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Thesis: Malunggay Cupcake as Supplementary Food in: Science

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Submitted By graciana000
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Chapter I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Background of the Study Moringa is the English name of Malunggay in Philippines. It grows very wildly in hot tropical climate. Malunggay is a wonderful herb known all over the world. Yet this is not a sugar-based energy. It’s not something, which makes you hyper for some period of intense activity then leaves you he drained. In fact it is also relaxing, it helps to reduce blood pressure and assure a good night is sleep. (http://karenblones.blogspot.com/2009/03/chapter-1-introduction.html) The health benefits identifies by people who use Malunggay continue this same pattern: immune system strengthened, skin condition restored, blood pressure controlled, headaches and migraines handled, diabetes sugar level managed, inflammations and arthritis pained reduced, tumors restricted and ulcers healed. (http://malunggayplant.blogspot.com/2011/05/introduction.html)

Statement of the Problem
This study aimed to determine the utilization of malunggay in making a rice cake. Specifically this study answered the following questions: 1. What are the quality characteristics of rice cake made from malunggay in terms of appearance, texture, color, moisture content, and flavor? 2. What is the overall acceptability of the product?
Research Hypothesis There is acceptability in the quality characteristics of the five samples.

Significant of the Study
The outcomes of the study would benefit the following
The Parents. This study would help them be enlightened on the importance of the malunggay on their health.

The Young minds. This research study can contribute in creating new alternatives rice cakes derived from malunggay. Research studies like this develops the value of resourcefulness and open-mindedness to young researchers and it landed to the right plant, this will served as a rice cakes from malunggay leaves.

The Future Researches. This study would provide additional information and new insights to the malunggay rice cakes studies. Future researches may use this study to pursue a more thorough undertaking to go abreast with the program in terms of development.

Scope and Delimitation This study deals about utilization of malunggay in making rice cake which is rated by the evaluating judges as to quality and acceptability of the product. While there are varieties of rice cake in the market, this research delimited to malunggay as the main ingredient in processing rice cake. Considering that the raw materials are locally and all year round available in the province.
This paper used subjective evaluation of the product in testing the control and treatments. However, this is limited to three (3) trials.

Definition of terms
For purposes of this study, the following terms are defined for better understanding of the reader.
Acceptability refers to the quality of the products that makes them agreeable to the sight, touch, and tastebof the panelist as regards to their quality characteristics (Claudio, 1977).

Color refers to the appearance of the finished product (Claudio, 1977).

Flavor is the taste and aroma of food as it chewed and will be typical of the product being scored (Claudio, 1977).

Malunggayis a wonderful herb known all over the world. This is not a sugar-based energy.

Overall acceptability refers to the total quality characteristics such as appearance, texture, color, moisture content, and flavor in accordance to the evaluation of the judges.

Utilization it means to make use of or find a practical use for something (Microsoft Encarta Dictionary, 2004).
Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDY

This chapter presents related literature and studies which are related to the present study.

Related Literature
Rice cake is a Filipino dish that is always served during the holidays. It is sweet steamed cake that is traditionally made from ground rice. However, this recipe is an adapted way of making rice cake, using cake flour instead of ground rice. It can also be topped with cheese or salted egg. (http: steamed.cake.com)
Malunggay leaves are safe when consumed dietary levels, based on traditional use. The leaves are generally brown to be non-toxic. The leaves, fruit and seeds are commonly used as food. However, the root extract should not be used as food. Spirochin, an alkaloid isolated from the root, may cause total venue paralysis. The use of malunggay. Supplement for hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemi, cancer and other diseases is not recommend. (http.//herbs.ph/index.php/article/6840-moringa-oleifera-malunggay-review of evidence)

Related Studies Despite the wide variety of traditional uses, there are very few high-quality human studies on malunggay in making a muffin. More well-designed studies are warranted to make firm conclusion regarding the use of malunggay. The malunggay leaves are very nutritious, which contain many vitamins like vitamin A, C and other minerals. (Trent pharmacol.2012, p.3-24.)
Chapter III
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the design of the study, sources of data, instrumentation and validation, data gathering procedure, statistical treatment of data.

