Premium Essay

Theoretical Matrix

In: Science

Submitted By pochycary
Words 1299
Pages 6
Theoretical Matrix

Matrix of Theoretical Models

Theoretical Model Description of Theoretical Model Type of health care change situation where model best applies
Kurt Lewin’s Change model. Lewin’s model allows viewing change as a series of forces working in different directions. According to Lewin (1947), change may be achieved in one or two ways: increasing the force for change in the desired direction or reducing the strength of opposing forces (Spector, 2010).
Lewin provides to agents with a three –steps process for implementing planned changes:
1. Unfreeze: The forces and workers associated in keeping resistance acquire an understanding of variances that exist between current practice and behavior and desired activities and behavior. One of the critical elements of unfreezing is to break the group inertia, to change the status quo.
2. Moving or changing is the second stage for this theory. In this step, the group alters its performance or habits. Depending on the new objectives, subsequent revised policies, procedures, and operating practices are introduced.
3. Refreezing: Third and last stage in this theory: Change is assumed and new status quo is established. At this point, changes are already executed and monitored, and adjustments are conducted if necessary. Additional organizational goals are reinforced by subsequent changes in daily activities.
This theory hinges on the presence of a driving and a resistant force. The driving forces are the change agents, who are pushing employees in the direction of change. They are the facilitators of change and the. On the other side, the resistant forces are the employees confronting the proposed change. For this theory to be efficacious, the driving force has to control the resistant force. In nursing, Lewin’s change theory can be used to bring about planned change.
Applying the unfreezing stage....

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Theoretical Matrix

...Theoretical Matrix Patricia Brooks HCS/587 Creating Change within Organizations April 20, 2015 Doria Chege University of Phoenix Material Appendix A: Matrix of Theoretical Models Theoretical Model | Description of Theoretical Model | Type of health care change situation where model best applies | Havelock’s Theory | One widely known and used theory of change is the one that Eric Havelock introduced to look at change differently. Change is a process that should focus on the plan, resistance to change, and how to maintain the change. Havelock created a 6 stage change process theory model that looks at the complexities of real life by taking into account evaluating and accepting the change. Relationship – Whatever system is changing the change agent should identify and build positive working relationships with the particular system whether the system is with clients or leaders. Diagnosis- Establish if there is a need or desire for change. This is an evaluation period. Acquire resources for change- Gathering information at this stage determines what the change is and is not. Selecting a pathway- The best option is decided and then implemented.Establish and accept change- Once change is put into place, acceptance is needed. Maintenance and Separation- To make sure the change is successful the change agent should monitor the affected system. Havelock’s theory shows how important it is for change to go through a planning process from beginning to end. To receive......

Words: 761 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Theoretical Matrix

...University of Phoenix Material Appendix A: Matrix of Theoretical Models |Theoretical Model |Description of Theoretical Model |Type of health care change situation | | | |where model best applies | |Lewin’s Change Model |In 1947, Kurt Lewin created a model that used |Kurt Lewin’s model can be used in a | | |Force Field Analysis to describe what happens when|health care change that involves the | | |an organization experiences change. He explained |implementation of electronic charting and| | |that there are forces that want change to occur, |electronic medical records. Management | | |and there also existed forces that wanted to |should accept some resistance from staff | | |maintain the status quo. For change to be |because it is natural for people to | | |effective, either the forces that want the change |dislike change. There can be many | | |to occur had to increase, or the forces that want |reasons for resistance. People become | | |things to stay the same had to......

