Free Essay

The Train

In: English and Literature

Submitted By carballo08
Words 1998
Pages 8
Wagonways and tramways

Earliest traces
The earliest evidence of a wagonway, a predecessor of the railway, found so far was the 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos wagonway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece since around 600 BC.[1][2][3][4][5] Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves inlimestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD.[5] The first horse-drawn wagonways also appeared in ancient Greece, with others to be found on Malta and various parts of the Roman Empire, using cut-stone tracks.

Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages. The earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a stained-glass window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau dating from around 1350.[6]

In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Castle in Austria. The line originally used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope, and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. The line still exists, albeit in updated form, and is probably the oldest railway still to operate.[7][8]

Early wagonways

Minecart shown in De Re Metallica (1556). The guide pin fits in a groove between two wooden planks.
Wagonways (or 'tramways') are thought to have developed in Germany in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, utilising primitive wooden rails. Such an operation was illustrated in 1556 by Georgius Agricola (Image right).[9] These used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks, to keep it going the right way.[10]Such a transport system was used by German miners at Caldbeck, Cumbria, perhaps from the 1560s.[11] The first true railway is now suggested to have been a funicular railway made at Broseley in Shropshire at some time before 1605. This carried coal for James Clifford from his mines down to the river Severn to be loaded on to barges and carried to riverside towns.[12] Though the first documentary record of this is later, its construction probably preceded the Wollaton Wagonway, completed in 1604, hitherto regarded as the earliest British installation. This ran from Strelley toWollaton near Nottingham. Another early wagonway is noted onwards. Huntingdon Beaumont (who was concerned with mining at Strelley) also laid down broad wooden rails near Newcastle upon Tyne, on which a single horse could haul fifty or sixty bushels (130–150 kg) of coal.[13]

By the 18th century, such wagonways and tramways existed in a number of areas. Ralph Allen, for example, constructed a tramway to transport stone from a local quarry to supply the needs of the builders of the Georgian terraces of Bath. The Battle of Prestonpans, in the Jacobite Rebellion, was fought astride a wagonway.[14] This type of transport spread rapidly through the whole Tyneside coal-field, and the greatest number of lines were to be found in the coalfield near Newcastle upon Tyne. Their function in most cases was to facilitate the transport of coal in chaldron wagons from the coalpits to a staithe (a wooden pier) on the river bank, whence coal could be shipped to London by collier brigs. The wagonways were engineered so that trains of coal wagons could descend to the staithe by gravity, being braked by a brakesman who would "sprag" the wheels by jamming them. Wagonways on less steep gradients could be retarded by allowing the wheels to bind on curves. As the work became more wearing on the horses, a vehicle known as a dandy wagon was introduced, in which the horse could rest on downhill stretches.

Rails
Because a stiff wheel rolling on a rigid rail requires less energy per ton-mile moved than road transport (with a highly compliant wheel on an uneven surface), railroads are highly suitable for the movement of dense, bulk goods such as coal and other minerals. This was incentive to focus a great deal of inventiveness upon the possible configurations and shapes of wheels and rails. In the late 1760s, the Coalbrookdale Company began to fix plates of cast iron to the upper surface of the wooden rails. These (and earlier railways) had flanged wheels as on modern railways, but another system was introduced, in which unflanged wheels ran on L-shaped metal plates – these became known as plateways. John Curr, a Sheffield colliery manager, invented this flanged rail, though the exact date of this is disputed. The plate rail was taken up by Benjamin Outram for wagonways serving his canals, manufacturing them at his Butterley ironworks. Meanwhile William Jessop, a civil engineer, had used a form of edge rail successfully for an extension to the Charnwood Forest Canal at Nanpantan, Loughborough, Leicestershire in 1789. Jessop became a partner in the Butterley Company in 1790. The flanged wheel eventually proved its superiority due to its performance on curves, and the composite iron/wood rail was replaced by all metal rail, with its vastly superior stiffness, durability, and safety.