Design of the Study This study used the experimental method of research. This method, research the questions about to our topic. This method of research seeks to answer questions about causation by providing a systematic method of controlling. This study used the score card sheets as the primary tool for the researchers to examine the condition of the judges in order to collect data for analysis and interpretation. Informal interview was also utilized to clarify issues and checked the authenticity of the answers provided in the score sheets.

Source of Data The data in this research were two kinds classified as primary and secondary data. The primary data were taken from the responses of the judge to score sheets distributed. The secondary data came from the books, newspapers, thesis and internet.

Instrumentation and Validation The main data gathering tools that were used in this research is through score card sheets where the judges fill up their corresponding responses to the given questions or statements in the research instrument. The score card sheet consisted of three (3) parts. Part I dealt on perceptions of judges on the extent of malunggay on malunggay rice cake. The seven (7) indicators were formulated by the research team together with our adviser. The researchers indicate 7 as very desirable, 6 as desirable, 5 as moderately desirable, 4 as slightly desirable, 3 as slightly undesirable, 2 as moderately undesirable, and 1 as undesirable. Part II contains the table. The table contains the factors that will guide the judge in rating the products. It also contains the sample numbers that is coded. Part III contains the remarks. Where the judge can write their problems and recommendation for the product. The score card sheet as the research instrument of this study underwent the validation of the adviser for the final validation process.

Data Gathering Procedure The researchers underwent preliminary steps before the actual data gathering. The research team made letter requests to the professors of College of Industrial Technology to get their approval to be the judge. After the preliminary steps, the research team prepared a score sheet consisting of three (3) parts that underwent a validation process. After finding the score sheet valid, the research team reproduced 15 copies for three trials. Each one was given an evaluation sheet called scpre card sheet. This sheet was used for rating the finished product for the following points of scoring the corresponding qualitative response description:
Average Score Qualitative Response
Description
7 Very desirable
6 desirable
5 moderately desirable
4 slightly desirable
3 slightly undesirable
2 moderately undesirable
1 undesirable

The researchers also conducted informal interviews to clarify issues and check the authenticity of the answers of the judges

Statistical Treatment of Data In this study, mean was used in determining the response of the judges for particular factors like the quality characteristics namely: appearance, texture, color, moisture content, and flavor; and also the degree of overall acceptability of the finished products.

Chapter IV
Utilization of Malunggay in Making Rice Cake

Results of the Trials
On the first trial, all the five samples have a quantitative rating of six (6) with an adjective rating of "desirable". All the five samples gives a desirable flavor on the judges.
On the second trial, the maluggay rice cake with one (1) teaspoon of malunggay which is treatment four (4) has quantitative rating of seven (7) with an adjective rating of "very desirable". It indicates the improvement of the quality characteristics. The other four samples have an adjective rating of "desirable".
On the third trial, majority of the samples have an adjective rating pf very desirable. It shows that all the samples improved in terms of appearance, texture, color, moisture content, and flavor.
Thetefore, most of the samples have a desirable quality characteristics which are the appearance, texture, color, moisture content, and flavor.

Quality Characteristics of the Product
Table 1 presents the characteristics of malunggay rice cake in terms of appearance based on the five samples that undergo in three trials. As shown as the table, treatment 1 and treatment 5 have the highest average of 6.3. Both treatment 3 and treatment 4has average of 6.2. While treatment 2 has the least average of 6. On the first, second, and third trial all samples have a quantitative rating of 6, with an adjective rating of "desirable". The findings shows that all the five samples have a desirable appearance.
Table 1
CHARACTERISTICS OF MALUNGGAY RICE CAKE IN TERMS OF APPEARANCE

