Free Essay

Theory of Evolution

In: Science

Submitted By j4life
Words 843
Pages 4
Theories and the Theory of Evolution
Joy Dawson
Colorado Technical University

Author Notes
This paper was prepared for SCI 101- 1401A taught by Professor Scott Christensen on January 17, 2014.

Theories and the Theory of Evolution

Evolution, a natural selection theorized by Charles Darwin and backed by many other scientist based on the scientific method. All theories must be capable to conduct testable predictions. Predictions are performed by observation and experimentations that are then to be conducted to give the theories authentication to the predictions. Darwin theory depends on slow, consistent, gradual change in organisms which in time will become a new species. Other evolutionary theories propose that evolution occurred in rapid periods of time or that a designer intervened during different times to modify or create organisms. The controversial debate of punctuated equilibrium and phyletic gradualism still exists, but the interesting research continues with fossil records, patterns of punctuated equilibrium, and maybe even more with the use of innovations of today. It is safe to say that scientists agree there is two models of growth which theorizes evolution of species can emerge. A species can change by phyletic gradualism and punctuated equilibrium or both. Scientist believes species with a shorter evolution change is mostly by punctuated equilibrium, however, those with a longer progression developed mostly by gradualism. Phyletic gradualism happens gradually in variation and selection where change occurs “slow, constant, and consistent” over long periods of time leading to change in population (necsi). Phyletic gradualism is in difference to the theory of punctuated equilibrium, which suggests change comes in spurts where periods of slight change and then one or few massive changes occur. The species tend to change quickly over a few generations yet tend to settle once again to a time period of little change. Many of the information learned about species of the past lye with the findings of fossils and the records keep on them since humans first began to study them in a systematically.
In my opinion, the fossil record is the leading cause to the continuance of debates among evolutionists. The main issue concerning fossil record is that it is lacking or unfinished. Geneticists and theoreticians uphold Darwin’s gradualism claims that lack of transitional procedures result to the rarity of fossilization and the imperfection of the fossil record. Others stand for punctuated equilibrium again meaning evolution happens quickly in spurts followed by long periods with very little change. It is because of this reason, transitional procedures are not found in the fossil record. The organism was only around for a short time frame causing chances of them becoming a fossilized was very low. “Punctuated equilibrium predicts that a lot of evolutionary change takes place in short periods of time tied to speciation events” (Berkeley 2013). Factors which are responsible for the periods of relative stasis consist of isolation of a small amount of a species from the rest of its population. When a population undergoes strong selection it changes than evolves very rapidly causing no fossils representing transitional customs are preserved due to the small population size. Once this change have occurred a reintroduction transpire by reuniting of the isolated population with their related ancestry. The isolated population expands into the previous past range forming larger population sizes, which may result in the former isolated branch of species to out-compete their ancestral population, causing extinction. The larger population size along with a larger range reverts to the first step with irregular fossil preservation causing a pattern in the fossil record. In most cases, the observation leans towards spurts of evolution in the fossil record. It is argued (phyletic gradualism) that the fossils obtained are only “time slices” of actual history (Berkeley 2007). The spurts are an illusion of a lot of time that has past which looks like a spurt. In conclusion we know many ways to obtain information or intelligences by reason, experiences, or the use of scientific explanations, and tests. Even though science contains obvious facts and testable theories, many questions remain a mystery. A question that evolves outside the boundaries of science and the scientific method are left to an individual to decide rather religion, art, philosophy will give the answer they seek (Trefil & Hazen, 2010). As time continues on, one can hope or discovery and provide clarification to how evolution supposedly occurred. Until then, the controversial debate of punctuated equilibrium and phyletic gradualism still exists, but the interesting research continues with fossil records, patterns of punctuated equilibrium, and maybe even more with the use of innovations of today.

Reference
Sholmiya Bar-Yam, (2010) necsi.edu. Evolution Retrived from http://necsi.edu/projects/evolution/grad+punct/evolution-grad unknown, Truth in science (2007) Truthinscience.org http://www.truthinscience.org.uk/tis2/index.php/component/article/48.html Evolution 101, (2010) The Big Issues Retrived from http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/VIIA1aHypotheses.shtml Trefil, J., & Hazen, R. (2010). The sciences: an integrated approach (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley

Unknown, Wikipedia (2010) Phyletic gradualism http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/phyletic_gradualism

