Free Essay

The Wide Lens

In: Business and Management

Submitted By carlitos
Words 3328
Pages 14
THE WIDE LENS - What successful innovators see that other miss
The discussion topic is the difference between great innovations that succeed and great innovations that fail. In particular, it is worth noting that company’s success depends not just on the ability to execute its own promises but also on whether visible or hidden partners deliver on their promises too. In other words, company’s success depends not just on its own efforts but also on the ability, willingness, and likelihood that the partners that make up its innovation ecosystem succeed as well. Thus, a new perspective must be adopted, a wide lens, with which to assess a company strategy using a new set of tools and frameworks that will expose a company hidden sources of dependence.

The Innovation Behind Spot and Avoidable Failure
Although great execution is a necessary condition for success, it is not enough. Indeed, while the execution focus draws attention to important aspects of a company strategy (developing customer insight, building core competencies, and beating the competition), it creates a blind spot that hides key dependencies that are equally important in determining success and failure.
Philips Electronics despite sterling execution and rave reviews, Philips's high-definition TV flopped, because its value creation depended on other innovations (the high-definition cameras and transmission standards necessary to make high-definition TV work) that failed to arrive on time.
Sony it launched its e-reader to market before its rivals but even a great e-reader cannot succeed in a market where customers have no easy access to e-books.
Johnson Controls it developed a new generation of electrical switches and sensors, but until architects, electricians, and a host of other actors adjusted their own routines and updated their own capabilities, the value of its innovations would never be realized.
All three companies fell victim to the innovator's blind spot: failing to see how their success also depended on partners who themselves would need to innovate and agree to adapt in order for their efforts to succeed. Indeed, talented managers may successfully implement brilliant innovations to market, but after the innovations launched, they failed, because an innovation success depends not only on meeting the needs of their end customers but also on partners’ support.

Innovation, Expectations and Reality
Every year, a lot of efforts are spent for new innovation to safeguard economic growth. Innovation is an imperative. In a world of aggressive competition and highly demanding customers, frequently changing tastes, innovation is not a choice but a necessity. However, successful innovation remains the exception rather than the rule, given the high rate of failures. The challenge is to understand the causes of innovation failure and to find ways of increasing effectiveness and safeguarding success.
There are two schools of thought. The first school argues that most innovation failures are rooted in a shortfall in customer insight. The second school argues that failure is rooted in shortcomings of leadership and implementation. However, both perspectives, even taken together, are incomplete, because they do not take into consideration the impact and role of ecosystem in the innovation success. Seeing the Hidden Traps
Innovations may not succeed not because they are less innovative than their competitors or cannot execute on their project, but because their innovation ecosystem won't come together. Managers should see hidden traps going beyond the execution focus and extending their lens of view. By adopting a wide-lens perspective on innovation strategy, two distinct types of risk may be identified within the ecosystem. * Co-innovation Risk, the extent to which the success of your innovation depends on the successful commercialization of other innovations. * Adoption Chain Risk, the extent to which partners will need to adopt your innovation before end consumers have a chance to assess the full value proposition.
By considering the entire ecosystem, managers may develop a clearer view of their full set of dependencies and, still based on great customer insight and execution, innovations may succeed.

How We Got Here
The need for collaborative innovation has defined progress since the Industrial Revolution. What has changed is the way the collaboration is organized. The shift toward innovation ecosystems follows a historical trend toward greater complexity and interaction. In the beginning, the dominant approach was to house all this complexity within a single firm, the vertically integrated organization. However, while vertical integration offered control, it required massive investments. At the close of the twentieth century, firms started learning how to leverage external supply chains to outsource activities. The first firms to master the principles of the new approach enjoyed a substantial competitive advantage. As these innovation strategies diffused more broadly across organizations, they stopped being a source of differentiation and became, instead, simply an operational requirement.
Today, enormous benefits that accrued to firms who mastered supply chain management are still real, but they are now widely shared. However, a major change taking place as firms shift from using supply chains to offer better products to embracing partnerships and collaboration to offer better "solutions." There is a growing trend to not go it alone. They have deployed a wide lens in setting their strategy and prospered in their embrace of the ecosystem opportunity.

