Premium Essay

Theories and Concepts-Gender Studies

In: Other Topics

Submitted By hanlyn
Words 2925
Pages 12
I will be explaining the following: radical feminism; marxist feminism; hegemonic masculinity;gender;homophobia;misogyny; rape culture; and Heterosexism. I have focused on these six terms because they highlight how sexuality and gender are categorized culturally and in our Western Capitalist society, causing women to be oppressed. I have focused on the previously mentioned feminist theories because they focus on a male dominated society that encourages unrealistic gender stereotypes. Also, these theories explain how women experience discrimination and unfair disadvantages.

Radical Feminism

Radical Feminism relates to the idea that women are being dominated in a male driven patriarchal society. Oppression of women has been engrained into the structure of society is reinforced through areas like motherhood,family, the state. Radical feminism indicates that we live in patriarchal society that sexualizes women and never allows them to be an authority figure. It affects women on a global scale and continues to build a prioritized system that continuously gives men dominant power and control. Women cannot seek help through the system because it is biased and controls women’s sexuality. Social dominance allows privileges to be given out according to gender and basically states women should not be in control of their own bodies and men are connected to power. Women are prone to unjust treatment and every aspect of their lives in shaped around male dominance. Women are put in a position where they are obligated to be the mother figure, to give up their careers while men are free to move up in the system and have freedom, to cater men in a heterosexual relationship, and be portrayed as sexual objects. In order for the inequality to change, radical feminists say that the patriarchal system must be changed at its core to make positive change for women. (Calixte, SL. and...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

50 Key Concepts in Gender Studies

...50 Key Concepts in Gender Studies Jane Pilcher & Imelda Whelehan Fifty Key Concepts in Gender Studies i Recent volumes include: Key Concepts in Social Research Geoff Payne and Judy Payne Key Concepts in Medical Sociology Jonathan Gabe, Mike Bury and Mary Ann Elston Forthcoming titles include: Key Concepts in Leisure Studies David Harris Key Concepts in Critical Social Theory Nick Crossley Key Concepts in Urban Studies Mark Gottdiener The SAGE Key Concepts series provide students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension. JANE PILCHER AND IMELDA WHELEHAN Fifty Key Concepts in Gender Studies SAGE Publications London • Thousand Oaks • New Delhi iii © Jane Pilcher and Imelda Whelehan 2004 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission in writing from the Publishers. SAGE Publications Ltd 1 Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP SAGE Publications Inc 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd B-42 Panchsheel Enclave Post Box 4109 New Delhi 100 017 British......

Words: 86432 - Pages: 346

Free Essay

Discourses of Standpoint Feminism in Ir

...0 Term Paper Discourses of Standpoint Feminism in International Relations Shipra Shukla M.Phil Student Subject: Advanced International Relations Theories Department of Political Science University of Delhi 1 1. 1 Introduction Feminism can be simply defined as the study of and movement for women not as subjects but as subjects of knowledge. During the 1980s, feminism and the role of gender have gained entry in the study of international relations. Prior to this feminism was greatly ignored. However, over the last decade, feminism has emerged as a key critical perspective within the study of international relations. The initial thrust of this critique was to challenge the fundamental biases of the discipline and to highlight the ways in which women were excluded from analyses of the state, international political economy, and international security. According to O'Callaghan (2002) feminism in international relations can be framed in two main domains. The first wave of feminist scholarship in the 1980s is now called feminist empiricism; in which international relations scholars have sought to reclaim women’s hidden voices and to expose the multiplicity of roles that women play in sustaining global economic forces and state interactions. For example, women’s participation and involvement facilitate tourism, colonialism, and economically powerful states’ domination of weak states. The maintenance of the international political economy depends upon stable political......

Words: 2805 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Theories and Concepts Assignment

...feminist theories that were previously mentioned due to the fact that they both focus heavily on the oppression of men in society, as well as the evident gender division between the sexes. I have chosen to focus on the six concepts that were previously mentioned because they focus on how women are oppressed, and mistreated in society. Radical Feminism Radical feminism supports the idea that patriarchy is the main form of oppression women face. The goal of radical feminism is the elimination of patriarchy. From a radical feminist perspective, women are oppressed in three main ways or areas: the state, the nuclear family, and through reproduction and mothering. Radical feminism also suggests that the lack of control women have over their own bodies and own reproduction is central to oppression. Radical feminists aim towards eliminating sexual, as well as physical violence against women (Calixte et al., 2009). The significance of radical feminism is that it focuses on what is seen as the major oppressors in our culture. Moreover, radical feminism opens our eyes to male dominance and how it has been highly normalized. It alerts us to how ‘normal’ or common images from pornography reduce women to sexual objects. Moreover, it makes clear that prostitution is a form of economic and sexual exploitation women. Instead of relying on preexisting theories, radical feminism is significant because it is a theory generated by and for women (Calixte et al., 2009). In terms of gender,......

