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# Thesis Ni Ken

Submitted By grapiken
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Chapter 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND SYSTEM DESIGN

This chapter discusses the research methods, respondents of the study, data gathering techniques, software development tools, and statistical treatment of data used in the development for the completion of the proposed study.

Research Methods
The reviewed literatures and studies gave the researchers ideas and information on how to proceed with the development of the system to benefit the target users. Through extensive research and the gathering of data, the researchers acquired knowledge and information that will be the basis of the study.
The research will be conducted at the New Era University during the final term of 1st semester to 2nd Semester of Academic Year 2012-2013.

Research Design
Research, is a systematic, rigorous investigation of a situation or problem in order to generate new knowledge or validate existing knowledge. Constructive Research. This is mainly done by many in order to find new/alternative solutions to any particular crisis or problems. Constructive research is the construction, based on the existing knowledge used in novel ways with adding a few missing links. A construction, be it theoretical or a practical one, when it differs profoundly from anything previously existing, constitutes a new reality against which preexisting one can be examined and understood, so it has an undeniable epistemological value according to Dodig-Crnkovic & Gordana (2009). Experimental Research. An experiment research is a situation where at least one independent variable, called the experiment variable, is deliberately manipulated or varied by the researcher. The purpose of experiment research is to study cause and effect relationships according to Winarno et. al. (2010). The researchers used different statistical tools to evaluate the criteria of the system. The statistical tools used are the Percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation, Percentage Error, Weighted Mean, and Four-Point Scale. The percentage formula includes the variable F, which means frequency response and variable N or the total number of samples. Mean was also used by the researchers which signifies the symbol X. To get the mean, get the summation or the total values of the iterations (X), divided by n, which is the total number of iterations. For the standard deviation formula, the variables used are X, which is the data or the number of passed data per iteration, variable X, which is the mean, and n, which is the total number of iterations created. The researchers also used the percentage error tool to compute the error from the computed standard deviation divided by the computed mean.
The researchers also used evaluation to test the usability criteria of the application. The tools used in computing the evaluation is the weighted mean formula. Weighted mean includes the variables X1 which is the number of respondents marked very poor, X2 which is the number of respondents marked poor, X3 which is the number of respondents marked very good, X4 which is the number of respondents marked excellent, Y1 for the rate of very poor, Y2 for the rate of poor, Y3 for the rate of very good, Y4 for the rate excellent and N for the number of raters. Four-Point scale was also used to get the rank or range of the computed weighted mean.
By using these statistical tools, the researchers were able to test the different criteria and get the experimental results.

Respondents of the Study The researchers selected 5 domain experts to take part on the evaluations conducted by the researchers. The respondents were chosen by the researchers for the improvement of the system.

Software Development Procedure The Ladder Model was developed by Team Source Code which is a group of students from New Era University enrolled under Software Engineering during the 1st Semester of Academic Year 2012-2013. It is a progressive model designed to meet certain specifications to be deemed by the client. It is a flexible model derived from various existing models, specifically the V Model and the Prototyping Model. It exercises the strengths of each model and utilizes each stage in progression depending on what result is made throughout the stage.

Figure 3
Ladder Model by Team Source Code
As you can see in Figure 3, there are 8 stages that comprise the model. The first step which is Requirement Analysis is where system requirements are identified for the necessary design and creation of the system/program. It is a joint effort by which the client and the company who will take on the project will specify the requirements by listening on each other’s proposals and specifications which in turn will produce a definitive contract. The next step is System Design. The flow of the system is created through the system design. This shows the step-by-step process by which the system operates through. After certain requirements are done in accordance with the contract, Program Design can now start. This is where the layout or interface of the program is designed. Certain requirements laid out by the client should be done in accordance to the contract. After completing the system and program designs, the next step is Customer Analysis. The customer analyzes the flow and layout of the program and checks if it meets the required expectation/output in accordance with the contract. Revisions are also made if needed. Once the customer is satisfied with the overall design, then, the Coding can now begin. The team is now ready for the code implementation. Program building starts at this point. System Testing comes next after code implementation. The program is tested if there are any bugs or if it met the agreement based on the design. Revisions/fixes are implemented if needed. If the system has been approved, it is now time for System Deployment. It is now ready to be released for usage. Once the program has been deployed to the customer, all there is left now is to maintain the functionality of the program and provide updates if there are any. These are made through the Operation and Maintenance stage.