Chapter 1
Why Things Go Wrong When You Do Everything Right
The mantra of success was: (1) "Put the customer first," (2) "Deliver on your promise," and (3) "Do a better job than the competition". The real challenge lies in satisfying all three requirements simultaneously. As customers get bored and competitors catch up, firms are trying to break out of the commodity trap by finding ways to leverage products and services provided by other partners to drive their own success. Companies are pushed into a world of greater collaboration. The upside is that, by working across organizations, you can accomplish greater things with greater efficiency. The downside is that your success now depends not just on your own efforts but on your collaborators' efforts as well.

Michelin’s Run-Flat Saga
In the early 1990s, Michelin was in an enviable position, but was always looking for new opportunities to create value and grow. It is necessary to keep on innovating because the tire industry was highly competitive, marked by overcapacity and low margins. Moreover, the majority of drivers did not differentiate among tires, and therefore chose their tires largely on the basis of price.
In 1992, Michelin managers proposed the potentially next big innovation, the PAX System. It was a so powerful technological breakthrough that it launched Michelin on an ambitious path to transform the entire tire industry. A half century earlier, Michelin had commercialized the radial tire, a breakthrough innovation turning Michelin into a world leader and forever changed the tire and automobile industries. PAX was Michelin's chance to do it again. The PAX System was a run-flat tire that would continue to “run flat” and not sacrifice performance even if punctured. The run-flat as a revolutionary growth engine not only for the company, but also for the entire tire industry. It tried to redefine the way consumers would think about tires by satisfying an unmet customer need, safety related to flats.
Michelin executed brilliantly on a well-thought-out innovation strategy. Moreover, since the PAX system would make customers' lives easier and safer, Michelin management were super-confident that the adoption of the PAX System was inevitable. However, they were too much higher expectations. Indeed, in the end, despite brilliant execution, the PAX story is one of failure. Because when your success depends on others, as it did for Michelin, execution is not enough.

Seeing the Unmet Need
Before analyzing why Michelin failed, we have to understand where it succeeded. Michelin's extensive market research showed that flat tires were dangerous. If Michelin could manage to eliminate the danger of underinflated tires and flats, it would satisfy an unmet consumer need in terms of safety. The PAX System was not the first attempt to tackle the problem of flat tires and safety in general. Goodyear, Bridgestone, and Michelin itself had all introduced self-supporting tires (SSTs) that incorporated reinforced sidewalls to support the weight of the car in the event of a flat. However, SSTs had always suffered from significant drawbacks. As a result, there was plenty of room for improvement and the PAX System tried to bring it. In contrast to the SSTs, the PAX System's unique architecture offered an elegant solution that sacrificed nothing in performance and weight, and provided twice the range of the existing alternative.
Michelin's partners were also enthusiastic about the idea.
Automakers liked the PAX System's improved safety, which they could leverage as a key differentiator for new vehicles. The new design possibilities run-flats offered were even more appreciated. Because it gave automakers the freedom to innovate for themselves by creating roomier car interiors.
Service garages were also enthusiastic about the prospect of repairing run-flat tires, because they could charge customers higher prices for repairing the tire, enjoying higher margins while maintaining service volumes (the PAX System would not reduce the number of punctured tires—it would only eliminate their danger and inconvenience).

Moving to Execution
PAX System development started in early 1993. The PAX System was a radical product change, but it required even more radical organizational changes within Michelin to become a reality.
Traditionally, tire companies (like Michelin) made tires, rim manufacturers made metal wheels, and the two were assembled by the auto manufacturers.
With the PAX System, Michelin had to oversee the design and production of an integrated system. The support ring, the wheels and the tire pressure monitoring system, with its sensor, control unit, and alarm system, presented an enormous material science challenge to support the new mechanism. Michelin had to shift from product manufacturer to system integrator. Despite the big challenges, Michelin launched the PAX system in 1998.
To secure the PAX System's success, Michelin listened to carmakers request of having multiple suppliers for their components (this issue was a main obstacle to the adoption of radial tires). In strategizing its rollout of PAX, Michelin proactively found partnerships with other tire makers to whom it eagerly licensed the technology. In June of 2000, Michelin established an alliance with Goodyear. The two companies controlled almost 40 percent of the global tire market, and both expected the new alliance to open the door to widespread industry adoption.