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Evolution Theory

...Assignment 3 It has been saying that evolution should be objected these days because there are more and more counterexamples have been found. However, after reading related materials, I believe there are still many aspects to prove the evolution theory is valid. One of theories that go against evolution is that it violates the second law of thermodynamics. Many people think that according to the law, total entropy of an isolated system always increases over time, or remains constant in ideal cases where the system is in a steady state or undergoing a reversible process. However, the evolution of species clearly violates this law because it’s an anti-entropy process. However, I think the most unconvincing point of this idea is that ecological system is not an isolated system at all. It is related to the world on all aspects. So this theory doesn’t even hold at all. Another theory is about eyes. Some people think that the evolution process of eyes is uncompleted. According to evolution theory, functions and structure of eyes evolved step by step. However, it has been questioned that there is very low probability that eyes evolve completely with brain at the same time. If there has been something wrong during the process, evolution would fail. In fact, Darwin already demonstrated in natural selection. He pointed out that except people, there are indeed many species need eyes to live but others don’t. Animals have to adapt to environment around them to survive. However, if......

Words: 369 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Theory of Evolution

...The Theory of Evolution “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” (Charles Darwin). One of the more controversial pieces ever written was Darwin’s Natural Selection. The controversy is evolution vs. creation. Religion says earth and mankind, and life in general was created by god (as told in the creation story) with a design and purpose. Darwin says life all descends from a common ancestor with modifications over time in an undirected manor. It is not outside the realm of possibility that Darwin may be right considering he was trained as a minister and allowed himself to step outside the general consensus. Much like he did, we may need to accept that there may be some truth to the work he has done over his life I feel that Darwin's work was impactful because it shows us that there are alternative reasoning’s behind how we got here. I agree with Darwin's work and his theory of evolution because it is actually supported by evidence. I don't know about you but I've never been religious. I also think that his theory should be taught because religion has no place in public classrooms. Let parents teach religion, schools teach science, and allow the child to decide what to believe. I believe that evolution is real because it explains why there are so many different types of certain species. Natural selection is the gradual process by which biological traits become either more or less common in a......

Words: 1580 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Theory of Evolution

...Theory of Evolution Charles Darwin was a British Scientist who lived from 1809 to 1882. He laid down the foundation of modern evolutionary theory with his concept of the development of life through the slow working process of natural selection. Darwin started to make notes about this theory in 1836 and in 1838 he had arrived at a sketch of a theory of evolution through natural selection. It was not until 1858 that his theory was first published in a paper. Darwin’s theory states that as plants or animals spread to new areas, or as the conditions change different variations would be favored in different places. This would mean these variations would spread through the populations of the plants or animals. Over time this would finally lead to a development of new species. This theory was explained in the book ‘The Origin of Species’, which describes his studies on the Galapagos Islands in the Pacific Ocean. He noticed that the species on the islands varied slightly from each island and were adapted to local conditions. The reaction to this theory was immediate. Biologists argued that Darwin could not prove his hypothesis. Others criticized his ideas of variation and how he could not prove how these variations came about or how they were passed on. This part of his theory was not answered until the birth of modern genetics in the early 20th century. In fact many scientists had doubts about this theory for 50-80 years. The most publicized attacks came from religious opponents......

Words: 5169 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

The Theory of Evolution

...The theory of evolution is the change in the gene pool of a population from generation to generation by mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift. The main idea is that all life on Earth shares a common ancestor. A peacock chooses a mate using sexual selection, the female choses a male for the quantity, size, and distribution of his colorful eyespots, because the offspring of these males are bigger at birth and better at surviving in the wild. These birds are peafowls, the males are peacocks, and the females are peahens. The male peacock, shows off his bright colored train to attract a female, the more impressive his tail is the better his chances are of finding a mate. Their tail feathers (coverts) are as long as the bird’s body length and with markings that look like eyes of red, gold, blue, and other hues. Their tail is used in courtship displays where they spread their tail and show it off to the females, and mating when arched out into a magnificent fan it reaches across the bird's back down to the ground on both sides. Peahens choose mates by their physical prowess and the vivid color of his tail, which lets the female know that he has high-quality genes, making him perfect for reproduction and the survival of the offspring, so when it's time to mate, these are the first ones selected. Since all males do not have bright, large tails, especially a few thousand years ago, they were less likely to mate and reproduce, so their numbers were reduced from one generation...