The introduction of the Bessemer process for making cheap steel led to the era of great expansion of railways that began in the late 1860s. Steel rails lasted several times longer than iron.[15][16][17]

Steam power introduced
James Watt, a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer, was responsible for improvements to the steam engine of Thomas Newcomen, hitherto used to pump water out of mines. Watt developed a reciprocating engine, capable of powering a wheel. Although the Watt engine powered cotton mills and a variety of machinery, it was a large stationary engine. It could not be otherwise; the state of boiler technology necessitated the use of low pressure steam acting upon a vacuum in the cylinder, and this mode of operation needed a separate condenser and an air pump. Nevertheless, as the construction of boilers improved, he investigated the use of high pressure steam acting directly upon a piston. This raised the possibility of a smaller engine, that might be used to power a vehicle, and he actually patented a design for a steam locomotive in 1784. His employee William Murdoch produced a working model of a self propelled steam carriage in that year.[18]

A replica of Trevithick's engine at the National Waterfront Museum, Swansea
The first working model of a steam rail locomotive was designed and constructed by John Fitch in the United States in 1794.[19] The first full scale working railway steam locomotive was built in the United Kingdom in 1804 by Richard Trevithick, an English engineer born in Cornwall. (The story goes that it was constructed to satisfy a bet by Samuel Homfray, the local iron master.) This used high pressure steam to drive the engine by one power stroke. (The transmission system employed a large fly-wheel to even out the action of the piston rod.) On 21 February 1804 the world's first railway journey took place as Trevithick's unnamed steam locomotive hauled a train along the tramway of the Penydarren ironworks, near Merthyr Tydfil in South Wales.[20][21] Trevithick later demonstrated a locomotive operating upon a piece of circular rail track in Bloomsbury, London, the "Catch-Me-Who-Can", but never got beyond the experimental stage with railway locomotives, not least because his engines were too heavy for the cast-iron plateway track then in use. Despite his inventive talents, Richard Trevithick died in poverty, with his achievement being largely unrecognized.[22]

The impact of the Napoleonic Wars resulted in (amongst other things) a dramatic rise in the price of fodder. This was the imperative that made thelocomotive an economic proposition, if it could be perfected.

The first commercially successful steam locomotive was Matthew Murray's rack locomotive Salamanca built for the narrow gauge Middleton Railway in 1812. This twin cylinder locomotive was not heavy enough to break the edge-rails track, and solved the problem of adhesion by a cog-wheel utilising teeth cast on the side of one of the rails. It was the first rack railway.

This was followed in 1813 by the Puffing Billy built by Christopher Blackett and William Hedley for the Wylam Colliery Railway, the first successful locomotive running by adhesion only. This was accomplished by the distribution of weight by a number of wheels. Puffing Billy is now on display in the Science Museum in London, the oldest locomotive in existence.[23]

In 1814 George Stephenson, inspired by the early locomotives of Trevithick, Murray and Hedley, persuaded the manager of the Killingworth colliery where he worked to allow him to build a steam-powered machine. He built the Blücher, one of the first successful flanged-wheel adhesion locomotives. Stephenson played a pivotal role in the development and widespread adoption of the steam locomotive. His designs considerably improved on the work of the earlier pioneers. In 1825 he built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in the north east of England, which was the first public steam railway in the world. Such success led to Stephenson establishing his company as the pre-eminent builder of steam locomotives used on railways in the United Kingdom, United States and much of Europe.

Water transportation is the intentional movement of water over large distances.

Ship transport is watercraft carrying people (passengers) or goods (cargo). Sea transport has been the largest carrier of freight throughout recorded history. Although the importance of sea travel for passengers has decreased due to aviation, it is effective for short trips and pleasure cruises. Transport by water is cheaper than transport by air.

The term watercraft covers a range of different vehicles including ships, boats, hovercraft and submarines, and differs from a flotation device such as a log raft.

Ferries are a form of transport, usually a boat or ship, but also other forms, carrying (or ferrying) passengers and sometimes their vehicles. Ferries are also used to transport freight (in lorries and sometimes unpowered freight containers) and even railroad cars. Most ferries operate on regular, frequent, return services. A foot-passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, is sometimes called a waterbus or water taxi. Ferries form a part of the public transport systems of many waterside cities and islands, allowing direct transit between points at a capital cost much lower than bridgesor tunnels. Many of the ferries operating in Northern European waters are ro/ro ships. See the Herald of Free Enterprise and M/S Estonia disasters.

Cruise ships are passenger ships used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. Cruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, with millions of passengers each year as of 2006. The industry's rapid growth has seen nine or more newly built ships catering to a North American clientele added every year since 2001, as well as others servicing Europeanclientele. Smaller markets such as the Asia-Pacific region are generally serviced by older tonnage displaced by new ships introduced into the high growth areas. On the Baltic sea this market is served by cruiseferries.