Expecting Success The first company to sign on was Mercedes, and, as time went by, there were dozens of other development projects in the works with all the major automakers. The new members Sumitomo Rubber Industries and Toyo Tire & Rubber Company provided a strong entry into Asia and opened up future deals with carmakers based there, especially Honda. To ensure a successful launch, Michelin and Honda embarked on unprecedented coordination, with Honda announcing in 2005 it would equip its best-selling Odyssey minivan with PAX system. In the rush to market, however, many of the Honda dealers were not ready when the Odyssey was launched. Michelin was aware of the problem, but it thought that as more vehicles took to the road with the PAX System, the traditional service and repair networks would continue to grow with them”. But, this was little comfort to Odyssey owners with PAX tires. Confronting Failure Despite a worldwide alliance of the leading tire manufacturers, and incorporation into popular car models, problems surrounding PAX were mounting, and eroding carmakers' initial enthusiasm. First, there was growing consumer frustration with the difficulty of finding service centers that could repair the tires. Unable to repair flats, many drivers were forced to purchase brand-new tires, often in pairs so as to maintain their vehicles' balance. Several class-action lawsuits were filed alleging that Michelin, Honda, and Nissan had "never disclosed that neither they nor any third parties maintained sufficient repair or replacement facilities. Consequently, the run-flat value proposition was rapidly eroding. For all these issues, in November 2007, Michelin formally announced an end to further development of PAX. * The failure of PAX was not rooted in a misunderstanding of customer needs or in a competence shortfall, rather the failure was due to the inability to deliver the promised value proposition because of an unseen but fully predictable problem with the service network. Michelin’s Blind Spot The PAX System failed because it was not a stand-alone innovation, but, to succeed, other members of Michelin's innovation ecosystem (the car manufacturers and the service stations) would need to buy into the system as well. Indeed, end users would be able to assess the attractiveness of the full run-flat value proposition only after the rest of the ecosystem embraced the new tire. Thus, Michelin's blind spot was that to succeed, PAX would require a fundamental transformation in the tire ecosystem. The current traditional tire ecosystem is the following. Tires are sold into two main segments: 1. the replacement market (RM), which makes up three-quarters of industry unit sales, 2. the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) market, which accounts for the other one-quarter. Tire makers put huge efforts on winning OEM contracts because they are a strong predictor of RM sales (most consumers simply replace their old tires with the kind they originally had). Thus, automakers provide a boost for new tires and tire makers operate in the replacement market. Most tire innovations succeeded in the replacement market first and were only later able to penetrate the OEM market. The very nature of the PAX System, however, required a different path to market, one which would add new actors and new interactions to the system. First, it required automakers to provide a very different level of support. Because of their asymmetric wheels and tire pressure monitoring systems, PAX had to start in the OEM market, as a designed-in feature of a new car. there was no possibility of building initial support in the replacement market. they would need to be included as part of a vehicle's design, long before it was even produced. They have to decide to adopt Michelin's innovation years before consumers would even have a chance to decide whether PAX tires were an attractive option. Second, it required new car dealers to enter the picture. Since run-flat tire are sold as optional features, customers must be convinced to buy it. Thus, a new player is added, the salesperson at the new car dealership. Now, sales also depend on whether the salesperson is able and incentivized to lead customers to buy the PAX package. However, while Michelin had deep experience in dealing with automakers and tire dealers, their relationship with new car dealers was much less established. Finally, service garages to enter the PAX picture in a new way. Repairing a PAX tire required a completely new equipment and new training for its repair staff. To ensure correct repairs, Michelin required technicians to undergo a rigorous certification process to be qualified to service the tire. * In the past, carmakers, auto dealers, and service garages had served only a peripheral role, but with PAX they became core to delivering the value proposition. Thus, they would need to be managed in a very different way than ever before. Moreover, the PAX System created new interactions not only between Michelin and these players but also among them. For a