Words: 2415 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay


...Version 1.0: 0107 abc General Certificate of Education Psychology 5186 Specification B Unit 1 (PYB1) Introducing Psychology Mark Scheme 2007 examination - January series Mark schemes are prepared by the Principal Examiner and considered, together with the relevant questions, by a panel of subject teachers. This mark scheme includes any amendments made at the standardisation meeting attended by all examiners and is the scheme which was used by them in this examination. The standardisation meeting ensures that the mark scheme covers the candidates’ responses to questions and that every examiner understands and applies it in the same correct way. As preparation for the standardisation meeting each examiner analyses a number of candidates’ scripts: alternative answers not already covered by the mark scheme are discussed at the meeting and legislated for. If, after this meeting, examiners encounter unusual answers which have not been discussed at the meeting they are required to refer these to the Principal Examiner. It must be stressed that a mark scheme is a working document, in many cases further developed and expanded on the basis of candidates’ reactions to a particular paper. Assumptions about future mark schemes on the basis of one year’s document should be avoided; whilst the guiding principles of assessment remain constant, details will change, depending on the content of a particular examination paper. Further copies of this Mark Scheme are available......

Words: 5003 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay


...Exam - Review Document [pic] Important Things to Keep In Mind! • You will have two (2) hours to complete the exam. This review includes all of the areas you need to study and review for the exam. • There are 100 multiple choice questions; each question is worth two (2) points, thus 200 points possible for the entire exam. • This is ALL you have to study for the Final Exam. The number of “bullet” points under each chapter is the number of questions for that chapter – and they are the topics for each question from that chapter. In essence this document IS the Final Exam – without specific answers and of course the answers ( • The exam will be "scaled" in the sense that your scores will be compared to others, so the normal “90% = A” will not be the hard fast rule at all. So don't be overwhelmed by the test, just do your best and let me worry about "the grade." • You will take the exam online, during Week 8, just like all of the quizzes you have taken. Below is the list of EACH chapter and the topics, theories, and theorists to study for the Final Exam. EVERYTHING that appears on this list WILL be on the exam and there will be NO surprises on the exam, study this and you should do just fine. |WEEK |CHAPTER |TOPICS TO STUDY | |Week 1 |Chapter. 1: The Sociological Perspective |C. Wright Mills ......

Words: 861 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Situating the Entrepreneur and Gender

...archive of this journal is available at Situating the subject: gender and entrepreneurship in international contexts Fidelma Ashe University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, UK, and Gender and entrepreneurship 185 Lorna Treanor Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, UK Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to offer a perspective to further the understanding of gender entrepreneurship. This paper considers the situatedness of the gendered entrepreneur within diverse international contexts marked by different constitutions of gender identities and networks of power, both within the context of contributions within this special issue but also more broadly within the field of gender and entrepreneurship research. Design/methodology/approach – The authors adopt a feminist perspective and analyse the different framings of identity within gender and entrepreneurship literature and their contributions to our understandings of the concepts of both power and gendered identities. Findings – The paper finds that power and identity are configured in different contexts in ways that open arenas for future analysis. Originality/value – The paper highlights the importance of considering masculinities within gender and entrepreneurship research offering support for further analyses of entrepreneurial masculinities by examining two studies that expose entrepreneurial masculinities as shifting subjectivities influenced by men’s......

Words: 8127 - Pages: 33

Premium Essay


...Gender Identity Every sexual thought, attraction,preference, development, feeling, memory, fantasy, and choice stem from complex brain activity. A complex genetic code determines body type; but that type does not always dictate sexual identity. Sexual identity is an even more complex development that encompasses hormone levels, social learning, individual perception, and attraction. Humans are born genetically male or female; but that does not necessarily control which sexual identity the individual will discover. Planned Parenthood (2012) defines gender identity as how a person feels about and expresses his or her gender; despite genetic or natural gender assignment. Some humans are genetically male or female and identify with the traditional gender roles; but others may find that the traditional cultural norms do not match their feelings or thoughts. Sexual identity is the sexual part of human expression that does not include ideas like sexual orientation, sexual preference, physical gender, or body type. If an individual considers his or her gender as female and is at ease with referring to his or her individual sexual characteristics in feminine terms, his or her gender identity is female. Gender identity has nothing to do with the physical characteristics of gender; but focuses on how the individual thinks (either masculine or feminine) and how he or she expresses those feelings. Ghosh (2012) explains gender identity as “self-identified, as a result of a......