Words: 1608 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Matrix of Theoretical Models

...Matrix of Theoretical Models Matrix of Theoretical Models November 19, 2011 University of Phoenix Material Appendix A: Matrix of Theoretical Models Theoretical Model | Description of Theoretical Model | Type of health care change situation in which model best applies | Kurt Lewin’s Change Theory and Force Field Analysis | Kurt Lewin’s theory model has three stages of change including: freezing, change or moving, and refreezing. The first stage of freezing involves finding methods to help people relinquish learned habits that were inefficient. Recognizing the need for change occurs in this stage. According to Schein (2002), the moving stage “allows members of the group to change from one set of behavior to another, such as new job responsibilities, new roles, and new job skills” (p. 37). The third stage of refreezing makes the change the standard operating procedure, the change becomes permanent. Without this last stage, individuals can revert back to the pre-change policies and procedures. Lewin’s theory believes that behavior is “a dynamic balance of forces working in opposing directions” (Lewin, 1951). He acknowledged that there are driving forces that cause change to occur, pushing individuals in the desired direction. Restraining forces counter driving forces, pushing an individual in the opposite direction. Examples of restraining forces include personal defense mechanisms or group “norms.” The goal within a force field of driving and restraining forces is...

Words: 1643 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Matrix of Theoretical Models

...Matrix of Theoretical Models HCS/587 Theoretical Model | Description of Theoretical Model | Type of Health Care Change Situation Where Model Best Applies | 1. Kurt Lewin’s field theory model 2. Lippitt’s change theory model | Kurt Lewin’s field theory model has three stages of change: * Unfreezing * Change or Moving * Refreezing The unfreezing stage requires altering the patterns of employee behavior. The employee adaptive behavior must align with the organizational goals and vision. The lack of alteration in behavior changes can result in employees’ resistance during the implementation process. The management should communicate effectively with the staff explaining the need for change. The management should encourage the staff to submit their ideas and be a part of the change process. The change stage refers to the introduction of new organizational policies and procedures. The management should ensure that the affected staff fully understands the reasoning behind the changes and offer support for adapting the new organizational business culture. It is imperative that management includes the staff in the development of new policies and designing the new procedures. The refreezing stage requires reevaluation of the implemented procedures in which the management evaluates the efficacy of the implemented changes and makes adjustments to meet organizational goals (Borkowski, 2005). The management should seek feedback from the staff and fine tune the...

Words: 1489 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Matrix of Theoretical Models

...The Concord Bookshop and Strategic Renewal and Strategic Renewal Kathryn Wagner HCS/587 March 25, 2013 Pamela Young Hobbs The Concord Bookshop and Strategic Renewal The Concord Bookshop has a 64-year history of providing patrons with quality customer service and a more personal atmosphere than modern bookstores and online markets. Employees have remained loyal giving over 73 combined years of service. Board president Morgan “Kim” Smith represents the three families that own the store. Smith made a “surprise announcement” stating a new general manager was to be hired (Spector, 2010, p. 2). According to Smith, the store’s “dire financial situation” and an inadequately functioning “three-way management” were the reasons behind this decision (Spector, 2010, p. 2). When outraged employees and management voiced their concerns, they were told, “If you don’t like it, each of you will have to make up your own mind as to how to proceed” (Spector, 2010, p. 2). As a result, many employees have chosen to resign. Authors and loyal store patrons who view the bookstore as a “community resource and not just a bookstore” are also upset by the conflicts and changes (Spector, 2010, p. 3). Phases of Organizational Change The businesses of today face many challenges such as “rapid and dramatic change,” keeping pace with the demands of new technologies, predicting consumer expectations, and “shifts in workplace demographics and values” (Spector, 2010, p. 3). Recognizing that these...

Words: 879 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Appendix a: Matrix of Theoretical Models

...Appendix A: Matrix of Theoretical Models Erica Creighton HCS/587 November 20, 2013 Karissa Steward Managers need to understand employees and what motivates them; this can prove to be a challenge because they are composed of a diverse group of people. Process theories of motivation can assist them in how to predict and influence behaviors. In this paper will cover three of the five process theories which are Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, Adams’ Equity Theory, and Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory. Theoretical Model: Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Description of Theoretical Model: This theory states that a person will choose to act or behave a certain way depending on if he or she perceives the reward as good or bad for that particular behavior. This theory explains that every individual has a different set of goals and can be motivated if there is a positive correlation between efforts and performance. This model is based on three beliefs valence, expectancy, and instrumentality. Valence is how an individual perceives or values the reward that is offered as good or bad. For example, some may value job promotion as a positive reward because of their need for achievement, although others may have a negative view of the advancement because it will require more time commitment. Expectancy believes that one’s hard work will result in a specific outcome. Instrumentality is the belief that if a person meets performance expectation he or she will receive a reward. Managers can......