carmaker, the attractiveness of installing run-flat tires on a car depends on how many garages are able to repair the tire in case of a flat. However, the attractiveness for a service garage to install the repair equipment and train its personnel depends on how many cars on the road have PAX installed. To sum up, underlying the PAX value proposition, this was a complete reconfiguration of the tire ecosystem, where new actors are added, old actors eliminated; positions are shifted and new links and relationships are created. Thus, the difference between the success and failure of PAX would hinge on Michelin's ability to see and drive this reconfiguration. However, managing innovation ecosystems is problematic because the tools and systems they have honed over years of managing successful stand-alone innovations are ill suited to address the interdependence challenges that are inherent in the transition to ecosystems. PAX Run-Flat Epilogue The PAX value proposition created an entirely new role for service garages. The non-adoption by this critical partner was the key barrier to the PAX System's success. The inability to service PAX tires led to consumer backlash and lawsuits that, in turn, reduced automakers' enthusiasm for the system. Simultaneously, the uniqueness of the PAX offer was being eroded by the spread of tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMSs). An Alternative Market The bottleneck to success in the commercial market was the service garages that kept the value proposition from being realized. A modified version of the PAX System, where service stations do not play an independent role, was a great success. The new target market was the military sector. The critical difference was the structure of dependence, without intermediaries. Indeed, since the military runs its own garages, the buyer takes care of the service role themselves. Thus, there was much lower adoption chain risk since the customer agrees first, and then the rest of the system follows suit. Is There a Better Way? Michelin's failure was rooted in its inability to bring enough service stations on board with the PAX System. However, in the beginning, Michelin treated service stations as a low priority, because historically, service station support could be assumed. However, in the run-flat world that Michelin constructed, service stations held the keys. Because Michelin underestimated their role, it underinvested in managing this critical dependence. We actually have been taught the consumer is the final arbiter of value. Since Michelin satisfied exactly what they wanted, in theory PAX should have worked. However, in practice, the consumer is not the only arbiter of value. Partners stand between the innovator and the end consumer. They act as intermediary and if they do not support the innovation, the consumer may never reach the innovation and assess it. Partners customize activities for every product launch—new procurement arrangements, new manufacturing, new marketing support, etc. But, the ways in which these activities are organized, and the ways in which different partners interact with one another, tend to follow a well-established set of routines. As long as your innovation fits within their routines, these partners remain invisible and your success is determined on a stand-alone basis. But when your innovation depends on these partners to change their routines (as Michelin's PAX System did) they become a critical but often overlooked determinant of your success.
To assess the value proposition of a new innovation, three risks of innovation must be analyzed: * Execution risk: The challenges you face in bringing about your innovation to the required specifications, within the required time. * Co-innovation Risk: The extent to which the successful commercialization of your innovation depends on the successful commercialization of other innovations. * Adoption Chain Risk: The extent to which partners will need to adopt your innovation before end consumers have a chance to assess the full value proposition. Each of these risks is governed by a different logic, but it holds always that success requires that each risk be addressed. Michelin managed its own execution challenges well. It was also successful in navigating its partners' co-innovation challenges. Its failure was rooted in mismanaging the adoption risk posed by the hidden assumption in its strategy. Garage stations should have invested in PAX repair equipment in advance of PAX's mass-market adoption. The traditional tools of strategy, marketing, operations, and project management offer excellent guidance for seeing and managing execution risk. Co-innovation risk and adoption chain risk lurk in the blind spot of traditional strategy. Indeed, a strategy that does not properly account for the external dependencies on which its success hinges does not make those dependencies disappear. In order to avoid these accidents, you need to adopt a structured approach to innovating in ecosystems.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

