

Free Essay

History and Memory Essay

...choosing represent history and memory in unique and evocative ways. The interplay of history and memory combine to provide greater insight into events. Through the manipulation of textual forms and features, Mark Bakerʼs hybrid text “The Fiftieth Gate” expands and humanizes oneʼs understanding of the Holocaust in unique and evocative ways. A unique feature of the text is clever fusion between personal accounts and documented history using mediums such as, interviews, official documents, poetry and song. This enhances the stories of the authorʼs parents, Yossl and Genia, whilst evocatively capturing the atrocities of the Holocaust. The relationship between history and memory is further explored in Kevin Ruddʼs “Sorry apology to Stolen Generations”. Bakerʼs “The Fiftieth Gate” suggests that memory humanises historical events, juxtaposed by the emotionless discourse of history in unique and evocative ways. Baker provides insight into the historical events associated with the Holocaust,emphasising number of deaths that occurred during the genocide. In Gate 26, Baker explores the deaths Geniaʼs parents witnessed in the lines, “Among 1380 people, one family survived by chance. They were Leo Krochmal and his wife Rosa who witnessed the shooting,” The impersonal tone and simple language in the lines underscores the straightforward and detached nature of history. In contrast, the recount of Genia hiding from Germans in Gate 6 is markedly more confrontative, “we could......

Words: 1051 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Aboriginal Rights

...Changing rights and freedoms and human wellbeing By Yasmin Hayward On Australia Day’s 150th anniversary, in 1938, William Cooper, a member of the Aboriginal Progressive Association, declared the day a “Day of Mourning”, alluding to the annual re-enactment of Phillip’s landing. Aboriginal people call it ‘Invasion Day’, ‘Day of Mourning’, ‘Survival Day’ or, since 2006, ‘Aboriginal Sovereignty Day’. The latter name reflects that all Aboriginal nations are sovereign and should be united in the continuous fight for their rights. Aboriginal people refused to participate in the re-enactment because it included chasing away a party of Aboriginal people. “I refuse to celebrate, and every Australia Day my heart is broken as I am reminded that in the eyes of many, I am not welcome on my own land.” —Nakkiah Lui, Aboriginal woman “We won't stop, we won't go away / We won't celebrate Invasion Day!”—Chant during protests on Australia Day 2012 “January 26th marked the beginning of the murders, the rapes and the dispossession. It is no date to celebrate”—Michael Mansell, National Aboriginal The Day of Mourning Speech. The Aboriginal perspective of Australia day was that is was not a celebration Aboriginal people but in fact a commemoration of a deep loss. The issues outlined in the Day of Mourning speeches in 1937 led by three Aboriginal men were for the Aboriginal people to be able to access the same citizenship rights as those of white-Australians. This included their land being......

Words: 1467 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

The Stolen Generation

...[pic] A short history of the systematic Removal of Aboriginal Children from their Families in NSW. “Indigenous children have been forcibly separated from their families and communities since the very first days of the European occupation of Australia” obtained from the Bringing Them Home Report Who are the Stolen Generations The term ‘stolen generations” is in reference to those Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who were forcibly removed, as children, from their families and communities by government, welfare and affiliated church organisations. These children were systematically placed into institutional care or with non-Indigenous foster families. Although it can be argued that the removal of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children began as early as the very first days of European occupation in Australia, the forced removal policies and legislation began in the mid 1800s and continued until the 1970s. There is current discourse in Aboriginal communities supporting the notion that the removal of Aboriginal children from their families and communities continues to exist today in the form of complexities associated with current government policies and legislation and the over representation of Aboriginal children in out of home care. How and why do we know the forcible removal of Aboriginal children occurred in NSW? New South Wales, along with other Australian state and territory governments have acknowledged past practices and......

