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The Waterfall Model in Ict

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By golola
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1.(a) In plain words ‘E-commerce’ is simply Electronic commerce. E-commerce is the buying and selling of goods and services by businesses and consumers through an electronic medium. Below are three models of Electronic commerce;

• Business-to-Business(B2B) – In this type electronic commerce, the trade is only between businesses or other organisations. An example of B2B is Cisco. Cisco is a corporation that designs, manufactures and sells networking equipment,. Cisco trades with other businesses and organisations.

• Business-to-Consumer(B2C) – This type of electronic commerce involves a business and an individula shopper. Businesses sell goods and products to individual shoppers(Consumer). An example of B2C is Amazon. Amazon is a E-commerce company that deals with online retailing. Sells to consumers.

• Consumer-to-Consumer(C2C) – In this model electronic commerce, the trade off is done between consumers directly. An example of C2C is e-bay. E-bay is an E-commerce corporations that enables C2C

(b) Internet

The Internet is a ‘Network’consisiting of a worlwide interconnection of computer networks that facilitate data transmission and exchange. As organisations grow larger, communcation becomes complex. The internet makes it more efficient o communicate by providing a tool called ‘e-mail’. Electronic mail is a tool that allows a user to type a message on a computer connected to a network and transfer it to another networke computer.


Intranet is a collection of private computer networks within an organisation. It uses network technologies as a tool to enable communication between people and work groups to improve data sharing and hence organization efficiency.


Extranet like intranet, is a private network. It uses internet technology and the public telecommunication system to securely share part of a businesses information or operations with the businesses outside world. Extranet can be used to share news of common interest exclusively with partner companies.

(c) There are many reasons why some people havent jumped onto the e-commerce wagon.below are some of them;

• Human nature - Most people find it more comfortable doing business with a business entity that has a location and can be physically seen e.g building. People place their trust in people they can talk to in person. In E-commerce physicality is out of the question so people tend to avoid shopping online.

• Extra Cost - Online shopping incorporates extra costs. Delivery costs are inccured when the asset is transferred to the consumer.

• Fraud - the fact that the product may not be what it is depicted as online. The fear of being conned stops people from shopping online.

• Online security - Making payments online is usually safe but not all the time. If a site is not secure or does not encrypt personal credit card data, a hacker can access it putting your oersinal financial information in jeopardy.

2 (a) The ‘Waterfall’ model is considered the simplest software development life cycle. Its stages are arranged in a linear order. The models stages descend from top to bottom hence the name waterfall. The stages are listed below;

• Design

• Coding

• Verification and testing

• Deployment

The stages are carried out as they are listed. Firstly design, coding, verification and testing andd lastly deployment.

Design (requirement analysis, project planning, system design and detailed design)

Design can be broken down into three stages;

• Specification: In this stage a survey to find out exactly the purpose of the software is and the things it will be used for.

• User Interface Design: This stage involves how the user and the software will interact. Developers must design the software in a way various userrs can use it and accomplish their goals.

• Module Design: How to break up the overall tasks into smaller manageable pieces. Creating classes is the basis of module design.


The code is the actual software. It is how the software comes to exist. The output of the coding phase is the code itself. Converts the design into computer code.

Verification and testing

Verifiction refers to mathematical proofs of program correctness, while testing refers to experimental trials to test for potential errors. In software development though, testing is a method of verification.Testing can be broken down into three types;

• Module tests- The use of ‘test codes’ to ensure the module is error-free.

• System tests- Testing groups of modules before testing all groups put together.

• Beta testing- This stage comes after the system seems complete. It is then sent to Beta testers wgo are not necessarily programmers in order for them to detect minor issues with it.


This stage is broken down into three;

• Documentation- This is merely documentation on how the system created works

• Distribution- Simply distribution to users. In a market scenario, this means marketing and selling the software. For internally written software in a company it means installing it on computers.

• Maintenance- Due to hardware and software upgrades, new compatibility issues may arise. The systems need to be maintained in order to avoid any complications.

The diagram below shows the stages in a waterfall software development life cycle

The arrows going upwards symbolise the action taken when errors come up.

(b) The following are techniques used to investigate an exicting system

Observation - This involves examining procedures as they are carried out, It gives the analyst a first view of how work is done using the exisiting system. Advantages of Observation are;

• Gives a realistic review.