Words: 1680 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Appendix a: Matrix of Theoretical Models

...Appendix A: Matrix of Theoretical Models HCS/587 November 20, 2013 Karissa Steward Managers need to understand employees and what motivates them; this can prove to be a challenge because they are composed of a diverse group of people. Process theories of motivation can assist them in how to predict and influence behaviors. In this paper will cover three of the five process theories which are Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, Adams’ Equity Theory, and Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory. Theoretical Model: Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Description of Theoretical Model: This theory states that a person will choose to act or behave a certain way depending on if he or she perceives the reward as good or bad for that particular behavior. This theory explains that every individual has a different set of goals and can be motivated if there is a positive correlation between efforts and performance. This model is based on three beliefs valence, expectancy, and instrumentality. Valence is how an individual perceives or values the reward that is offered as good or bad. For example, some may value job promotion as a positive reward because of their need for achievement, although others may have a negative view of the advancement because it will require more time commitment. Expectancy believes that one’s hard work will result in a specific outcome. Instrumentality is the belief that if a person meets performance expectation he or she will receive a reward. Managers can use the expectancy...

Words: 6199 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

The Matrix of Our Visual Culture

...As Patricia Pisters (2003) asserts in her study of Deleuze and film theory The Matrix of Visual Culture, the Wachowski brothers’ film can be read from number of different theoretical perspectives. It invites readings via Lacanian psychoanalysis, Platonic notions of the cave and the disparity between the two strata of perception and also as a “New Age” (Pisters, 2003: 11) quasi-religious evocation of the second coming. However, here I would like to place the film’s visual sense and diegesis into a context of postmodern philosophy; drawing inferences and theoretical connections between the film and the work of Jean Baudrillard, Walter Benjamin and the neo-Marxists of the Frankfurt School, most notably Adorno and Horkheimer in Dialectic of Enlightenment (1979). The importance of postmodern philosophy and cyber culture to the visual sense of The Matrix is declared from its very opening titles. Random strings of green neon data are scrolled against a black background imbuing the viewer with a sense of the virtual and the cybernetic and this is concretised and given definite focus later on as Neo (Keanu Reeves) hides the two thousand dollars given to him by Anthony in a copy of Simulacra and Simulation by Baudrillard. This reference however is more than a mere visual joke it is a signifier for a number of the film’s sub-textual tropes and motifs. For Baudrillard, the notion of the simulacra was central to an understanding of the modern capitalist society. In his essay “The......

Words: 1555 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Matrices and Its Application

...| 1.3 Objective of the Study | 2 | 1.4 Methodology of the Study | 3 | 1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study | 3 | Chapter-02: Theoretical Overview | 4-8 | 2.1 Definition of Matrix | 4 | 2.2 Matrix Notation | 4 | 2.3 History of Matrix | 5 | 2.4 Types of Matrix | 6 | 2.4.1 Row Matrix | 6 | 2.4.2 Column Matrix | 6 | 2.4.3 Rectangular Matrix | 6 | 2.4.4 Square Matrix | 6 | 2.4.5 Zero Matrix | 7 | 2.4.6 Upper Triangular Matrix | 7 | 2.4.7 Lower Triangular Matrix | 7 | 2.4.8 Diagonal Matrix | 7 | 2.4.9 Scalar Matrix | 7 | 2.4.10 Identity Matrix | 8 | 2.4.11 Transpose Matrix | 8 | 2.4.12 Regular Matrix | 8 | 2.4.13 Singular Matrix | 8 | Chapter-03: Matrices Operation | 9-15 | 3.1. Properties of matrix operation | 9 | 3.1.1 Properties of subtraction | 9 | 3. 1.2 Properties of Addition | 9 | 3.1.3 Properties of Matrix Multiplication | 10 | 3.1.4 Properties of Scalar Multiplication | 10 | 3.1.5 Properties of the Transpose of a Matrix | 10 | 3.2 Matrix Operation | 11 | 3.2.1 Matrix Equality | 12 | 3.2.2 Matrix Addition | 12 | 3.2.3 Matrix Subtraction | 12 | 3.2.4 Matrix Multiplication | 12 | 3.2.5 Multiplication of Vectors | 14 | 3.3 Inverse of Matrix | 15 | 3.4 Elementary Operations | 15 | Chapter-04: Application of Matrix | 16-21 | 4.1 Application of Matrix | 16 | 4.1.1 Solving Linear Equations | 16 | 4.1.2 Electronics | 16 | 4.1.3 Symmetries and transformations in physics |......