CODE | SAMPLES | T1 | T2 | T3 | AVERAGE | QR | AR | 184 | Treatment 1 (control recipe) | 6 | 6.2 | 6.6 | 6.3 | 6 | Desirable | 148 | Treatment 2 | 5.2 | 6 | 6.6 | 6 | 6 | Desirable | 161 | Treatment 3 | 5.6 | 6.6 | 6.4 | 6.2 | 6 | Desirable | 116 | Treatment 4 | 5.4 | 6.6 | 6.6 | 6.2 | 6 | Desirable | 124 | Treatment 5 | 6 | 6.2 | 6.6 | 6.3 | 6 | Desirable |

Table 2 presents the characteristics of malunggay rice cake in terms of texture based on the five samples that undergo on three trials. As revealed in the table, treatment 3, 4, and 5 have the highest average of 6.4. While treatment 1 and 2 have an average of 6. The five samples in the three trials have a quantitive rating of six (6) with an adjective rating of "desirable". The findings shows that the five samples (5) have a desirable texture.

TABLE 2
CHARACTERISTICS OF MALUNGGAY RICE CAKE IN TERMS
OF TEXTURE

CODE | SAMPLES | T1 | T2 | T3 | AVERAGE | QR | AR | 184 | Treatment 1 (control recipe) | 6 | 6 | 6 | 6 | 6 | Desirable | 148 | Treatment 2 | 5.6 | 6.2 | 6.2 | 6 | 6 | Desirable | 161 | Treatment 3 | 6.4 | 6.2 | 6.6 | 6.4 | 6 | Desirable | 116 | Treatment 4 | 6.2 | 6.4 | 6.6 | 6.4 | 6 | Desirable | 124 | Treatment 5 | 6.4 | 6.4 | 6.4 | 6.4 | 6 | Desirable |

Table 3 presents the characteristics pf malunggay rice cake in terms of color based on the five samples that undergo in three trials. As shown on the table, treatment 1 and 4 have an average of 6.4, while treatment 2 and 3 have an average of 6.3 and treatment 5 has an average of 6.1. The five samples in the three trials result a quantitative rating of 6 with an adjective rating of "desirable". Therefore, all the five samples have a desirable color.

TABLE 3
CHARACTERISTICS OF MALUNGGAY RICE CAKE IN TERMS OF COLOR

CODE | SAMPLES | T1 | T2 | T3 | AVERAGE | QR | AR | 184 | Treatment 1 (control recipe) | 6.2 | 6.4 | 6.6 | 6.4 | 6 | Desirable | 148 | Treatment 2 | 6.2 | 6.2 | 6.6 | 6.3 | 6 | Desirable | 161 | Treatment 3 | 6 | 6.4 | 6.4 | 6.3 | 6 | Desirable | 116 | Treatment 4 | 6.2 | 6.6 | 6.4 | 6.4 | 6 | Desirable | 124 | Treatment 5 | 5.8 | 6.2 | 6.4 | 6.1 | 6 | Desirable |

Table 4 presents the characteristics of malunggay rice cake in terms of moisture content based on five samples that undergo in the three trials. As revealed in the table, treatment 5 has the highest average of 6.5. Both the treatment 3 and 4 has an average of 6.3 while treatment 1 and 2 have the least average of 6.1. The four samples (treatment 1, 2, 3, and 4) have a quantitive rating of 6 with an adjective rating of "desirable" while treatment 5 has a quantitive rating of 7 with an adjective rating of "very desirable". Therefore, majority of the samples have desirable moisture content.
TABLE 4
CHARACTERISTICS OF MALUNGGAY RICE CAKE IN TERMS OF MOISTURE CONTENT