) Describe the Classical Hollywood Style, Its Central Format and Narrative. Mise en scene encompasses everything that goes into creating the movie, the actors and also those behind the scenes; the director, producer, the set and costume designers, camera and lighting people, editors and how they all interact to deliver a smooth flowing story that is in the classical Hollywood style. The seamless storytelling format depends on many variables. The set design can be very important and objects that are seen on camera can enhance and advance the narrative. Sometimes these objects are written in the script as objects to be used, while other times they are there merely to provide ambiance. The use of the camera and expressive shooting angles can also provide us with different views of the scene. A wide angle lens can show us the bigger picture as in a panoramic view of the whole scene. A rule that many Hollywood producers follow is the 180 degree rule in which the camera remains on the same side of an imaginary line which runs through the center of the scene. This insures continuity from one shot to the next and keeps the narrative flowing smoothly. The camera is not the only prop that is utilized to advance the narrative. The lighting also plays an important role in how we see the characters of the movie in a particular scene. Classical Hollywood style uses a three-point lighting system. This system uses many lights set up in a triangle around the subject. The key light(s) are pointed directly at the character. The fill......

Words: 434 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

What Is Photo Journalism and Its Effect to the Community referred to the lens diaphragm opening inside a photographic lens. The size of the diaphragm opening in a camera lens regulates amount of light passes through onto the film inside the camera the moment when the shutter is pressed in camera opens during an exposure process. The size of an aperture in a lens can either be a fixed or the most popular form in an adjustable type (like an SLR camera). Aperture size is usually calibrated in f-numbers or f-stops. i.e. those little numbers engraved on the lens barrel like f22 (f/22),16 (f/16), f/11, f/8.0, f/5.6, f/4.0, f/2.8, f/2.0, f/1.8 etc. Each of this value represents one time the amount of light either more or less in quantity. Meaning to say, f/16 will let in 1X the amount of light than a diaphragm opening of f/22 and so forth; while on the other hand, an aperture of f/4.0 will let in 1X lesser than that of f/2.8 etc. . (i) As controller of light • Also known as the f-nos, changing the size of the aperture the lens opening through which the light enters the camera can change the exposure the amount of light that reaches the film. • Whereas the shutter speeds controls the length of time light strikes the film the f-no controls the brightness of the light. • It works like the pupil of an eye i.e. it can be enlarged or contracted to admit more light or less. • In a camera, this is done with a diaphragm which is a thin overlapping metal leaves located inside the lens. The leaves......

Words: 2504 - Pages: 11

Free Essay


... Three quality auto iris lens options for better image quality and improved low light performance  High impact vandal resistant polycarbonate bubbles (clear and tinted)  Multiple camera options, including WDR model with latest Pixim® technology and True Day/Night with moving IR filter  Night-Saver mode for extreme low light conditions  Easy installation with eight mounting options (surface, flush, pendant, wall, wall-pole, wall-exterior corner, inside corner, electrical box)  Discover drone option  IP66 and NEMA4-rated1 for -30° to 50°C (-22° to 122°F) The Discover series of Mini-Domes delivers a vandal resistant camera solution at a non-vandal resistant price. This series of high performance mini-domes includes high impact, vandal resistant dome housings built to withstand even the harshest environments. Unlike other dome housings in the industry, which are made of metal, the Discover series housing is made with extremely durable composite and polycarbonate materials that have “shape memory”. The Discover housing comes with a choice of clear or tinted vandal resistant bubbles and includes a bubble liner to make it more covert. An advanced pivoting axis lets you position the camera at exactly the angle you need, while optimal white balance provides the clearest, most color-perfect images possible. With three different types of mini-domes to choose from, there’s a Discover solution just right for your particular requirements. The Discover wide dynamic range (WDR)......

Words: 1810 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Film Form Analysis

...Film Form and Analysis Cinematography Cinematography describes the process by which a film strip is exposed to light to create an image. It encompasses many factors: the camera’s distance from the action, camera angle and direction, type of lens, camera movement, and lighting, among others. The art of cinematography also includes mise-en-scène—the arrangement of objects and movements in the frame. Shot Types The amount of visual information included in the image depends on the distance of the camera from the action and on the focal length of the camera lens. Throughout the history of cinema, filmmakers have favored certain combinations of camera distance and focal length, or shot types. * Extreme long shot: Captures a scene in its entirety; used for establishing location in exterior shots. Used frequently in epic genres such as westerns and war films, it reduces human beings to mere dots on the screen. * Long shot: Accommodates at least the entire bodies of figures (if that is all the shot includes, it is called a full shot). Captures movement, background, and broad gestures and expressions. * Medium shot: Contains a figure from the waist or knees up. It is a functional shot, favored in classical Hollywood editing, often used for scenes with dialogue. * Close-up: Includes very little if any background, concentrating on an object or, if an extreme close-up, a fragment of an object, such as the human face. Close-ups often accord great significance and......

Words: 5540 - Pages: 23

Free Essay

Pop Music

...Film Glossary Bird's eye view. A shot in which the camera photographs a scene from directly overhead. Close-up, Close shot. A detailed view of a person or object, usually without much context provided. Continuity. The kind of logic implied in the association of ideas between edited shots. "Cutting to continuity" emphasizes smooth transitions between shots, in which space and time are unobtrusively condensed. "Classical cutting" emphasizes dramatic or emotional logic between shots rather than one based strictly on considerations of time and space. In "thematic montage" the continuity is based entirely on ideas, irrespective of literal time and space. In some instances, "continuity" refers to the space-time continuum of reality before it is photographed. Crane shot. A shot taken from a special device called a crane, which resembles a huge mechanical arm. The crane carries the camera and cameraman, and can move in virtually any direction. Cross cutting. The alternating of shots from two sequences, often in different locales, to suggest the sequences are taking place simultaneously. Deep focus. A technique of photography which permits all distance planes to remain clearly in focus, from close-up range to infinity. Dissolve, lap dissolve. These terms refer to the slow fading out of one shot and the gradual fading in of its successor, with a superimposition of images, usually at the midpoint. Dolly shot, tracking shot, trucking shot. A shot taken from a moving vehicle.......