Words: 1623 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Stolen Generation in Australia

...The Stolen Generation in Australia The Aboriginal people lived long on their land without any contact from the Europeans. They are believed to first arrive in Australia between 42,000 and 48,000 years ago (Beck). They managed to live in often inhospitable conditions unbearable for the inhabitants of the “old continent”. The Aborigines did not differ only in their living conditions, but also in their way of living in general, their culture. The aboriginal culture was based on several principles which did not come to understanding when the Europeans first arrived. Perhaps the most essential aspect of the Aboriginal culture is the “kinship obligation”, when everyone in the tribe is expected to perform certain tasks without being asked to (Encyclopædia Britannica 4). The white society, in contrast with the Australian indigenous people, was based (and still is) on the concept of private membership, something absolutely unknown in Australia prior to the European settlements. The irreconcilable differences led, in consequence, to clashes and misunderstandings between the two cultures. The Europeans, however, regarded themselves superior. Lloyd describes the situation in Australia after the arrival of the European settlers as being based on “the idea of Aborigines as an inferior ‘doomed race,’ superseded by more highly developed, more enlightened Europeans” (Lloyd). No matter whether this claim was legitimate or not, it had damaging consequences. James Cook landed in Botany Bay......

Words: 1839 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Rabbit Proof Fence

... Before the first settlers came to Australia in 1788, the Aboriginal people lived throughout Australia, although the most of the population lived along the coast. Today more than half of all Aboriginals live in cities, often in cruel conditions with bad educations, and some with the habit of drug, alcohol and smoking addictions. The novel starts with that Jack McPhee is born in 1905, and that he is an illegitimate son of an Aboriginal woman and white station owner. Mary’s Song Cycle is made Ruby Langford Ginibi, she is born Jan 26 1934 and she died Oct 1 2011, she a Bundjalung author, historian and lecturer on Aboriginal history, culture and politics. The poem is narrative, because it a tells a story, the story is about the “stolen generation” and how the Australian government treated the Aboriginals, the poem ask the reader where it’s people, children, traditions and warriors are, but right in the middle of the poem, the poem says that they were torn and split apart, by the Whiteman’s world of greed, power and gain, but later in the poem it says that in the nineteen hundreds and nineties, their warriors came back, and later all that they lost came back too. The theme of the poem is Aboriginal culture Rabbit Proof Fence, a movie by the director Phillip Noyce, the meaning behind the...

Words: 654 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Insepctor Calls Questions Act 3

...1. What changes are there in Eric’s character in the course of this act? Eric has been seen as a foolish, immature young man in his interactions with other characters early in the play, we have learnt that he has been a steady drinker for two years and that he is treated childlike, for example, Mrs Birling assumes that Eric and his sister are tired because he is apart of the younger generation although he is old enough to be responsible for his actions. In Act Three the Inspector questions Eric, and when the truth comes out about Eric’s role of Eva Smith’s death he acts as if their relationship was brief and the fact that she became pregnant seemed a childish game by describing her as a 'a good sport'. He does, however, offer her money but Eva declined his offer when she found out the money had been stolen from his fathers factory which tells us although she had little in life she was not prepared to take things from other people. Despite being one of two characters who tries to help Eva, the other guests turn on Eric, even his father-'You're the one I blame for this’. Eric was shocked that the household hadn’t absorbed the message communicated to them by the inexplicable Inspector Goole as himself and Sheila were not so easily swayed towards Mr Birling, Mrs Birling and Gerald’s theory as they still should feel responsible for the disastrous incidents that escalated from a chain of events for this girl to end her life. Eric learned from the experience - 'It's what......

Words: 840 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Stolen Generation

...Report of the Stolen Generations Assessor Stolen Generations of Aboriginal Children Act 2006 February 2008 Depar tm e n t of P r e m i e r a n d C a binet Table of contents 1. 2. Introduction ...................................................... 2 Context of the legislation .......................................3 2.1 historical Context ................................................................... 3 2.2 Child Welfare and adoption laws .............................. 4 2.3 education policy and procedures ................................. 5 3. The Act ......................................................................7 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4. 5. aboriginal person................................................................................. 7 eligible Categories................................................................................ 7 exclusion ..................................................................................................... 7 the stolen generations fund..................................................... 7 timeframes............................................................................................... 8 the stolen generations assessor............................................ 8 The assessment process..........................................9 Overview of applications.......................................11 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 6. source of applications..................................