Words: 6438 - Pages: 26

Free Essay

Economcis

...Advanced linear algebra M. Anthony, M. Harvey MT2118, 2790118 2011 Undergraduate study in Economics, Management, Finance and the Social Sciences This is an extract from a subject guide for an undergraduate course offered as part of the University of London International Programmes in Economics, Management, Finance and the Social Sciences. Materials for these programmes are developed by academics at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE). For more information, see: www.londoninternational.ac.uk This guide was prepared for the University of London International Programmes by: Professor M. Anthony, BSc, MA, PhD and Dr M. Harvey, BSc, MSc, PhD, Department of Mathematics, The London School of Economics and Political Science. This is one of a series of subject guides published by the University. We regret that due to pressure of work the authors are unable to enter into any correspondence relating to, or arising from, the guide. If you have any comments on this subject guide, favourable or unfavourable, please use the form at the back of this guide. University of London International Programmes Publications Office Stewart House 32 Russell Square London WC1B 5DN United Kingdom Website: www.londoninternational.ac.uk Published by: University of London © University of London 2006 Reprinted with minor revisions 2011 The University of London asserts copyright over all material in this subject guide except where otherwise indicated....

Words: 23718 - Pages: 95

Free Essay

None

...Trans. Nat/. .Acad. Sci. & .Tech. Philippines 29: 251-260 (2007) /SSN 0115-8848 Teaching High School Physics Effectively Christopher C. Bernido and l\faria Victoria Carpio-.Rernido Research Center for Theoretical Physics Central Visayan Institute Foundation Jagna, Bohol 6308, Philippines The Ascending Levels of Learning and Pedagogical ~1axims that could guide effective teaching of physics are presented. As an example of how these may be applied, the Dynamic Learning Prof:,lfam (DLP) of the Central Visayan Institute Foundation is briefly discussed. The DLP, together with 21st century technology, provides a scenario where the perennial lack of high school physics teachers in the Philippines can be bypassed. Introduction The breadth of topics that may be covered in teaching physics can be extremely wide. After all, physics probes the smallest things in the universe (the quarks and leptons), aiJ the way up to the "biggest" subject one can think of-the birth, death, and fate of the universe itself. One definition for physics states that it is the study of matter and energy. Most everything in the universe is either matter or energy, and this can make physics quite interdisciplinary. No wonder, therefore, that sub-areas in physics may be referred to as Biophysics, Geophysics~ Chemical Physics, Mathematical Physics, Astrophysics, Nuclear Physics, Econophysics, etc., and one also has the physics of sports, the physics of art, and so on. Because of its breadth, there is......