Words: 1201 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Tips for Professional Weddings Photography

...100 TECHNIQUES for PROFESSIONAL WEDDING PHOTOGRAPHERS BILL HURTER Amherst Media ® PUBLISHER OF PHOTOGRAPHY BOOKS About The Author Bill Hurter has been involved in the photographic industry for the past thirty years. He is the former editor of Petersen’s PhotoGraphic magazine and currently the editor of both AfterCapture and Rangefinder magazines. He has authored over thirty books on photography and hundreds of articles on photography and photographic technique. He is a graduate of American University and Brooks Institute of Photography, from which he holds a BFA and Honorary Masters of Science and Masters of Fine Art degrees. He is currently a member of the Brooks Board of Governors. Early in his career, he covered Capital Hill during the Watergate Hearings and worked for three seasons as a stringer for the L.A. Dodgers. He is married and lives in West Covina, CA. Copyright © 2009 by Bill Hurter. All rights reserved. Front cover photograph by Tom Muñoz. Back cover photograph by Bruce Dorn. Published by: Amherst Media, Inc. P.O. Box 586 Buffalo, N.Y. 14226 Fax: 716-874-4508 Publisher: Craig Alesse Senior Editor/Production Manager: Michelle Perkins Assistant Editor: Barbara A. Lynch-Johnt Editorial Assistance from: John S. Loder, Carey A. Maines, Charles Schweizer ISBN-13: 978-1-58428-245-7 Library of Congress Control Number: 2007926665 Printed in Korea. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in......

Words: 40920 - Pages: 164

Free Essay

Information Technology

...medical devices, and making sure their employees were treated with fairness and respect. The “non-heroes” at Johnson & Johnson did all this without the resources and support available to the company’s executives, and they did these things day after day and year after year. In the grand scheme of things, their cumulative effort made the world a much better place. In fact, from Schweitzer’s perspective, their efforts were the grand scheme of things. To understand and learn from what these men and women did, we have to take Schweitzer’s perspective to heart. This means looking away from great figures, extreme situations, and moments of high historical drama and paying closer attention to people around us. If we look at leadership with a wide-angle lens, we can see men and women who are far from heroes and yet are successfully solving important problems and contributing to a better...

Words: 272 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Study Habits

...A microscope (from the Ancient Greek "small" "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye. The science of investigating small objects using such an instrument is calledmicroscopy. Microscopic means invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope. There are many types of microscopes. The most common (and the first to be invented) is the optical microscope, which uses light to image the sample. Other major types of microscopes are theelectron microscope (both the transmission electron microscopeand the scanning electron microscope), the ultramicroscope, and the various types of scanning probe microscope. The first microscope to be developed was the optical microscope, although the original inventor is not easy to identify. Evidence points to the first compound microscope appearing in the Netherlands in the late 1500s, probably an invention of eyeglassmakers there:[1] Hans Lippershey (who developed an early telescope) and Zacharias Janssen (also claimed as the inventor of the telescope). There are other claims that the microscope and the telescope were invented by Roger Bacon in the 1200s,[2] but this is not substantiated. Giovanni Faber coined the name microscope forGalileo Galilei's compound microscope in 1625 [3] (Galileo had called it the "occhiolino" or "little eye"). 2nd Century BC - Claudius Ptolemy described a stick appearing to bend in a pool of water, and accurately recorded the angles to within half a......

