Premium Essay

Theories of Learning

In: People

Submitted By Guerta6
Words 294
Pages 2
Theories of learning

A number of relatively complete and self consistent theories of learning have been advanced. These theories tries to provide a theoretical framework to broaden our knowledge in a unified manner the empirical data of learning.

1.) Connectionism or the S-R Bond Theory (Thorndike) - it assumes that thru conditioning, specific response comes to be linked with specific stimuli.

2.) Behaviorism (Watson) - According to this theory, learning is a process of building conditioned reflexes thru the substitution of one stimulus to another.

3.) Functionalism - This theory says that behavior and mental processes are adaptive or functional.

4.) Gestalt Theory - The Gestalt or Field theory of learning was advanced by Koffka in 1924 making use of insight as a basic principle.

Laws of learning

The exact nature of the learning process is still a subject for theoretical controversy. Psychologists have discovered a number of laws expressing empirical relations between learning and certain conditions.

The law of effect (Thorndike) Response which are followed by satisfying after effects tend to be learned and repeated.

- Law of Primacy (Watson): acts or impressions learned first will be better remembered than acts or impressions leaned later.

- Law of Belongingness (Thorndike): Associations are easily formed if they belong.

The Law of Readiness (Thorndike) Response preceded by readiness are more satisfying than otherwise.

- Law of Mind-set: This law has reference to the mental set of the learner at the time that the response is to be made.

- Law of Apperception (Herbart): Apperception pertains to the recognition of relationships between what is presented and existing body of knowledge.

The Law of Exercise (Thorndike) Practice makes perfect. This law has been more or less...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Learning Theories

...------------------------------------------------- Constructivism Main article: Constructivism (learning theory) Constructivism is a revolution in educational psychology. Built on the work of Piaget and Bruner, constructivism emphasizes the importance of active involvement of learners in constructing knowledge for themselves...Constructivism emphasizes top-down processing: begin with complex problems and teach basic skills while solving these problems [13]. Constructivism explains why students do not learn deeply by listening to a teacher, or reading from a textbook. Learning sciences research is revealing the deeper underlying basis of how knowledge construction works. To design effective environments, one needs a very good understanding of what children know when they come to the classroom. This requires sophisticated research into children's cognitive development, and the learning sciences draws heavily on psychological studies of cognitive development (e.g., Siegler, 1998). The learning theories of John Dewey, Marie Montessori, and David Kolb serve as the foundation of constructivist learning theory.[14]Constructivism views learning as a process in which the learner actively constructs or builds new ideas or concepts based upon current and past knowledge or experience. In other words, "learning involves constructing one's own knowledge from one's own experiences." Constructivist learning, therefore, is a very personal endeavor, whereby internalized concepts, rules, and......

Words: 521 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Learning Theories

...Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development OCSLD Learning and Teaching Briefing Papers Series Theories of learning There are many different theories of how people learn. What follows is a variety of them, and it is useful to consider their application to how your students learn and also how you teach in educational programmes. It is interesting to think about your own particular way of learning and to recognise that everyone does not learn the way you do. Burns (1995, p 99) ‘conceives of learning as a relatively permanent change in behaviour with behaviour including both observable activity and internal processes such as thinking, attitudes and emotions.’ It is clear that Burns includes motivation in this definition of learning. Burns considers that learning might not manifest itself in observable behaviour until some time after the educational program has taken place. Sensory stimulation theory Traditional sensory stimulation theory has as its basic premise that effective learning occurs when the senses are stimulated (Laird, 1985). Laird quotes research that found that the vast majority of knowledge held by adults (75%) is learned through seeing. Hearing is the next most effective (about 13%) and the other senses — touch, smell and taste — account for 12% of what we know. By stimulating the senses, especially the visual sense, learning can be enhanced. However, this theory says that if multi-senses are stimulated, greater learning takes place. Stimulation......

Words: 2202 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Adult Learning Theories

...There is no single explanation or all-encompassing theory that explains how adults learn. The adult learning process is complex, context bound, and highly personal. As a result, there is no single theory of learning that can be applied to all adults. Instead, the literature of the past century has yielded a variety of models, sets of assumptions and principles, theories, and explanations that make up the adult learning knowledge base. The more adult educators are familiar with this knowledge base, the more effective their practice can be, and the more responsive it can be to the needs of adult learners. This fact sheet reviews three major theories and discusses their implications for practice. What is Andragogy? In attempting to document differences between the ways adults and children learn, Malcolm Knowles (1980) popularized the concept of andragogy (“the art and science of helping adults learn”), contrasting it with pedagogy (“the art and science of teaching children”). He posited a set of assumptions about adult learners, namely, that the adult learner • Moves from dependency to increasing self-directedness as he/she matures and can direct his/her own learning; • Draws on his/her accumulated reservoir of life experiences to aid learning; • Is ready to learn when he/she assumes new social or life roles; • Is problem-centered and wants to apply new learning immediately; and • Is motivated to learn from internal, rather than external, factors. Inherent in these assumptions......