Roll-on/roll-off ships, such as the Chi-Cheemaun, are cargo ships designed to carry wheeled cargo such as automobiles, trailers or railway carriages. RORO (or ro/ro) vessels have built-in ramps which allow the cargo to be efficiently "rolled on" and "rolled off" the vessel when in port. While smaller ferries that operate across rivers and other short distances still often have built-in ramps, the term RORO is generally reserved for larger ocean-going vessels.

Tankers are cargo ships for the transport of fluids, such as crude oil, petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas andchemicals, also vegetable oils, wine and other food - the tanker sector comprises one third of the world tonnage.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Train Problems

...TRAINS General Concept: (1) Time taken by a train x mt long in passing a signal poster a pole or a standing man = time taken by the train to cover x mt (2) Time taken by a train x mt long in passing a stationary object of length y mt = time taken by the train to cover x+y mt (3) Suppose two trains or two bodies are moving in the same direction at u kmph and v kmph such that u > v then their relative speed is u-v kmph (4)If two trains of length x km and y km are moving in opposite directions at u kmph and vmph,then time taken by the train to cross each other = (x+y)/(u+v) hr (5) Suppose two trains or two bodies are moving in opposite direction at u kmph and v kmph then, their relative speed = (u+v) kmph (6)If two train start at the same time from 2 points A & B towards each other and after crossing they take a & b hours in reaching B & A respectively then A's speed : B's speed = (b^1/2 : a^1/2 ) EXERCISE 1. A train running at the speed of 60 km/hr crosses a pole in 9 seconds. What is the length of the train? A. 120 meters B.180 meters C.324 meters D. 150 meters 2. A train 125 m long passes a man, running at 5 km/hr in the same direction in which the train is going, in 10seconds. The speed of the train is: A. 45 km/hr B. 50 km/hr C. 54 km/hr D. 55 km/hr 3. The length of the bridge, which a train 130 meters long and travelling at 45 km/hr can cross in 30 seconds, is: A. 200 m B. 225 m C. 245 m D. 250 m 4. Two trains running in opposite directions cross a man standing......

Words: 1780 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Otis Toy Trains Case

...Otis Toy Trains is faced with the challenge of dealing with increasing labor costs. Until this point, Otis has been able to deliver a detailed and refined train series at a price customers are satisfied with. Chinese company JLPTC has announced its ability to produce the same train and cut manufacturing costs up to 60 percent. In order to survive, Otis needs to cut costs and evaluate the potential success of its strategic options. Otis could accept the proposal in its entirety. By doing this, Otis would be able offset the increasing labor costs within the U.S and additionally has the potential to make more profit on every unit sold. Otis would need enough information to ensure that cutting costs is not offset by additional expenses including logistics, customs fees, and JLPTC’s fees. Otis would also need to ensure that quality is maintained and can do so by setting quality standards that have to be met and will be continually tested. But accepting the proposal as presented by JLPTC would also mean outsourcing Otis’ design to a company who has stated they can produce it cheaper. Otis would be allowing a potential competitor control over the production of their product, but also access to their core competency, the unique, detailed, and accurate design skills. In doing so Otis is essentially giving away the unique capability that make customers chose them. Another option would be not accepting the proposal at all. Otis would need to analyze and investigate options to reduce......

Words: 653 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Otis Toy Train

...In the Case of Otis Toy Train and Joyous Luck Prosperity Toy Company, it may not be wise for Otis to go ahead with JLPTC’s proposal. Although increasing labor costs are a large problem for Otis and decreasing these costs by 40-60% may seem appealing, there are many underlying disadvantages to outsourcing that Otis needs to take into consideration. Part of the reason Otis has been so successful is because they are American based. Their headquarters are based in Minnesota and much of their productions facilities are located around that area. Also, many of Otis’s products are based on North American History. Should Otis decide to outsource their production, it is possible that they may lose a good portion of their customer base who takes pride in this purely American product. Otis must also take quality into consideration. Very often when companies decided to outsource their products the quality is downgraded which can upset many loyal customers. With China being so far away, it would be difficult for Otis to monitor the quality of the product during production to make sure it is up to par. Not only will geographical distance be a problem for quality control, but it will also cause many problems with communication. In a company with such a loyal customer base and with such authentic products, it is vital the communication be a number one priority. All aspects of the business should be on the same page at all times. If Otis should outsource to china they will find......