Data Gathering Techniques The methods that will be used in the study are Data Analysis, and Evaluation. The researchers used these methods to meet the specification of the expert to have efficient and reliable software.
Data Analysis. Is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making. Data analysis is a practice in which raw data is ordered and organized so that useful information can be extracted from it. researcher used Data Analysis to organized the data in order formulate the desire output of the software.
Evaluation. Is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. Evaluation used to distinguished the things need to be improve and develop for the software to become more efficient and reliable. The research will conduct evaluation among the respondent after the software is done to change some adjustment for improvement of the study.

Software Development Tools Use-case diagram, activity diagram, sequence diagram, and class diagram are the tools used by the researchers to understand the flow of the program to be developed. Use-case Diagram. Graphic depiction of the interactions among the elements of a system. A use case is a methodology used in system analysis to identify, clarify, and organize system requirements. A diagram that shows sets of use cases and actors and their relationships. Activity Diagram. It is related to program flowcharts, which is used to illustrate activities. In the external view, we use activity diagrams for the description of those business processes that describe the functionality of the business system. An activity diagram is used to model a large activity's sequential work flow by focusing on action sequences and respective action initiating conditions. Sequence Diagram. Represents object collaboration and is used to define event sequences between objects for a certain outcome. A sequence diagram is an essential component used in processes related to analysis, design and documentation. Class Diagram. Provides an overview of the target system by describing the objects and classes inside the system and the relationships between them. It provides a wide variety of usages; from modeling the domain-specific data structure to detailed design of the target system.

Statistical Treatment of Data
On this part of the study the researchers will interpret the gathered data from the respondents. The frequency and percentage were used for summarizing the answers of the respondents.

Percentage. A useful indicator for determining which items in a group were favored most and which items in a group were favored least by the respondents of a research study.
Frequency and percentage distribution:
% =Fx 100N
Where:
% = means percentage
F = means frequency response
N = means number of cases or total samples
Accuracy and Processing Speed is computed based on the following equation:

Weighted Mean. The weighted mean will be the total products of weights multiplied by the respective frequencies. The result is summed and the total is divided by the number of raters.
WM =X1Y1 + X2Y2+ X3Y3+ X4Y4N
Where:
WM=weighted mean
X1= number of respondents marked strongly disagree
X2= number of respondents marked disagree
X3= number of respondents marked agree
X4 = number of respondents marked strongly agree
Y1 = strongly disagree
Y2 = disagree
Y3 = agree
Y4 = strongly agree
N= the number of raters

Four Point Scale. A scale commonly involved in research that employs questionnaires. It will be used to approach the scaling responses in the research. Rating | Adjectival Description | Range | 4 | Strongly Agree | 3.26 – 4.00 | 3 | Agree | 2.51 – 3.25 | 2 | Disagree | 1.76 – 2.50 | 1 | Strongly Disagree | 1.00 - 1.75 |

Table 1
Four Point Scale
The table above shows the scale ranking of a Four Point Scale, the result of the respondent’s agreement corresponds to the rating and its adjectival description. The highest level of the scale is 4 (Strongly Agree), with a rate of 3.26 – 4.00. The second highest scale is 3 (Agree) with a rate of 2.51 – 3.25. Next is 2 (Disagree) that rates from 1.76 – 2.50. The last is 1 (Strongly Disagree) with a rate of 1.00 – 1.75.

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#### Photoelectrochemistry

...1 1 Fundamentals of Semiconductor Electrochemistry and Photoelectrochemistry Krishnan Rajeshwar The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.5.4 1.5.5 1.6 1.7 1.7.1 1.7.2 1.7.3 1.7.4 1.7.5 Introduction and Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electron Energy Levels in Semiconductors and Energy Band Model . The Semiconductor–Electrolyte Interface at Equilibrium . . . . . . . . The Equilibration Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Depletion Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mapping of the Semiconductor Band-edge Positions Relative to Solution Redox Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface States and Other Complications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charge Transfer Processes in the Dark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current-potential Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dark Processes Mediated by Surface States or by Space Charge Layer Recombination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rate-limiting Steps in Charge Transfer Processes in the Dark . . . . . Light Absorption by the Semiconductor Electrode and Carrier Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Light......

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