Words: 798 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Theories of Evolution

...Ajkgf bshfbeb aslufhw efn wufhkadjnsakj sjefhiasdfndlfn lsadfndlkfj . akjhfjbsafdas ;dfhwohfohfadhfhafhal qihoureijhdf aeruwqphwuh oqurqoweu agfksfgaiegfgha akjsakjfksdkh akshgsAjkgf bshfbeb aslufhw efn wufhkadjnsakj sjefhiasdfndlfn lsadfndlkfj . akjhfjbsafdas ;dfhwohfohfadhfhafhal qihoureijhdf aeruwqphwuh oqurqoweu agfksfgaiegfgha akjsakjfksdkh akshgsakfg sahfkljashoash ashjshjdshfeowifh alkjf[fuwejhu laeiuaojfdejfpoi aeourfpafepej aporeakfg sahfkljashoash ashjshjdshfeowifh alkjf[fuwejhu laeiuaojfdejfpoi aeourfpafepej apore Ajkgf bshfbeb aslufhw efn wufhkadjnsakj sjefhiasdfndlfn lsadfndlkfj . akjhfjbsafdas ;dfhwohfohfadhfhafhal qihoureijhdf aeruwqphwuh oqurqoweu agfksfgaiegfgha akjsakjfksdkh akshgsakfg sahfkljashoash ashjshjdshfeowifh alkjf[fuwejhu laeiuaojfdejfpoi aeourfpafepej apore Ajkgf bshfbeb aslufhw efn wufhkadjnsakj sjefhiasdfndlfn lsadfndlkfj . akjhfjbsafdas ;dfhwohfohfadhfhafhal qihoureijhdf aeruwqphwuh oqurqoweu agfksfgaiegfgha akjsakjfksdkh akshgsakfg sahfkljashoash ashjshjdshfeowifh alkjf[fuwejhu laeiuaojfdejfpoi aeourfpafepej apore Ajkgf bshfbeb aslufhw efn wufhkadjnsakj sjefhiasdfndlfn lsadfndlkfj . akjhfjbsafdas ;dfhwohfohfadhfhafhal qihoureijhdf aeruwqphwuh oqurqoweu agfksfgaiegfgha akjsakjfksdkh akshgsakfg sahfkljashoash ashjshjdshfeowifh alkjf[fuwejhu laeiuaojfdejfpoi aeourfpafepej apore Ajkgf bshfbeb aslufhw efn wufhkadjnsakj sjefhiasdfndlfn lsadfndlkfj . akjhfjbsafdas ;dfhwohfohfadhfhafhal qihoureijhdf aeruwqphwuh oqurqoweu agfksfgaiegfgha akjsakjfksdkh......

Words: 420 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Evolution of Leadership Theory

...the Evolution of Leadership Theory Ever since the beginning of human history, the need for an individual who could carry more than his share of the weight, possessing some kind of quality that made others try to be like them, has been essential for any sort of development or survival. A person who could lead the others, inspire others. This is defined as leadership. From the earliest of times, when humans were first beginning to evolve, life was based on mainly 3 things: food, shelter, and reproduction. In these times, the tendencies of human nature were demonstrated; a species of compassionate, social and selfish organisms. Now survival was always the main priority for humans, and humans learned that living and working together greatly increased their chances at being successful. Understanding the concept of cooperation, humans also discovered the need for an exceptional type of person to lead and guide the people, using their expertise to the advantage of the survival of their tribe. For early human life, a chief or king would be established, based on certain skill sets and qualities that gave the person an advantage and desirability to be regarded as a leader. Strength, skill and abilities would often be the deciding factor for a leader. Throughout history, up until around the 19th century, industrialization and technologic advances in machinery and factories began to take place. But from before then, in most social groups like tribes, kingdoms and......

Words: 576 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Darwin and the Theory of Evolution

...Darwin and the Theory of Evolution Darwin’s theory of evolution is based on three observations: First, individuals within a species vary from one another in morphology, physiology, and behavior. Second, variation is in some part inheritable so that variant forms have offspring that resemble them. Third, different variants leave different number of offspring. Darwin elaborates on the mechanism of evolution by suggesting that in the struggle for existence, nature selects those individuals who are best suited for the struggle, and these individuals in turn reproduce more than those who are less fit, therefore changing the composition of the population. Darwin also suggests, in addition to natural selection, that species evolve through the process of sexual selection. In sexual selection, one gender of a species develops a preference for individuals of the other gender who possess certain features. The individuals who possess these features will the have a reproductive advantage over others, resulting in a greater number of offspring, causing yet another change in the composition of the population. Darwin made the theory of evolution feasible by providing the mechanisms of natural selection and sexual selection. His observations led him to believe that species did adapt to their changing surroundings. As a result, he was led to defend a theory advancing the probability of common descent for all living creatures. In The Origin of Species, Darwin analyzes the......