Words: 422 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Maglev Train Essay

...Essay Thesis: Maglev trains will be the future of transportation providing benefits for the environment, society, and economic benefits. In our world today we have many problems. Problems that we are facing are environmental, social, and economic issues. This is due to the fact that traveling to work has become a hassle and when your using your car it also causes environmental damage. When people travel in their cars they have to fill it up with gas, which we have seen, gas prices increasing tremendously. This causes social problems because people don’t want to travel because it’s too expensive. The environmental problems we have are the fact that CO2 emissions are polluting over environment and causing harm to everyone. The result of this is global warming which is affecting our environment and society. Economic issues are the fact that importing and exporting oil is expensive. This is why we need to find an alternative. That’s why Maglev trains will be the future of transportation providing benefits for the environment, society, and economic benefits. Maglev trains use electromagnets, which make the train levitate. This causes the train to cause no friction and “may be a travel solution of the future”. This means that it doesn’t cause any noise pollution, which is great for ecosystems living around the track and also benefits society because then they don’t have to here the noise of the train, which most people find annoying. Personally I live right by the GO......

Words: 1441 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

The Great Train Robbery Silent Film Analysis

...The Great Train Robbery was one of the earliest silent films, made in 1903. The film begins with two masked robbers bursting into a railroad station office, and binding and gagging the railway dispatcher. From the very beginning The Great Train Robbery is off to a dramatic start. It instantly engages the viewer. A person viewing this film for the first time in 1903 would have been hooked from the start. The film is about twelve minutes long and has a fully developed narrative and distinguishable character types: robbers, posse members, railway workers and supporting characters. The robbers’ motives are obvious from the start. After forcing the dispatcher to give a false note to the conductor, the dispatcher is knocked out and, the robbers are then free to board the train and rob it. After the robbers board the train we see a worker who is alarmed by a sound. He peeks through the door's keyhole and sees the two robbers. The worker quickly locks the strong box, and throws the key out of the open side door. He draws his revolver and crouches behind the strong box just as the robbers break down the door and enter. After a brief gunfight, the messenger is killed. Actors are filmed at a distance on large stages that give the feeling of being seated in a large theatre. The actor’s gestures are dramatic and outsized as can be seen with the dramatic deaths in the film. At first the film has the feel of a stage play but very quickly changes, for example, through the window of the...

Words: 1241 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Otis Toy Trains Explores the Supply Chain

...Otis Toy Trains Explores the Supply Chain Otis Toy Trains of Minneapolis, Minnesota was a landmark company since the 1900s, which had to go through a change in target market that lead to the problem of high labor cost. JLPTC offers Otis Toy Train a deal to take over a huge portion of production, promising a decrease of 40 to 60 percent of manufacturing costs. Otis should take the deal because it serves as the best solution for the company’s current issue. However, the company must do so with great caution. I have decided to complete a SWOT analysis to see the gains and risks. The Strengths given by choosing JLPTC is lowering of manufacturing cost which will enable distribution of resources to other department. Weakness that I see is the additional expenses and risks that the company might run into while working with JLPTC. Opportunities can be brought in by our business partner who has a better understanding of foreign market that we can expand into and the new ideas that might be brought in. Threat is the reason why the company must be very careful. When we think in terms of logistics, language barrier, quality of good, and reliability, there are a lot of risks in this decision. Logistics risk is huge change of the supply chain within the company. The company should do or hire a professional to construct a well organized logistics planning. Language barrier is a big part when domestic company decides to partner with foreign company because of the lack of communication......

Words: 351 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

How to Train Ur Dragon

...How to Train Your Dragon 2 is a 2014 American 3D computer-animated action fantasy film produced by DreamWorks Animation and distributed by 20th Century Fox, loosely based on the book series of the same name by Cressida Cowell. It is the sequel to the 2010 computer-animated film How to Train Your Dragon and the second in the trilogy. The film is written and directed by Dean DeBlois, and stars the voices of Jay Baruchel, Gerard Butler, Craig Ferguson, America Ferrera, Jonah Hill, Christopher Mintz-Plasse, T.J. Miller and Kristen Wiig with the addition of Cate Blanchett, Djimon Hounsou and Kit Harington.[4] The film takes place five years after the first film, featuring Hiccup and his friends as young adults as they meet Valka, Hiccup's long-lost mother, and Drago Bludvist, a madman who wants to conquer the world. DeBlois, who co-directed the first film, agreed to return to direct the second film on the condition that he would be allowed to turn it into a trilogy. He cited The Empire Strikes Back and My Neighbor Totoro as his main inspirations, with the expanded scope of the The Empire Strikes Back being particularly influential. The entire voice cast from the first film returned, and Cate Blanchett and Djimon Hounsou signed on to voice Valka and Drago, respectively. DeBlois and his creative team visited Norway and Svalbard to give them ideas for the setting. Composer John Powell returned to score the film. How to Train Your Dragon 2 benefited from advances in animation......