CODE | SAMPLES | T1 | T2 | T3 | AVERAGE | QR | AR | 184 | Treatment 1 (control recipe) | 6 | 6 | 6.2 | 6.1 | 6 | Desirable | 148 | Treatment 2 | 5.8 | 6.2 | 6.4 | 6.1 | 6 | Desirable | 161 | Treatment 3 | 6.2 | 6.4 | 6.4 | 6.3 | 6 | Desirable | 116 | Treatment 4 | 5.6 | 6.4 | 6.8 | 6.3 | 6 | Desirable | 124 | Treatment 5 | 6.2 | 6.4 | 6.8 | 6.5 | 7 | Very Desirable |

Table 5 presents the characteristics of malunggaycharactetistics in terms of flavor based on the five samples that undergo in three trials. As shown on the table, treatment 3 has an average of 6.3 and treatment 1 has an average of 6.2. Both treatment 2 and 4 has an average of 6.1 while treatment 5 as an average of 5.9. The five sample have a quantitative rating of 6 with an adjective rating of “desirable”. Therefore, all the five samples have a desirable flavor.

TABLE 5
CHARACTERISTICS OF MALUNGGAY RICE CAKE IN TERMS OF FLAVOR

CODE | SAMPLES | T1 | T2 | T3 | AVERAGE | QR | AR | 184 | Treatment 1 (control recipe) | 6 | 6 | 6.6 | 6.2 | 6 | Desirable | 148 | Treatment 2 | 5.6 | 6 | 6.6 | 6.1 | 6 | Desirable | 161 | Treatment 3 | 6 | 6.6 | 6.2 | 6.3 | 6 | Desirable | 116 | Treatment 4 | 5.2 | 6.6 | 6.4 | 6.1 | 6 | Desirable | 124 | Treatment 5 | 4.8 | 6.4 | 6.5 | 5.9 | 6 | Desirable |

Table 6 shows the mean scores of the quality characteristic of malunggay rice cake made from the five samples during first trial. As shows in the table treatment 1 and 3 have the highest average rating of 6 with a QR of 6, and an adjective rating of ‘‘desirable’’. Followed by treatment 5, has an average of 5.8, with a QR of 6, and an average rating of 5.7 with a QR of 6 and an adjective of ‘’desirable’’. The treatment 1 and 3 rank first, followed by 5; while treatment 2 and 4 are the least acceptable among the five sample on the first trial.

TABLE 6
MEAN SCORES OF THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF MALUNGGAY RICE CAKE
1st Trial Code | Samples | Quality characteristics | Average | QR | AR | Rank | | | Appear-ance | texture | color | moisturecontent | flavor | | | | | 184 | Treatment 1 (control recipe) | 6 | 6 | 6.2 | 6 | 6 | 6 | 6 | Desirable | 1 | 148 | Treatment 2 | 5.2 | 5.6 | 6.2 | 5.8 | 5.6 | 5.7 | 6 | Desirable | 3 | 161 | Treatment 3 | 5.6 | 6.4 | 6 | 6.2 | 6 | 6 | 6 | Desirable | 1 | 116 | Treatment 4 | 5.4 | 6.2 | 6.2 | 5.6 | 5.2 | 5.7 | 6 | Desirable | 3 | 124 | Treatment 5 | 6 | 6.4 | 5.8 | 6.2 | 4.8 | 5.8 | 6 | desirable | 2 |

Table 7 shows the mean scores of the quality characteristics of malunggay rice cake made from the five samples during second trial. As show in the table, treatment 4 has the highest average rating of 6.5 with a QR of 7, and an adjective rating of ‘’very desirable’’. Followed by treatment 3, has an average of 6.4, with a QR of 6 and an adjective rating of ‘’desirable’’. Next is the treatment 5, has the average rating of 6.3 with a QR of 6, and an adjective rating of ‘’desirable’’. Both the treatment 1 and 2 have an average rating of 6.1 with a QR of 6 and an adjective rating of ‘’desirable’’. The treatment 4 rank first, followed by treatment 3, 5, 1 and 2 treatment 4 indicates that it has improved and has a very ‘’desirable’’ characteristic