Words: 834 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Evolution of Management Theories

...The Evolution of Management Theories Management Theories Industrial Revolution (1700’s – 1800’s) - Moved from Agrarian to Manufacturing Society - Adam Smith – The Wealth of Nations - Division of labor (pin factory example) Scientific Management (1890’s – 1930’s) - Frederick Taylor - Time & Motion Studies - “Fair day’s pay for a fair day’s work” Management Theories Bureaucracy – Max Weber (1930’s – 1950’s) - All activities follow the organizational hierarchy - Strong lines of authority & control - Formal selection, rules & regulations - Only qualified persons are employed (no nepotism) Management Theories Humanistic Management (1930’s – 1970’s) Hawthorne Studies - Elton Mayo – Father of Human Relations - Western Electric Plant in Hawthorne, IL - “”Hawthorne Effect”; “Spotlight Effect” Management Theories POSDCORB (1937) - Luther Gulick Management by Objectives (1954) - Peter Drucker - Goals are set for employee to achieve - People end up working for themselves Theory X & Theory Y (1960) - Douglas McGregor Theory X & Theory Y Theory X People do not really want to work. They are self-interested and prefer leisure over work. If managers relax, sloppiness sets in. Theory Y Workers find work enjoyable & satisfying “Work is Play” Workers will exercise self-direction and self-control. Workers can solve problems creatively. Theory X People do not really want to work. They are self-interested and prefer leisure over work. Managers have to......

Words: 612 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Evolution of Leadership Theories

...Evolution of Leadership Theories Author University Leadership is, and always has been, a vital aspect of social and economic constructs. It is essential to the survival of societies, industries, organizations, and virtually any group of individuals that come together for a common purpose. However, leadership is difficult to define in a single, definitive sense. As such, theories of leadership, what constitutes a great leader, and how leaders are made have evolved constantly throughout history, and still continue to change today in hopes of improving upon our understanding of leadership, its importance, and how it can be most effective in modern organizational cultures. This evolving trend of leadership can generally be seen throughout four distinct eras, the Great Man Leadership era, the Rational Management era, the Team or Lateral Leadership era, and the Learning Leadership era (Daft, 2008, p. 21). Each era utilized a different way of thinking about leadership and leaders than the others, with each new era implementing a unique trend for leadership theories, and sometimes adapting and building upon existing leadership theories. The Great Man Leadership era was the earliest era, employed first by ancient philosophers, such as Plato and Aristotle, who believed that leaders were naturally born with special abilities that made them inherently great leaders (DeGrosky, 2007). The first leadership theory, called the Great Man theory, outlined that these “great men” were...

Words: 1616 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Evolution and Theory of Plate Tectonics

...Evolution and Theory of Plate Tectonics The most important and vital development of plate tectonic theory and evolution appeared to be among the most crucial scientific achievements in the 20th century. The theory concept offers a relevant structure towards the knowledge of all natural Earth attributes. It additionally provides one particular framework with regard to the knowledge of both planet's origin and outlook. Notably, the evolution of life on the planet remains significantly impacted by plate tectonic processes. This may involve the historic, societal, and cultural advancement of humanity. In other words, plate tectonic theory is an encompassing conjecture regarding different scientific theories that demonstrate the naturally occurring Earth characteristics have actually formed the historical past from the solid Earth, the oceans, the atmosphere, and all life organisms. Many scientific theories are so well established that no new evidence is likely to alter them substantially. For example, no new evidence will demonstrate that the Earth does not orbit around the sun (heliocentric theory), or that living things are not made of cells (cell theory), that matter is not composed of atoms, or that the surface of the Earth is not divided into solid plates that have moved over geological timescales (the theory of plate tectonics). Like these other foundational scientific theories, the theory of evolution is supported by so many observations and confirming experiments...

Words: 1128 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

The Fossil Record and Theories of Evolution

...The Fossil Record and Theories of Evolution. Introduction In general, the term 'evolution' can imply a drastic orgradual change from a very broad perspective. Life on earth, the universe,galaxies, as also the earth in general have evolved through millions of years.In this essay we consider only one aspect of evolution emphasizing on evolutionas a biological tool for change among species and consider fossil record assupportive of both evolution theories and also the other theories contrary toevolution. Evolution is the central unifying concept, a theory thatsuccessfully connects biology, paleontology and other branches of science.Evolution is a gradual descent of organisms accompanied by changes that helpthe organisms to adjust and adapt to the surroundings. 'Descent withmodifications' as Darwin contended implies changes in organisms in successivegenerations (Mayr, 1976). These changes are triggered by the derivation of newspecies and there is a change in the properties of populations of organisms andthese properties tend to transcend the lifetime of any single individual. Newerspecies are modified versions of older species. Although, individual organisms do not biologically evolve,populations evolve when heritable genetic materials are transmitted from onegeneration to another. Biological evolution can range from very limited changesto drastic transformations on a large scale changing the entire speciesaltogether and bringing in new forms. Evolution can thus be defined......