Words: 1656 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Social Learning Theory

...Use the Internet to research a social learning theory applicable to the workplace that is not addressed in Chapter 4. Then, determine whether the social learning theory that you researched can be applied your current or past work experience. Support your reasoning. A social learning theory that is related to the workplace is the Goal Setting Theory. The way in which an employee behaves is said to come from the employees conscious goals. There are two types of goal orientations: learning orientation and performance orientation. The learning orientation depicts a learner that is motivated by competency in a specific task. The performance orientation depicts a learner who focuses on how well their performance is compared to others (Nuriddin, 2010). The Goal Setting Theory is something that I use in my current position and have used in my past jobs. I believe it is very important to be a goal-minded person in the workplace. In my current position, I use the Goal Setting Theory to set daily goals of what I want to get completed. I also set weekly and monthly goals for my job at hand. This has always helped me with staying on track with tasks at work as well as feeling good once I have achieved my goals. I set personal goals on a weekly, monthly, and yearly basis. As far as the two goal orientations go, I see a little bit of each in myself. I like to know what I am doing and be a specialist in my position, but I am also very competitive. If there is a way to track...

Words: 384 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Social Learning Theory

...Social Learning Theory Bertha Zhagui BUS375: Employee Training Instructor:  Marissa Chavez July 8, 2013 The importance of training and cost of training are obvious. The question forcing the executives in organization is that how organization can make these training programs more effective. It means that individual makes the organizational performance better by utilizing their knowledge and skills consequently organization offers training for development of its employee performance to achieve required goals. This study highlights the importance and applications of learning theories and how these theories could prove to be of most effective in trainings. As training are only effective if it promote learning. Several theories relate to how people learn. Each theory relates to different aspects of the learning process. In my following paper I will discuss the Social Learning Theory, and will explain how this theory relates to my current workplace and how it would generate the same results in any other organizations. People are the critical component of the organizational system (Hayes, Wheelwright and Clark, 1998). Superior performance is ultimately based on the people in an organization, the right management principles, systems and procedures play an essential role. The capabilities that create a competitive advantage come from people, their skill, discipline, motivation, ability to solve problems and their capacity for learning......

Words: 901 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Adult Learning Theories

...Summary of Peer-Reviewed Articles Adult learning theory is fully discussed and explained in the articles; “Adult Learning Theory: Applications to Non-Traditional College Students “(Kenner, Weinerman) and “Adult learning styles and on-line educational preference” (McGlone). The articles describe multiple aspects of how an adult learns compared to a child and what life experiences adults bring into their educational environment. Adult learning theory is based on the way to adult learners comprehend and learn as they are older adults and not children. This theory also studies how adults learn when studying online. Newer adult learners bring learning styles and life experiences that provide a more critical foundation. Online learning is now the new basis for adult learners. To understand how adult learning theory works, the teacher must first understand andragogy, which is an advanced field of psychology in which the age of the learner, is studied. An andragogy study is a process-focused approach and was not studied until the 1960s and 1970s. Before that, only pedagogy was studied, which is the way that children learn. Children and adults learn completely different. In recent research, it is shown that adults learn best with a self-paced learning environment, which means instruction from the teacher and all of the guidance done solely by the students. Most adult learners are more eager than traditional students to learn since this is normally their second chance at a good......

Words: 1264 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Adult Learning Theory

...Adult Learning Theory SD Liberty University Online INFT 101-B65 March 8, 2013 Summary The two articles on adult learning theory studied were “ALT: Application to Non-Traditional College Students” written by Cari Kenner and Jason Weinerman and “ALT for the Twenty-First Century” by Sharan B. Merriam. Both of these articles point out that having a passion for teaching is the most important thing. In “ALT: Application to Non-Traditional College Students”, the author begins by giving an example of one of the reasons many people take the route of not going to school and go straight into a job that will provide the training they need in order to be successful at it. It also gives one of the many reasons why an adult decides to go back to school. Many people, upon high school graduation lack the resources to continue to go to college and earn a degree (Weinerman & Kenner, 2011). This article focuses on what educators should do to help adult students be successful in completing a college degree. The authors say, “By understanding what makes adult learners different from traditional students, developmental educators can provide specific tools that help adult learners integrate into the college or university environment and increase their chances for success” (Weinerman & Kenner, 2011). The article goes on by talking about four principles that describe adult learners: self-direction, self-identity, ready to learn, and task motivated (Weinerman & Kenner, 2011). The second...