TABLE 7
MEAN SCORES OF THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF MALUNGGAY RICE CAKE
2nd Trial Code | Samples | Quality characteristics | Average | QR | AR | Rank | | | Appear-Ance | Texture | Color | MoistureContent | Flavor | | | | | 184 | Treatment 1 (control recipe) | 6.2 | 6 | 6.4 | 6 | 6 | 6.1 | 6 | Desirable | 2 | 148 | Treatment 2 | 6 | 6.2 | 6.2 | 6.2 | 6 | 6.1 | 6 | Desirable | 2 | 161 | Treatment 3 | 6.6 | 6.2 | 6.4 | 6.4 | 6.6 | 6.4 | 6 | Desirable | 2 | 116 | Treatment 4 | 6.6 | 6.4 | 6.6 | 6.4 | 6.6 | 6.5 | 7 | VeryDesirable | 1 | 124 | Treatment 5 | 6.2 | 6.4 | 6.2 | 6.4 | 6.4 | 6.3 | 6 | Desirable | 2 |

Table 8 shows the sum total of the scores on the quality characteristics of malunggay rice cake as rated by the judges. As shown in the table, treatments 3 and 4 have the highest average rating of 6.3, with a QR of 6, and adjective rating of ‘’desirable’’. Both treatment 1 and 5 have an average of 6.2, with a QR of 6 and an adjective rating of ‘’desirable’’. Treatment 2 has the least average of 6.1 with a QR of 6 and an adjective rating of ‘’ desirable’’ Therefore, the quality characteristics of malunggay rice cake as rated by the judges in the five samples are desirable in terms of appearance, texture, color, moisture content and flavor.

TABLE 8
MEAN SCORES OF THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF MALUNGGAY RICE CAKE
3rd Trial Code | Samples | Quality characteristics | Average | QR | AR | Rank | | | Appear-ance | Texture | Color | MoistureContent | Flavor | | | | | 184 | Treatment 1 (control recipe) | 6.6 | 6 | 6.6 | 6.2 | 6.6 | 6.4 | 6 | Desirable | 2 | 148 | Treatment 2 | 6.6 | 6.2 | 6.6 | 6.4 | 6.6 | 6.5 | 7 | Very Desirable | 1 | 161 | Treatment 3 | 6.4 | 6.6 | 6.4 | 6.4 | 6.2 | 6.4 | 6 | Desirable | 2 | 116 | Treatment 4 | 6.6 | 6.6 | 6.4 | 6.8 | 6.4 | 6.6 | 7 | Very Desirable | 1 | 124 | Treatment 5 | 6.6 | 6.4 | 6.4 | 6.8 | 6.5 | 6.5 | 7 | Very Desirable | 1 |

Table 8 shows the mean scores of the quality characteristic of malunggay rice cake made from the five sample during the third trial. As shown in the table treatment 4 have the highest average rating of 6.6 with a QR of 7, and an adjective rating of ‘’very desirable’’. Followed by treatment 2 and 5 that have an average rating of 6.5 with a QR of 7, and an adjective rating of ‘’very desirable’’. both the treatment 1 and 3 have an average rating of 6.4 with a QR of 6 and an adjective rating of ‘’desirable’’. The treatment 2, 4 and 5 rank first while treatment 1 and 3 rank second. This indicates that all the samples are acceptable in terms of its quality characteristics. This table answer the question number (1) stated in this study.

TABLE 9
MEAN SCORES OF THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF MALUNGGAY RICE CAKE
SUM TOTAL Code | Samples | Quality characteristics | Average | QR | AR | Rank | | | Appear-Ance | Texture | Color | MoistureContent | Flavor | | | | | 184 | Treatment 1 (control recipe) | 6.3 | 6 | 6.4 | 6.1 | 6.2 | 6.2 | 6 | Desirable | 2 | 148 | Treatment 2 | 5.9 | 6 | 6.3 | 6.1 | 6.1 | 6.1 | 6 | Desirable | 3 | 161 | Treatment 3 | 6.2 | 6.4 | 6.3 | 6.3 | 6.1 | 6.3 | 6 | Desirable | 1 | 116 | Treatment 4 | 6.2 | 6.4 | 6.4 | 6.3 | 6.1 | 6.3 | 6 | Desirable | 2 | 124 | Treatment 5 | 6.3 | 6.4 | 6.1 | 6.5 | 5.9 | 6.2 | 6 | Desirable | 2 |