Words: 402 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Train

...1. Vostick Filter Company is a distributor of air filters to retail stores. It buys its filters from several manufacturers. Filters are ordered in lot sizes of 1000 and each order costs $40 to place. Demand from retail stores is 20,000 filters per month, and carrying cost is $.10 a filter per month. a. What is the optimal order quantity with respect to so many lot sizes? b. What would be the optimal order quantity if the carrying cost were $.05 a filter per month? c. What would be the optimal order quantity if ordering costs were $10? 2. To reduce production start-up costs, Bodden Truck Company may manufacture longer runs of the same truck. Estimated savings from the increase in efficiency are $260,000 per year. However, inventory turnover will decrease from eight times a year to six times a year. Costs of goods sold are $48 million on annual basis. If the required rate of return on investment in inventories is 15%, should the company instigate the new production plan? 3. The Hedge Corporation manufactures only one product: planks. The single raw material used in making planks is the dint. For each plank manufactured, 12 dints are required. Assume that company manufactures 150,000 planks per year, that demand for planks is perfectly steady throughout the year, that it costs $200 each time dints are ordered, and that carrying costs are $8 per dint per year. a. Determine the economic order quantity of dints. b. What are the total......

Words: 273 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Train

...Before I begin, I must make two confessions: I am decidedly against political correctness and I am not a feminist. PC, to me, is a disease that makes people fear the truth and embellish it with foreign-sounding, hardly understandable words/phrases. It actually reduces the importance of something. I think that by saying people still keep slaves in the 21st century, you will immediately understand what I am talking about and the word slave will send a signal into your brain that this is bad. If I replace the word slave with the phrase personal unpaid labourer, will you really think that being such a labourer, as opposed to being a slave is so bad? (P.S. If you support political correctness, please do not feel offended. This is all my personal opinion.) This is partly what the book tries to convey and it is a funny parody of this modern need – PC – to not say what you mean. The book changes the plots of famous fairy-tales so as to make them more “morally appropriate” for children, according to the PC policy. Feminist elements are added, turning female villains into good people and male heroes into chauvinistic, sexist idiots (even the poor seven dwarves from Snow White and the Seven Dwarves). It also includes modern elements, like cars and spas, and has a very moralizing tone throughout. The fairy-tales the book tackles are: Little Red Riding Hood, The Emperor’s New Clothes, The Three Little Pigs, Rumpelstiltskin, Billy Goats Gruff, Rapunzel, Cinderella, Goldilocks,......

Words: 272 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Quality Control

...The Crew Lead is also to retrain any employees that fail to meet our QC standards. Crew Lead reports to EML LLC’s Supervisor. 3. Pre-requisites EML, LLC Crew Lead will utilize EML, LLC documents to include time sheets, MSDS books, temporary WO and assigned purchase orders and all associated documents for GSA contract # GS-07P-11-JU-D-0024. Crew Lead has been issued out a copy of our contract and shall reference it at all times. 4. Responsibilities The procedure outlined applies to all EML, LLC employees/ custodians. Items needed to be covered on the training sessions are as follow; • Train custodian employee on using the proper process on this S.O.P. Start point: New Hire Training and Existing Employee Re-Training Sessions • Company policy book • Union book • Safety Signs • Eml Contract Safety Signs Train them to post specific signs when they are working. If they will be mopping floors in walkways, break rooms, restrooms or hallways, make sureCrew Lead will they post a 'wet floor' sign...

Words: 1816 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Management Information Systems

...| |2014 | | | | | |Submitted to: | | |TAKRIMA SAYEDA | | |Lecturer | | | | | |University Of Dhaka | | | | | | | | |Course: THM 325 | |[BANGLADESH RAILWAYS – THE LIFE LINE OF THE COUNTRY] | | | | | |Prepared By: GROUP – ‘Knockout Knights’ | | | Group name : `Knockout Knights` Course code : THM - 325 Member’ |Name ...