Words: 1706 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Challenging Darwin's Theory Of Evolution

...Humans are believed to be the most evolved species on the planet, but a recent study has concluded that humans actually have quite primitive hands compared to the hands of the chimpanzee, our closest cousin on the evolutionary tree. Challenging Darwin’s Theory of Evolution In what is being considered the best challenge to Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, scientists from the United States and Spain have declared that the humans might just have more primitive hands than chimpanzees. Their research found that human hands are still very similar to the hands of the last ancestor shared by humans and chimpanzees, which goes back as far as 6 million years. On the contrary, chimpanzees have evolved and no longer have the same primitive hands that humans possess today, suggesting that humans hands are much more primitive than previously thought and did not develop through the selective processes of evolution and the development of stone tool making. The Primitive Hands of Humans...

Words: 376 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Leadership Theories: the Evolution of Context

...Leadership Theories: The Evolution of Context April 2, 2013 Abstract This paper defines “context” as it relates to leadership and the inclusion of context in leadership theories. I will show examples of different leadership styles and how they relate to the context of leadership. In closing, I will reflect on the challenges of contextual theories and how these challenges can be met in the current environment. Meaning of Context and Treatment in Leadership Research Different types of leadership often need to be applied in a distinct manner, depending on the context and who is involved. Osborn, Hunt, & Jauch (2002) indicated leadership theory and research needs to expand to the complex levels of leadership. The authors further posited leadership theory needs to explore the dynamism involving the context in which leadership takes place, rather than to study leadership taking place in a vacuum. Here, the authors referred to context as the circumstances or parameters that cause effective leaders to emerge. Leadership in context takes on many different characteristics and certain circumstances can cause different actions. A closer examination of the linkages between components of theory increases one’s understanding of individual differences in leadership development (Allen, Shankman, & Miguel, 2012). Authors Osborn, Hunt, & Jauch (2002) illustrated four contexts of leadership; stability, crisis, dynamic equilibrium, and edge of chaos. Stability takes......

Words: 1610 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Evolution of Trade Theories over the Years

...Assignment I GOUTAM MUKHERJEE Ist Semester International Business Evolution of Trade Theories over the years Trade among counties is happening for ages. At the very basics, trade is about buying and selling – something human beings have been doing since they started living in societies. However, the same used to happen without any rules and regulations and completely depending on the individual or a group of traders. Over period of time countries have realized the need of cross country trading in a structured manner which can bring benefits to the economy and socio-political development. The countries may have strengths in one area based on their populations, or by strategically placed location or by natural resources it has. The countries need to focus on that what they can do best and import what they can get cheaper compared to production in own country. This new era that is unfolding amidst us is characterized by ideas and innovation. It took thousands of years for human society to progress from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy. Here are the trade theories which discussed on self sufficiency and free trade policies. Mercantilist policy tries to make a country self sufficient. Interventionist Mercantilism: According to this theory a country’s wealth is measured by its holdings of treasure, which usually meant its gold. This means a country should export more than imports, if successful, receive......

Words: 1296 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

What Is the Theory of Human Evolution and What Evidence Appears to Substantiate the Theory?

...Evolution is defined as “any process of progressive change”; and the theory is complex life forms from our time have descended from earlier ones that existed long ago (Hunt, p.29). The theory of evolution was first made popular by Charles Darwin an English Biologist, he spent a good amount of his time trying to find evidence to support his many ideas. It is believed that the human species has its origins in Africa. Scientists share the belief that a human like creature originated from the apes and over time, through many changes the final result was a group of hominids, they do however disagree on when and why the different characteristics begun begun to show themselves. It had been discovered that humans and the other primates do have some differences, for one humans have a larger brain, we walk on two legs, go through a longer periods childhood and juvenile life stages, we have the ability to speak and to form culture (Parker, p.3). Evolution occurs through a series of processes, including sexual reproduction and mutation, where some more desirable traits may be passed on to the next generation either by chance or natural selection. Natural selection played a major role in the understanding of evolution, it meant that individuals that have traits more favorable to adapting to its environment are more likely to survive and pass on those traits to their offspring. This led to the notion of “survival of the fittest”. The trait selected to move on showed up in the next......

Words: 1554 - Pages: 7