Words: 712 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Customized Theory of Learning

...Garner’s theory of learning and its impact on effectively managing the modern day classroom environment. Major approaches to human behavior and development are discussed relevant to biological, social-cultural, cognitive, and psychological development. Social learning is discussed relevant to its connection to an individual’s ability to perceive and comprehend the world and ultimately understand instruction. Category learning theory is discussed and will argue that individuals will understand information that they have been exposed to and can relate to. The theory of bodily-kinesthetic functioning is discussed and will attempt to define the abilities to control one’s body movements and to handle objects skillfully. A brief discussion on how technology has impacted learning will also be explored, in an effort to define how the instructional classroom and management techniques have evolved over the years. This paper also researches traits that encompass direct instruction designed to increase classroom management efficiency and enhance overall learning potential. I will take a look at the various theories, explore their benefits for individual growth and learning, classroom management, and customize my own theory of learning. Theory of Human Learning and Development Introduction There are numerous theories of learning that have been created, researched, and tested. It is imperative that teachers run their classrooms using a learning......

Words: 2691 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Adult Learning Theory

...Article Summaries on Adult Learning Theories Maurrica Daun Doss Summary With review of two articles related to adult learning theories, there were several similarities and shared information that combined these articles together. It is very clear that there are different views and levels of adult learning theories. Starting from the basic concept of adult learning and fine tuning the theories down to adult students, it is evident that these theories are a major factor in continuing education. The first article on adult learning theories realized that psychological, convictional, and behavioral aspects are significant factors. The author covers these latest updates from an edition published in 2001 while stating that “what we might conclude about adult learning today will most likely be out of date by the time this volume is a year old” (Merriam, 2008, p. 94). The article highlights a few major updates from previous versions. Adult learning theory is being increasingly recognized more and more as multidimensional learning. Environments of adult learners are known factors to how new information is received. Depending on their external influences, translates into factors that cause adults to learn differently. Adults receive information and relate it to their own body, mind, and wellbeing. Keeping adult learners in context can ultimately help with learning styles. Adult learning seemed to be a cognitive process until recently. Using spirituality as a guide to......

Words: 871 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Learning Personality Theories

...Learning Personality Theories Learning Team C PSY/405 Theories of Personality January 23, 2012 Professor XXXXX Learning Personality Theories Personalities develop and learn from observing others, society, experiences, and the environment. Different theories have been created to explain how a person learns and develops. Three learning personality theories discussed here are the behavioral analysis theory, the social cognitive theory, and the cognitive social learning theory. The strengths and limitations of the three theories will be analyzed that will provide small, but noticeable edges on the other. A description of how each theory affects personality will be discussed. In closing, an explanation of how each learning theory proposes interpersonal relationships are influenced will be examined. Strengths and Limitations Behavioral Analysis Theory An advantage of the behavioral analysis theory is that it is based on observable evidence. This theory contains important concepts such as reinforcement, used as effective therapies to treat undesirable behaviors. Although proven to be an effective therapeutic theory it has many weaknesses. It does not account for learning that does not involve negative or positive reinforcement, nor does it explain adaptive behavior. Proponents of this theory also argue that this approach is too deterministic and cannot be accurate, as it does not account for free will or emotion (Feist & Feist, 2009). Social Cognitive Theory Much...

Words: 2046 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Learning Theories of Personalities

...Learning Theories of Personalities Kristie Tripaldi, Tandy Noonan, Charlie Fritz, Jodie Bowes, and Velinda Chandler PSY/405 March 5, 2012 Angela Snelling Learning Theories of Personalities As individual’s study human behavior, he or she notices that there several theories with plenty of philosophers and psychologists to give his or her own personal observations. However, there are several limitations and strengths of learning theories. The three main theorist of the social learning theory are Albert Bandura, B.F. Skinner, and Julian Rotter. Each of these theorists describes how learning theories affect an individual’s personality. Bandura and Skinner’s theories both explain how an individual learns from his or her environment. Bandura’s social learning theory also explains an individual’s reaction to what he or she observes. Rotter’s theory provides reasoning in environment and personal factors that influences an individual’s behavior. Strengths of Learning Theories Behavior analysis can examine the results of behavior through the calculated experiments of individual, social, and cultural context application (Cherry, 2012). Pavlov’s dog is a very famous experiment of behavioral analysis that proves this theories strength. In anticipation of receiving a meal, the dog would start to salivate. Soon, the dog associated food with the white......