Words: 1429 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Queer Theory Explained

...The concepts encapsulated within the term ‘queer’, according to Corber and Valocchi, are those which define the “identities and practices that foreground the instability inherent in the supposedly stable relationship between anatomical sex, gender, and sexual desire” (2003: 1). In other words, Queer Theory attempts to illustrate that these things do not always align in predetermined and/or normative ways, and it is perhaps misguided to assume that they should. Corber and Valocchi refer to this notion in their suggestion that Queer Theory focuses on forms of sexuality which fall ‘outside’ of the typical binaries (2003:1). Queer writer Annemarie Jagose states the Queer Theory works to destabilise the belief in ‘natural’ sexuality by exposing the incoherencies that occur within the varying relationships of sex, gender, and sexuality (1996: 3). By having an analytical framework which includes numerous modes of sex/gender/sexuality combinations, such as cross-dressing, sadomasochism, and androgyny, Queer Theory acts in critical relation to the hegemonic social norms through which traditional sexual identities are governed and accepted (Weed and Schor, 1997: vii). Theorist David Halperin (1997) suggests that numerous varying degrees of difference and interpretation exist within any given from of sexuality - for example, there exist both feminine male homosexuals and masculine male homosexuals, and so on. Related to this is one Queer Theory’s central claims, which wishes to state...

Words: 2109 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Describe and Evaluate the Evolutionary Explanation of Gender Roles (8+16)

...Describe and evaluate the evolutionary explanation of gender roles (8+16) One way in which the evolutionary theory can explain how gender roles differ can be explained by mate choice. Men tend to look for women with small waists and bigger hips as it shows fertility. They also look for signs of healthiness such as smooth skin, glossy hair, and red lips. Women also seek signs of healthiness and youth but are more concerned in looking for a male that is able to provide resources for them. This can explain why women take care of themselves more and try to make themselves look as youthful as possible, whereas men promote themselves as successful and hardworking. By both genders adopting these roles, individuals are attracting partners that will increase the survival of their offspring and increase reproductive success. A study to support this idea of mate choice being related to evolutionary advantages was carried out by Singh (1993). In a series of studies done by Singh, men used waist to hip ratio (WHR) and fat distribution to determine a woman’s attractiveness. In his first study, men were shown a series of 12 drawings of women with various WHR’s and body fat distribution. Drawings with normal body fat distribution and a moderate WHR were associated with the most positive traits (i.e. attractive, sexy, intelligent and healthy). The drawings with the low WHR were not associated with any positive traits except youthfulness. Singh found that men have a preference for women......

Words: 1223 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...minuets on this question. • Q.3 is a theories essay for 33 marks. THIS QUESTION IS SYNOPTIC! You should spend 45 minuets on this question. Below is a list of all the areas and studies you need to know for each section of the exam. Don’t worry if you don’t know all the studies, each college/school are likely to teach slightly different ones, just make sure you know about that amount for each section. Q.1 For the first two pure crime parts you need to know: Functionalist theories of crime and deviance Durkheim – Social control, social regulation including suicide Merton-Strain theory, blocked aspirations Cohen – Status frustration Cloward and Ohlin – Deviant subcultures New Right/Right Realism James Wilson – Strict law enforcement needed Wilson and Kelling – Broken windows, zero tolerance Murray – Cultural deprivation, single parents and ineffective, the underclass Erdos – Families without fathers Subcultural theories Cohen – Delinquent subcultures Cloward and Ohlin – Delinquency and opportunity, criminal, conflict and retreatist subcultures Willis – pupil subcultures (learning to labour) Patrick – Gang culture (Glasgow gangs) Humphreys – Gay subcultures and covert participant observation Miller – Focal concerns, lower working class male subculture Matza – Delnquency and drift, techniques of neutralisation, subterranean values Marxist theories of crime and deviance Gordon –......

Words: 2001 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Gender and Postmodern

...Mapping the Modern “An argumentative essay on ‘Gender’ through comparison and contrast of the views of authorities who are postmodern practitioners” Introduction Defining postmodernism as well as gender is an extremely difficult task if not impossible. This essay is an argument on the two postmodernist’s concept on ‘Gender’. This essay argues posing foucauldian postmodernism of Judith Butler against Baudrillardean post modernism of Arthur and Marilouse Kroker with analysis on both their ideas on gender including sex and sexuality. This essay also argues that these two approaches are fully flawed for a number of important reasons. This essay offered an argument on the ideas of two of the most prominent postmodernists in the field of ‘Gender’ including sex and sexuality namely Judith Bultler and Discussion Postmodernism of Judith Butler Judith Butler is one among the most influential proponent of postmodern practitioner of gender including sex and sexuality. In Gender Trouble It is stated that identity of gender constitutes the very expressions which are its results and does not go beyond the expressions of gender. Butler does not consider gender as an appropriate social as well as natural expressions of a sexed body, but it is a fluid identity which is always in a deferral state ad does not exist fully at any given point of time (Norris, 2010). She does not believe in the notion of a stable and essential identity of gender manifesting itself by way of external......