Words: 4371 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Photography Portfolio

...Pros and cons 7 4.1 Pros / Advantages 7 4.2 Cons / Disadvantages 8 5.0 DSLR’s Comparison Chart 10 6.0 Other relevant Equipment 11 7.0 List of things to include in a trip, indoor-event 15 8.0 Cost of the above items and justifications 17 REFERENCES 18 1.0 BRAND AND MODEL BRAND : PENTAX MODEL : K-30 The Pentax K-30 is a 16.3-megapixel digital single-lens reflex camera, announced on 21 May 2012. At its introduction, it was in the middle of Pentax's DSLR range—above the now-discontinued entry-level K-r, and below the semi-pro K-5 and successor K-5 II. As a mid-range body, it has a polycarbonate chassis, but unlike most DSLRs of that class, is fully weather sealed. It can shoot continuously at up to 6 frames per second with a maximum shutter speed of 1/6000th of a second. It can capture video at 1080p at either 30, 25, or 24 fps. Like all current and recent Pentax DSLRs it features in-body shake reduction, removing the need for each lens to have image stabilisation. The Pentax K mount allows use of legacy lenses dating back to the 1970s, or even earlier with an M42-mount adapter, for which the K-mount is fully compatible. The autofocus system (SAFOX IXi+) is an advance over the K-5 and features 11 AF points, 9 of which are cross-type (i.e. sensitive to vertical as well as horizontal edges). For maximum flexibility, the camera can either use the proprietary supplied lithium......

Words: 3301 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay


...Products liability is a broad legal category covering everything from exploding gas tanks to flammable baby clothes to lead paint toys, to poisoned toothpaste and dog food. Legal risk for defective products can attach to manufacturers, assemblers, wholesalers, and retail distributors, depending on where in the chain of production and distribution a problem occurred that led to a consumer being harmed. Liability varies greatly by state and there is no federal or uniform law governing products liability. International standards also vary greatly. Legal claims for damages from defective products were originally based primarily on theories of negligence or breach of warranty. Increasingly, however, successful claims are made on the basis of strict liability. This means that liability is increasing. Where a strict liability theory is used, the injured consumer does not need to demonstrate that the manufacturer or some other person was negligent or that the product was unfit for the purpose for which it was sold. All the injured consumer in such cases needs to prove is that he or she was injured by the product. The seminal case is Greenman v. Yuba Power Products, Inc., 59 Cal.2d 57, 377 P.2d 897, 27 Cal.Rptr. 697 (1963), in which the Court stated that the 'purpose of such liability is to ensure that the costs of injuries resulting from defective products are borne by the manufacturers that put such products on the market rather than by the injured persons who are powerless to......

Words: 1914 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Ethics Game Simulation

...Ethics Game Simulation MGT/216 Michael Baney 26 August 2010 Ethics have always been an important aspect of the business world. There are a wide variety of ethical dilemmas one might face at work, at school, and even at home. The best way to prepare for any ethical eventuality is to know what ethics are and how to recognize ethical and unethical behavior in any given situation. The Ethics Game simulation at the University of Phoenix is a valuable tool for learning to recognized these situations. In the simulation one takes on the persona of a Quality Control Manager for a biotech company called G-BioSport. G-BioSport specializes in sports nutrition and supplements. In each of the two cases the simulation takes the student through, the student is asked to explore different ethical philosophies through a series of questions, and the student has to pick which one they find best. The purpose of these simulated situations is to help the student better marry ethical concepts to situations specific to their own desired industry; the point being to prepare them for managerial work and how to be a proper leader. In the scenario, G-BioSport is facing a rather large problem. Their quality control lab is behind on testing, and the products they are testing have already been released into the market. Contaminants, albeit in trace amounts, were found in one hundred percent of the samples the lab received, indicating that the problem is with one of the ingredients for which......

Words: 924 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Lens Crafter Case Study Dawnmarie E. Gaines Professor: Gary Reinke Business 430- Operations Management January 14, 2016 INTRODUCTION Lens Crafters was founded in 1983 by Dean Butler, a 38-year-old who had previously worked at Procter & Gamble (lens crafter 1983). A knowledgeable marketer, Butler had managed the Ivory liquid, Cheer laundry detergent, and Folger's instant coffee brands for the venerable Cincinnati consumer goods company. Lens Crafters has always been focused on providing better vision health for the customers who visit their stores (Lens Crafter 1983). But not everyone has access to vision care. Since 1988, Lens Crafters has supported One Sight, an independent nonprofit; in helping provide quality eye care and eyewear to underserved communities worldwide (Lens crafter 1988). Lens Crafters continually invests in new technologies to improve care for your eyes, customize your prescription, and help select the right frames for you. Associates at Lens Crafters are trained to provide you with personalized eye health service throughout your experience (Lens Crafter 1983). There love of eyes and higher standard of quality have made Lens Crafters a leader in vision care for over 30 years. Lens Crafter Operations Strategy Strategy is considered as the general view or perspective that the organization follows so as to do its operations and to attain competitive edge in the market (lens crafter history). The strategy takes into consideration the purpose,......