Words: 12418 - Pages: 50

Free Essay


...forcibly to the Settlement 1200 miles away. Molly misses her mother terribly and is determined to return to her village. The story of her escape and the long arduous journey home is what the film is all about. The film starts straight away, without much dilly dallying. Mr. Neville seems to be perfectly suited for the role. As for Daisy one longs to take her in his arms and wish away her sorrows. Sometimes I could not quite much decipher the distant expressions on Molly´s face. What surprised me was Molly's rare maturity for a 14 year old girl and the way she used really ingenious tricks to outwit her chasers for e.g. the trick wearing socks over her shoes to hide her tracks. It´s only towards the end that the girls are shown suffering from the rigorous of their journey, making the trek on foot through 1000 miles look relatively easy, as they never get lost nor do they suffer from hunger or thirst. Despite the minor faults one should not forget that the whole story actually did happen and the story was written by none other than Molly´s daughter. In keeping the storyline simple and straightforward, the director Phillip Noyce avoids making clichés or statements as to who´s right or wrong, but leaves it to the viewer to judge Mr. Neville, or rather the...

Words: 428 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Social Work

...This article was downloaded by: [University Of South Australia Library] On: 03 April 2015, At: 22:06 Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Journal of Australian Studies Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: The return of the stolen generation Peter Read a a Historian at the urban research program , Australian National University Published online: 18 May 2009. To cite this article: Peter Read (1998) The return of the stolen generation, Journal of Australian Studies, 22:59, 8-19, DOI: 10.1080/14443059809387421 To link to this article: PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE Taylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the “Content”) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be......

Words: 6780 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

The 1967 Referendum

...rubbish dumps and sometimes earning money as fruit pickers. State laws didn’t give them any benefits, told where they were allowed to live, stole their children and also had control over who could they marry. Contact between the inhabitants of these worlds was little, the non-indigenous didn’t care or know about the sufferings of the minority. However, in the late 1950s, aboriginal disadvantages became aware in the eyes of some of the majority and what they could do to address it. They recognised the potential to form a grassroots reform movement to bring the rights and protection of Australian citizenship to the dispossessed aboriginal population. From the late 1950s, aboriginal and non-aboriginal activist came together to campaign for equal rights for indigenous Australians and to bring about the dismantle of laws which deprived the indigenous Australians of civil rights. The Australian civil rights movement held series of events before and after, which contributed to the indigenous and Torres Strait islanders achieving their rights. This includes the conditions before the movement, including protection, assimilation, segregation policies and the stolen generation. The inspiration of the us civil rights movement was also a huge encouragement in the process. Before the civil rights movement...

Words: 1394 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Essay on Load Shedding in Pakistan

...countries in the west move towards enlightenment, Pakistan is moving towards darkness. The country suffering at the hands of corrupt politicians and terrorism has much graver problems and one of them is load shedding. It is the 21st century and there is no electricity in Pakistan! People are crying their hearts out in front of the government to provide them with the basic necessity of electricity but the government seems to have no clue about how to solve this problem. Energy shortage is the result of the power demand and supply gap. So what causes this gap to exist is the main question. There are various reasons because of which Pakistan could not create more electricity which include the rising fuel prices, rising burden of circular debts, lack of availability of inexpensive fuel, no new power projects being started, poor electricity production and distribution methods, power theft and nonpayment of electricity bills. The issue of circular debts is not something new when it comes to energy crisis. When the circular debts reach their peak the government intercepts by increasing the subsidy given to the power companies. However this does not provide a permanent solution to the problem because the subsidies given are not sufficient to pull the power supply companies out of difficulty. At present only Rs3/kilowatt subsidy is given where as 20-30% of electricity is being stolen and the electricity bills of government offices remain due for months. This burden is then......

Words: 518 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Review Questions

...Review Questions 1. What are diagnostics? How is this related to the health sciences? A diagnostic is to identify something. This relates to health science by you have to know what you are working on and how to do you need to identify it first. 2. What is trepanation? Why was this used? A trepanation is where a surge drills a hole in the patient head to release pressure. This is used to help people who are suffering with migraines or other head related injuries. 3. Describe three ways that healthcare is funded. Three ways that health care is funded is by taxation, social insurance, and private health insurance. 4. What are private healthcare sites? What are their characteristics? Private healthcare sites are where the office or hospital are ran by a for-profit company. The patient or insurance company pays for the bill. The characteristics for these is that they can give you more advance testing or having more staff and equipment since they cost more to go to them. 5. What is patient-centered care? Patient- centered care is to focus more on the patients and not just their illness. Critical Thinking Questions 1. Private health insurance is a common form of healthcare payment in the United States. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of private health insurance? Some advantages of private health insurance is more staff members, specialized services, and more equipment. But some disadvantages to this is how much it cost.......