Table 9 show the over-all acceptability of the sample as rated by the judges. As shown in the table, treatment 3 & 4 has the highest average score of 6.3 followed by treatment 1 & 5 with the average of 6.2 treatment 2 with the least score of 6.1 compared with the 4 sample. Table 10 answer the question n0. (2) stated in the study.

TABLE 10
LEVEL OF ACCEPTABILITY ON THE OVER-ALL ACCEPTABILITY OF RICE CAKE AS RATED BY THE JUDGES Code | Samples | Quality characteristics | Average | QR | AR | Rank | | | Appear-Ance | Texture | Color | MoistureContent | Flavor | | | | | 184 | Treatment 1 (control recipe) | 6.3 | 6 | 6.4 | 6.1 | 6.2 | 6.2 | 6 | Desirable | 2 | 148 | Treatment 2 | 5.9 | 6 | 6.3 | 6.1 | 6.1 | 6.1 | 6 | Desirable | 3 | 161 | Treatment 3 | 6.2 | 6.4 | 6.3 | 6.3 | 6.1 | 6.3 | 6 | Desirable | 1 | 116 | Treatment 4 | 6.2 | 6.4 | 6.4 | 6.3 | 6.1 | 6.3 | 6 | Desirable | 2 | 124 | Treatment 5 | 6.3 | 6.4 | 6.1 | 6.5 | 5.9 | 6.2 | 6 | Desirable | 2 |

Table 10shows the sum total of the scores on the quality characteristics of malunggay rice cake as rated by the judges. As shown in the table, treatments 3 and 4 have the highest average rating of 6.3, with a QR of 6, and adjective rating of ‘’desirable’’. Both treatment 1 and 5 have an average of 6.2, with a QR of 6 and an adjective rating of ‘’desirable’’. Treatment 2 has the least average of 6.1 with a QR of 6 and an adjective rating of ‘’ desirable’’ Therefore, the quality characteristics of malunggay rice cake as rated by the judges in the five samples are desirable in terms of appearance, texture, color, moisture content and flavor.

Chapter V
Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation

Summary This study was conducted to utilize malunggay in making a rice cake. The researcher didn’t used malunggay in the control recipe to distinguish the difference among the finished products. Specifically, this study answered the following question.
1. What are the quality rice cake made from malunggay characteristics of rice cake made from malunggay in terms of: a. Appearance b. Texture c. Color d. Moisture content e. Flavor
2. What is the overall accept ability of the product?

The researcher posed the hypothesis thatThere is acceptability in the quality characteristics of the five samples.
Based on quality characteristic such as appearance, texture, color, moisture content, and flavor. This provides information with regards to utilization of malunggay as another variety of rice cake. This study have only one phase, the utilization or trials. In utilization there were 5 judges who evaluated the finished product using the score card sheet.

Findings: Significant findings of the study are the following
1. The qualitative characteristic of the produced rice cake from malunggay in treatment 3 and 4 highest qualitative rating of 6.3 and an adjective rating of desirable?
2. The degree of acceptability of malunggay in treatment 3 and 4 has the highest rating in terms of acceptability as rated by the judges, while treatment 2 has the least acceptable among the 5 samples.

Conclusion: Based on above findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:
1. The quality characteristic of the five sample as rated by the judges was ‘’desirable’’ in terms of appearance, texture, color. Moisture content, and flavor.
2. The rice cake out of malunggay in treatment 3 and 4 were the most acceptable rice value as rated by the judges, while in treatment 2 was the least acceptable in terms of appearance.

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