Words: 1659 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Social Learning Theory

...Social Learning Theory Developed by Albert Bandura in 1965 and 1977, Social Learning Theory emphasized on the importance of rewards and punishments. This theory identified that children can learn new behaviours in one or two ways: by direct experience through trial and error or by observing and imitating others in their social environment. Bandura (1994) stated that observational learning eventually is more efficient than trying to discover everything on your own. Children can and do learn from other people in their environment, including parents, siblings, peers, and teachers. Children can also learn from characters and people that appeared in the mass media (Sparks, 2002) Bandura’s studies helped researchers to understand a number of things about television violence, animated programs and children. First, viewing television violence and animated programs could cause children to behave more aggressively, particularly if the violent characters were attractive and received rewards for their actions. Second, in many of these studies, the effects emerged most strongly for boys not girls. The researchers thought that perhaps this aggressive tendency resulted in boys being more sensitive to the impact of media violence. In the 1980s, Bandura (1986) reformulated his theory for the reason that it had been criticised as too behaviouristic, which was focusing mostly on the reinforcements and how people act. The newer perspective, which was called Social Cognitive Theory,......

Words: 384 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Conventional Learning Theory: Modelling The Coaching Process

...Modelling the Coaching Process Background Conventional learning theory (Dewey, 1938) explains that observation and judgement are crucial to the learning process, encouraging incorporation of such thinking in standardised models. Initially, simplistic cyclical models were proposed, reactive in nature (Stratton et al., 2004) and of 3 stage ‘experience-reflection-plan’ or 4 stage ‘experience-reflection-conclude-plan’ (Kolb, 1984; Gibbs, 1998). Coaching theorists initially adopted rudimentary models (Crisfield et al., 1996; Fairs, 1987; Sherman et al., 1997) – see Appendix A, Figure 1 (Franks et al., 1986) and Figure 3 (Jones, 2002), though contemporary thinking has developed once scale, complexity and understanding of coaching began to mature...

Words: 1205 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Drug Use and Social Learning Theory

...Theoretical and Conceptual This study is anchored on Albert Bandura’s Social Learning theory. This theory states that learning is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct instruction (Bandura, 1963). Social learning theory holds that behavior is molded by rewards and punishment, or reinforcement. Past and present rewards and punishments for certain actions determine the actions that individuals continue to pursue. Reward and punishment structures are built into specific groups (Akers, 1992). By interacting with members of certain groups or social circles, people learn definitions of behaviors as good or bad. It is in the group setting, differentially for different groups, where reward and punishment take place, and where individuals are exposed to behavioral models and normative definitions of certain behaviors as good or bad . Social learning theory proposes that the use and abuse of psychoactive substances is caused by the differential exposure to groups in which use is rewarded. “These groups provide the social environments in which exposure to definitions, imitations of models, and social reinforcements for use of or abstinence from any particular substance takes place. The definitions are learned through imitation and social reinforcement of them by members of the group with whom one is associated” (Akers et al, 1979). Drug use, including abuse, is determined “by the extent to which a given pattern of......

Words: 486 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Learning Theories

...Running Head: LEARNING THEORIES Research Paper: Learning Theories Name Psychology of Learning Learning Theories From the beginning of life, learning is a natural process and continues through humankind’s lifespan. There seems to be an inherent encoding structure from birth seeking to discover new information that invokes learning which empowers one’s ability to adapt to different patterns of behavior. For years various theories have been introduced to explain how people learn. Learning can and does occur in a variety of methods. People may deem learning as experiences that become embedded into their memory having lasting effects. Others may think of learning as how they acquire new information and their ability to apply memory that has been stored overtime. While learning has often been defined in many ways, the basic element in the learning process is how people acquire knowledge and how it is maintained to produce changes in behavior. Learning is the fundamental nature of human functioning. This reflective paper presents a broad scope of theoretical concepts from Gregory Kimble, B.F. Skinner and Jean Piaget. The central focus of this paper is aspects of Albert Bandura’s observational, social learning and social cognitive theories; Bandura’s contributions to psychology; his critics and my personal response to Bandura’s theories. Introduction Many theories throughout the......

Words: 6090 - Pages: 25