• Data is collected in real-time ad is more accurate.

Document analysis - This invloves examining existing data, records, documentation as well as procedure manuals used for the existing system. Advantages of document analysis are;

• Ready made source of information.

• It is a quick and faster way to gather information.

(c) Spiral models are alternatives for linear cycles for developing software. This model breaks down a large single development cycle of a single phsae waterfall into multiple smaller development cycles, each cycle building on the previous. It is a new model that can encompass different development strategies(Sinkala Henry).

3. (a) Batch processing is a type of data processing that collects data into ‘batches’(groups) of files and processes them without manual intervention. Batch processing used in a supermarket provides both advantages and disadvantages.


• Batch processing is less expensive than online. It uses very little computer processing time to prepare a batch, infact most computing occurs when the batch executes.

• A computer using batch processing does notneed extra hardware and software for interactive input.

• A batch job is a set of instructions given to a computer programming it to run and read batched input data. This makes it convinient for scheduling and planning work.

• Batch handles large volumes of data.


• Businesses prefer managing inventory more effectively and that can only be done if it has current information for out-of-stock items. Batch processing does not give such information right there and then.

• Batch processing is much slower than on-line.

• It has high turnaround time. This is the time taken between submitting the job and getting the output.

An example of batch processing is the Billing system. Credit card companies collect all the data form the credit card and process ot as a batch at the end of a billling cycle.

On-line processing is a type of processing that allows inputted data to be processed immediately it enters the system. In a supermarket, immediately the sale of goods is made, the master file is altered.


• On-line processing is faster than batch.

• It has a low turnaround time hence providing inventory information quicker.

• It helps draw faster and more accurate forecasting of revenues and expenses.

• Database is aways up to date.


• It may be complex to handle thousands of operations.

• Needs a constant update of software and hardware to keep up with the workload.

• Maintance costs may be an issue.

An example On-line processingis Airline Reservation. A customere requests to reserve a seat and the system immdiately processes the data and provides an output of seat availability.

(b) The following are reports provided by a transactions processing system

Error Reports - These reports list transactions found to be in error during processing. Identify the error and sometimes also list the corresponding master fileor database records. Gives the manager a view of errors and can correct them.

Tranaction Logs - Listings of all transactions processed during a system run and include purchase order amifests or sales registers. Gives the manager a percepetive of how the business is being operated.

Summary Reports - Typical summary reports produced by Transaction proceesing systems include financial statements. Allows the manager to know and understand the businesses financial position.

4. E-technology is a new trend in Zambia that is being adapted by many businesses, corporations and individuals too. It comes with many benefits. Below are some of the benefits provided by E-technology.

Economical benefits of E-technology

• By using e-tech companies can quickly and conviniently find the best suppliers, suitable business partners and even more customers. It allows the company to buy cheaper and sell even more. It gives the company global reach.

• It cuts down on costs. Decreases the cost of creating distributing, storing and retrieving paper-based information.

• It allows for the invention of new business models that may increase profits.

• E- tech gives the specialisation of certian vendors the ability to exist.

• It also cuts down on the time it takes for a business idea to materialise into a commercial entity.

• Company information can be kept always up to date.

• Its improves productivity and operation and trading flexibility.


• It provides consumers with a wide range of products from various vendors.

• It cuts down on consumer expenditure by cutting down on product costs.

• Consumers can retreive relevant and detailed information about products easily.

• It provides consumers with Electronic communities. These allow customers to interact with other customers and exchange ideas and compare experiences.

• Gives the option of working at home to many people. This leads to less traffic and reduced air pollution. Its more convinient to many.

• It also increases standards of living by allowing some products to be sold at lower prices.

• Products can now be offered to areas that did not have them.

• It also brings with it the availability of public services.

Limitations of E-commerce

• Failure to co-ordinate- reporting and control relationships arent enough,a move to a more accountable and flexible organsid=sational structure would be the right decision

• Failure to obtain senior management commitment- may lead to failure to gain suffcient corporate resources to accomplish a task.

• E-commerce management may be complex- It involves a mix of many different people with different professions hence management is difficult if not taken as a major factor.

• Lack of trust in E-commerce- Some people are still skeptical about using E-commerce for communication and business.

• Difficulty in intergrating the E-commerce software with the present applications and database.








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