Words: 8297 - Pages: 34

Free Essay

Mis in Railways

...networks in the world. Indian Railways operates both long distance and suburban rail systems. [pic][pic] Fig: Shows the top railways network in world Indian railway is one of the largest and busiest rail networks in the world, transporting 17 million passengers and more than 2 million tons of goods daily. IR is the world's largest commercial, with more than 1.6 million employees. The railways traverse the length and breadth of the country; the routes cover a total length of more than 63,327 km (39,500 miles). As of 2008, IR owned about 225,000 wagons, 45,000 coaches and 8,300 engines and ran more than 18,000 trains daily, including about 8,984 passenger trains and 9,387 goods trains. Annually it carries some 4.83 billion passengers and 492 million tons of goods. Of the 11 million passengers who climb aboard one of 8,984 trains each day, about 550,000 have reserved accommodations. Their journeys can start in any part of India and end in any other part, with travel times as long as 48 hours and distances up to several thousand kilometers. The challenge is to provide a reservation system that can support such a huge scale of operations — regardless of whether it's measured by kilometers, passenger numbers, routing complexity, or simply the sheer scale of India. The main challenges in front of the Indian railways are:  • Provide a reservation system that efficiently serves more than half a million people each day • Ensure maximum uptime......

Words: 4852 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Intermodal Transportation

...Intermodal transportation is the use of two or more modes of transport to freight. Increasing the use of intermodal transportation will efficiently escalate freight movement by using shipping containers to easily transport from one location to another, and by using multiple modes of transport that can reduce costs for the shipper and end user. Intermodal transportation had slow beginnings. The concept and use of intermodal transportation did not see its beginnings until the 1960s. Before then cargo was moved at times separately and by hand. According to Donovan (2000), The task of shifting cargo between modes still required that boxes, barrels, and bags in which goods were packed be unloaded from one carrier and then reloaded on the train, ship, or truck that would carry them on the next leg of their journey (p. 1) This was a slow process that required large amounts of labor working at a dock yard or railroad depot. By having these items move separately it slowed the process which would result in higher costs and additional time. Tomlinson (2009) stated “One analysis in the late 1950s concluded that 60-75% of the cost of transporting cargo by sea was made up of portside costs, while another study of a...

Words: 1246 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Hyperloop Report

...Luis Obispo, CA 93410 David Ripplinger TRF Program Vice President Dept. 2880, P.O. Box 6050 Fargo, ND 58108-6050 March 08, 2014 Dear Mr. Ripplinger, The report following this letter is intended to inform the reader about the current CA High Speed Rail project and the more recently proposed Hyperloop project by Elon Musk. We also compare the two after giving the information and allow the reader to decide which they think is the better option. The report is split up into four main sections. The first section consists of the civil aspects, followed by the energy required for each system to run, then the third section explains the environmental impacts and finally the fourth section compares the pricing of both high speed trains to current modes of transportation. Of course none of this could have been done without the contribution and dedication of my classmates Hannah Bieszczat, Ryan Buckley and Devin LeBlanc. I hope you enjoy this report and if you have any questions please feel free to email me. Thank you. Respectfully, HYPERLOOP VERSUS VARIOUS FORMS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION INCLUDING HIGH SPEED RAIL Undergraduate Engineering Students California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo Last Updated: March 2014 Abstract In an attempt to meet the growing demand of quick transit as well as alleviate rising fuel prices, the state of California has approved and began construction on a new high speed rail mass transit system......

Words: 7176 - Pages: 29

Free Essay

Institutionsal Sale

...SRT 1. The student of his college are about to call a strike. They want his cooperation. He _________. 2. Two of his best friends had quarreled with each other. He will ______________ . 3. He has had a quarrel with his uncle and he (uncle) decided to leave the house. He ____________________ . 4. His father wants to marry him with a rich and educated girl, but he is in love with a poor uneducated girl. He _________________. 5. He has been selected for a good job, but his father wants him to the family business, He ______________________. 6. He with six persons had gone on a cycle expedition and one cycle got punctured on desert stretched road. He ________________________. 7. He has quarreled with one of his friends. He ____________________________. 8. A cobra enters the room at night and start going near his brother who is sleeping. He _______________________. 9. While going to the office he finds an accident between a cycle and a bullock cart, he is already getting late. He ______________________. 10. He is caught b decoits and taken to a jungle where they ask him to sign a note to his father for Rs 2,00,000. He will _________________________. 11. His friend hits him. He _____________________________. 12. He has two offrs who are giving conflicting orders. He ____________________. 13. He and his brothers have gone to a forest. He lost his way and it was becoming dark. He ________________________. 14. While coming back......

Words: 6466 - Pages: 26