Words: 1948 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Lens Crafters Analysis

...Running head: LENS CRAFTERS ANALYSIS Lens Crafters Analysis Rhonda Polak Principles of Operations Management – BUS 430 January 29, 2012 Lens Crafters Analysis Identifies three key characteristics of LensCrafters at each of the following three levels (for a total of nine). a. CBP, strategy and competitive priorities b. Service delivery system design, and c. Service encounter design LensCrafters’ mission statement is focused on being the best by creating customers for life by delivering legendary customer service, developing and energizing associates and leaders in the world’s best work place, crafting perfect-quality eyewear in about an hour, and delivering superior overall value to meet each customer’s individual needs. (Evans, 2011 second ed) LensCrafters is committed to loving eyes by being: * Passionate-Truly love taking care of people’s eyes * Progressive-Strive to constantly improve every aspect of the vision care experience * Personal-Put the customer first, and seek to connect with them on a long-term relationship basis * Straightforward-Being honest, transparent and upfront with you. Their Customer Benefit Package Design Configuration is the integrated set of goods (eyewear) and services (accurate eye exam and one-hour service) are of equal importance. LensCrafters is a trusted household name across North America, known for providing convenient access to eye exams, a wide choice of frames and lenses, one-hour service, attractive......

Words: 931 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...Cortina dʼAmpezzo Venice Portofino Cinque Terre Two photographers, Italy and the D80 Photographers from different fields share their impressions after shooting with the D80 on a trip to Italy. About shooting in Italy - H (Hien): Iʼ ve long dreamed of shooting in Venice. As a photojournalist, I always strive to convey the moment just as I see it with my own eyes. This demands a great amount of footwork to get acquainted with the location, and the time to establish a rapport with the locals. Shooting early in the morning with the D80 left an immediate impression on me. There was limited light, and that was comprised of a mixture of natural and artificial light. A film camera in such a situation requires complicated use of filters, whereas the D80 was able to achieve accurate white balance and metering under mixed light sources and produce beautiful results. Y (Yves): I believe shooting in the cafe allowed m e t o c l e a r l y ex p r e s s m y f e e l i n g s a b o u t the location. I am always exploring how best to express myself based on the inspiration I draw from the actual scene. And for me, the light is the inspiration. I like to control the light in each shot, which of course includes capturing the mood of the natural light, while at times also taking advantage of reflected light or using flashes. The D80 produced images just as I envisioned them, performing perfectly throughout the trip. Images from the D80 are of the highest quality, and I can edit them freely......

Words: 7134 - Pages: 29

Free Essay


...4 Cinematography We are affected and defined by light. Light is the most important tool we have to work with, not only as cinematographers, but as people. —Laszlo Kovacs Courtesy Everett Collection Section 4.1 The “Look” of a Scene CHAPTER 4 Chapter Objectives After reading this chapter, students should: • Have a working knowledge of the cinematographer’s job • Understand the difference between cinematography and mise en scène and recognize the importance of each • Understand the importance of color and lighting and how they affect the tone and feel of a film • Be familiar with different methods of photographing a film, and with terms such as panning, tilting, tracking shots, deep focus, and aspect ratios • Understand how different focal length lenses affect the look of a shot • Recognize what special effects can do for a movie—and what they can’t do 4.1 The “Look” of a Scene W hen we are first introduced to Don Vito Corleone in The Godfather, played by Marlon Brando, the Mafia boss is sitting in the study of his home. Along with his consigliore, or adviser, Tom Hagen (Robert Duvall), Corleone is listening to a line of people requesting favors on the day of his daughter’s wedding. Corleone is immensely powerful, as we learn by the scope of the favors he is asked to grant, which in one case includes the desire of a singer to be cast in a film to revive his musical career, and Corleone’s ability to grant them. However, it is not just......

Words: 13907 - Pages: 56