Words: 1518 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Sociology a-Level

...into the norms and values that are seen to be important for a particular society. For others it can be seen as a source of conflict particularly when issues surrounding gender, class and ethnicity are put under the sociologists, ‘microscope’. It also provides an excellent indicator of how political ideology affects social policy, with the changing of governments impacting on educational policy. Some questions sociologists are interested in about education are: * Why do some pupils achieve more than others? * What is the relationship between education and the economy? * What is the purpose of education? * Do pupil’s school experiences vary? Assessment The course will be assessed by examination only. The examination will consist of various short answer question and essay style questions. Date of Exam: June 2010 Duration: 2 hr The Unit 2 exam is worth 60% of your final AS level grade. There will be 90 marks available on the paper. You will answer one question on the chosen topic, one question on sociological research methods in context and one question on research methods. Assessment Objectives AO1 Knowledge and understanding of the theories, methods, concepts a) The nature of sociological thought AS and A Level candidates are required to study the following concepts and theoretical issues: • social order, social control • social change • conflict and consensus • social structure and social action • the role of values •......

Words: 1881 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Summary of Racism

...Summary of Racism: Concepts, Theories and Approaches Hollinsworth, D (1998) Racism: concepts, theories and approaches, Race and Racism in Australia, 2nd edition, Social Science Press, Katoomba, NSW. In this reading, Hollinsworth provides a very detailed analysis of the concept of racism. He explains how theorists have constructed different ideas about racism in relation to ethnicity, social history, class and gender.  The theorists have made a very important point in that although social culture rejects the idea of racism, it does still exist, sometimes in very similar ways. An example is the similarity between ethnocentrism and ideological racism. Both of these believe that their ethnic culture is superior and other cultures are biologically, intellectually or culturally inferior. The two tie in together as the basis for prejudice.  Institutional racism is also explained. This is a complex subject, but usually occurs within an institution setting such as government bodies and the private sector. Some ethnic groups have an advantage in this situation whereas others are disadvantaged and discriminated against. Hollinsworth also explores the Marxist and feminist perspectives on racism. In the Marxist approach, the main focus is on race in the context of class. The feminist view however concentrates on the impact that ethnic and racial discrimination have on gender. The concept of identity politics is then explored which is a theory that......

Words: 469 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Feminisim and International Relations

...De La Salle – College of Saint Benilde Taft Avenue, Malate, Manila Feminism and International Relations Submitted by: BALIGOD, Katrina Angelica A. LS201 Submitted to: Sir. Francisco Noel Fernandez III 20 October 2014 I. Introduction Hans J. Morgenthau, one of the leading proponents of the approach known as Realism (also known as power politics), claims that universal standards of morality cannot be an constant guide to IR because there is an "ineluctable tension between the moral command and the requirements of successful political action." He argues that state actors must think and act in terms of power and must do whatever it takes to defend the national interests of their state. J. Ann Tickner, commenting on the primacy of power in Morgenthau's writings, explains that what he considers to be "a realistic description of international politics is only a picture of the past and therefore not a prediction about the future", and proposes what she considers to be a feminist alternative: a world in which state actors think of power in terms of collective empowerment, not in terms of domination over one another, could produce more cooperative outcomes and pose fewer conflicts between the dictates of morality and the power of self-interest (Art & Jervis, 2005). Emergence of Feminism Most of the early feminists in IR were IR theorists, researchers, and policy practitioners, who read syllabi full of scholarly articles by mainly or only men, and seen IR as a scholarly......

Words: 1856 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Sociology Information

...Introduction To Sociology II notes by Mutangi G T Sociology is the study of human social life. Because human social life is so expansive, sociology has many sub-sections of study, ranging from the analysis of conversations to the development of theories to try to understand how the entire world works. This chapter will introduce you to sociology and explain why it is important, how it can change your perspective of the world around you, and give a brief history of the discipline. History Sociology is a relatively new academic discipline. It emerged in the early 19th century in response to the challenges of modernity. Increasing mobility and technological advances resulted in the increasing exposure of people to cultures and societies different from their own. The impact of this exposure was varied, but for some people included the breakdown of traditional norms and customs and warranted a revised understanding of how the world works. Sociologists responded to these changes by trying to understand what holds social groups together and also explore possible solutions to the breakdown of social solidarity. Early Sociological Studies Early sociological studies considered the field to be similar to the natural sciences like physics or biology. As a result, many researchers argued that the methodology used in the natural sciences were perfectly suited for use in the social sciences, including Sociology. The effect of employing the scientific method and stressing empiricism was......

Words: 12675 - Pages: 51