Words: 553 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Stem Cell

...Peter Haglund 21 October 2013 Formal Essay I Stem Cell Controversy Religion and science, two forces that mix as well as oil and water. For thousands of years people have argued which side is correct: one extreme will tell you that a strong faith in God will lead to a better life, the latter extreme will tell you that life has many more complexities than just a faith a deity. These two both see life differently, the Christians think life should be cherished no matter how small or suffering. While science believes there can be something extracted from one’s small life, scientists have found, that the earliest cells of an embryo can be developed into any sort of cell. The study of this is known as stem cell research. The inner cell mass of blastocyst is extracted from the woman’s ovaries and differentiated into embryo bodies and from there they differentiate into either neuronal or pancreatic cells (bethesda). From here, it is difficult to produce enough stem cell lines or to produce the correct cell type (National Cancer Institute). This finding can save or increase many humans quality of life. But is it ethically correct? Is it morally correct? Could these findings interfere with the “circle of life”? Could this interfere with the genetic code of humans and astronomically change the world forever? Are we interfering with God’s will or the circle of life? The history of stem cell research is brief. In 1962, a new frog was produced by taking an adults frog’s......

Words: 1378 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Book of Job

...------------------------------------------------- Book of Job From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tanakh and Old Testament | | [show]Tanakh | | Judaism portal [show]Old Testament | | Christianity portal | * v  * t  * e | The Book of Job ( /ˈdʒoʊb/; Hebrew: אִיוֹב‎ ʾ iyobh), commonly referred to simply as Job, is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. It relates the story of Job, his trials at the hands of Satan, his discussions with friends on the origins and nature of his suffering, his challenge to God, and finally a response from God. The book is a didactic poem set in a prose frame. The over-riding and oft-asked question asked in the book of Job is, "Why do the righteous suffer?"[1] Scroll of the Book of Job in Hebrew. The book of Job has been included in lists of the greatest books in world literature.[2] Contents  [hide]  * 1 Contents * 1.1 Summary * 1.2 Structure * 1.2.1 Speech cycles * 1.3 Speeches of Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar * 1.4 Speeches of Job * 1.5 Speech of Elihu * 1.6 God's response * 2 Satan * 3 Job's wife * 4 Composition * 4.1 Origin and textual history * 4.2 The "Job Motif" in earlier literature * 4.3 Later interpolations and additions * 4.4 Talmudic tradition * 5 Dissenting/Speculative Wisdom * 6 In Judaism * 7 In Christianity * 7.1 Messianic anticipation in the book * 7.2 Liturgical use * 8 Middle Eastern folk traditions on Job *......

Words: 1961 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Book Ban

...Book Banning I stand here today to address is the issue of book banning in school libraries. The American Association of School Administrators (AASA) defines censorship as: “The removal, suppression, or restricted circulation of literary, artistic, or educational materials… of images, ideas, and information…on the grounds that there are morally or otherwise objectionable in light of standards applied by the censor”Though parents may choose to discuss what their children are exposed to the idea of removing it from access to the public is absurd. By removing books from school libraries concerned members of society are now limiting children and their potential to expand their horizons. I firmly believe everyone has the right to be exposed to knowledge. By limiting the literature that a young mind is exposed to limits the ability to understand and become open minded. On that note I understand that some books should not be hand to children until they have the mental capacity to comprehend the language and the meaning behind some books as not to see these books as simple stories or to be taken literally. I understand that people have reasons for their censors but it does not mean they are always right. There are four motivational factors that may lie behind a censor’s actions. Those factors are family values, religion, political views, and minority rights. On the basis of family values, the censor is usually threatened by changes in accepted traditional ways of life. They view......

Words: 2671 - Pages: 11