Words: 3310 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Revised Simplex Method

...few variables. We are in fact calculating AB-1aj for all j as well as calculating all components of the relative cost coefficient r, albeit in an fairly automatic manner. However, we really need to know only one component rj of r, one row AB-1aj of the Tableau †(B), and the column constant AB-1b of the Tableau in order to pass to the next basic index set B. The goal of the revised simplex method is the ordering of all calculations so that no unnecessary calculations are performed. No new theory will be need. The simplex algorithm exactly as written in an earlier chapter will be implemented. The implementation will avoid all unnecessary calculations and will try whenever possible to update any available information. The Simpex Algorithm (Theoretical Foundation) 1. 2. Start with some basic index set B1 = {i(1), i(2), … ,i(m)}. Compute a coefficient of the relative cost coefficient rj = cj - cBAB-1aj for B1 until some index j with rj > 0 is found. (i).If all rj ≤ 0, termination phase has been reached. (ii).Only those j M N1 are candidates 3. Find AB-1aj = aj and AB-1b = b and compute the allowable ratios of the jth column , viz., bi/aij for those i with aij > 0. (i). If there are no allowable ratios, then a termination phase has been reached. 4. 5. 6. Find an index k where the minimum ratio is attained. Add j to the basic index set and delete i(k) to get a new basic index set B2. Go back to step 2). Minimal Needed Information to Implement the Simplex Algorithm 1. B (Basic Index......

Words: 3270 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Electric Vehicle

...International Journal of Production Research, 2014 Vol. 52, No. 16, 4820–4834, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2014.890757 Development of a multi-scale model for customer perceived value of electric vehicles Rui Miao*, Fasheng Xu, Kai Zhang and Zhibin Jiang Department of Industrial Engineering and Logistics Management, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China (Received 22 June 2012; accepted 23 January 2014) Electric vehicles (EVs) are now widely acknowledged as a potential ideal means of transportation in the near future in terms of environmental protection and oil crisis. The possible success of the future market for EVs is based on how much of EVs’ value can be perceived by their potential customers. Thus, research on customer perceived value (CPV) of EVs can help us, and especially EV manufacturers, understand the main factors contributing to CPV and how to design suitable EVs that can yield higher CPV. This paper first constructs a multi-scale model for the measurement of CPV based on surveys conducted at Shanghai, China. Then, the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory method is applied to evaluate the importance of every scale and depict the internal relations among different scales on the impact-relations map (IRM). Further, a novel version of the house of quality is created to conduct technical feasibility analysis for the improvement of each scale. Finally, market segmentation for EV industry is proposed and discussed based on the......

Words: 9789 - Pages: 40

Free Essay

Questionnaire on Mobile Operator

...CHAPTER ONE 1.1 INTRODUCTION A casual look at the published empirical work in business and econometric will reveal that many economic relationships are of single –equation type. In such models, one variable (the dependent variable Y) is expressed as a linear function of one or more other variables (the explanatory variables, the X’s). An implicit assumption is that the cause and effect relationship, if any , between Y and X’s is unidirectional. The explanatory variables are the cause and the dependent variable is the effect . However, there are situations where there is a two- way or simultaneous relationships between Y and some of the X’s which makes the distinction between the dependent and the explanatory variables of dubious value. It is better to lump together a set of variables that can be determined simultaneously by the remaining set of variables- precisely what is done in simultaneous equation models. In such models, there is more than one equation - one for each of the mutually or jointly dependent or endogenous variables. And unlike the single equation models, in the simultaneous equation models, one may estimate the parameters of a single equation without taking into account information provided by the other equation in the system. In a simultaneous equation system, variables that appear only on the right – hand side of the equation are called exogenous or predetermined variables. They are truly independent or non-stochastic because they remain fixed.......

Words: 10671 - Pages: 43

Free Essay

Linear Algebra

...SCHAUM’S outlines SCHAUM’S outlines Linear Algebra Fourth Edition Seymour Lipschutz, Ph.D. Temple University Marc Lars Lipson, Ph.D. University of Virginia Schaum’s Outline Series New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto Copyright © 2009, 2001, 1991, 1968 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. ISBN: 978-0-07-154353-8 MHID: 0-07-154353-8 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: ISBN: 978-0-07-154352-1, MHID: 0-07-154352-X. All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. To contact a representative please e-mail us at bulksales@mcgraw-hill.com. TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies,...

Words: 229129 - Pages: 917