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Undergraduate Research Projects
Title: Thesis Adviser: Author: A Predictive Model of Attention in Viewing Selected Grocery Food Products Ms. Rosemary Seva Kathleen V. Garcia Kimberly L. Go Winnie V. Grindulo Date: Call Number: Abstract: Studies on visual attention have identified certain visual factors that attract consumer attention. Visual attention had been found to be related to instore visual factors such as shelf position, number of facings, and packaging design. However, despite their importance attracting consumer attention, no studies had been found to consider combined effects of these factors in consumer attention. As such, this study considered the combined effects shelf position, number of facings and packaging design with the objective of identifying the significant factors and of developing a predictive model of attention. The significant effects of in-store visual factors specifically number of facings, horizontal and vertical shelf positioning, the color, size, and material of, and the text and image on the packaging was used in the development of a conceptual model in predicting attention as measured by the frequency of fixation and the duration of fixation. In order to validate the developed model, an eye-tracking experiment was conducted. Using an eye-tracking device that records the frequency and duration of fixation, the subjects were asked to view a life-size picture of a shelf. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the data gathered from the experiment. Results obtained showed that in-store visual factors are determinants of attention. It was found that the horizontal and vertical position and image affects the duration of fixation, while horizontal position and packaging material determines the frequency of fixation. This verified the model developed as packaging and shelf position indeed affected attention. As these factors attract consumers’ attention, it is important that manufacturers and retailers are aware of their relationship as to be guided on where and how to position products on the shelf, and also what to consider in making the packaging of their products. December 2008 20081201

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

The Design of Improved Respirators of Painters in the Automotive Industry Ms. Alma Ma. Jennifer Gutierrez Galang, Melissa D. Lu, Michelle C. Ty, Diana Rose S.

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

December 2008 20081203

In industries such as in spray painting, wherein workers are exposed to hazardous vapors, respiratory masks are used to provide appropriate respiratory protection of workers. However, respirators that are available in the local market do not provide adequate comfort and effective seal that limits the inhalation of airborne toxic substances of workers. The purpose of this ergonomic study is to investigate the respirators of auto painters in YY Industrial Products Corporation (YYIPC), with an aim to determine the aspects of the respirator that needs improvement. Need analysis was conducted through a series of surveys that identified the feature of the respirator that needs improvement which includes filtration of odor from substances, strap adjustments and the contour of the facepiece. This was further proven by the gap analysis and fit testing, as defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Association (OSHA), of the current respirator being used by the company along with three other respirators that are sold in the market. With these needs identified, a string of iteration designs were formulated which includes different features of respirators taken from literature and some constructive ideas by the group. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) were conducted to end up with the final design for the model prototype. The final design prototype was then manufactured. The model prototype was tested on the auto painters and the validation showed favorable results for the company.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

A Design of an Ergonomic Stretching Exercise Bed for the Physical Therapy Department of SJDEFI Hospital Ms. Rosemary Seva Precious Aizza B. Lipa Honeylette A. Luce Charisse Fae E. Meneses

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

December 2008 20081202

San Juan de Dios Education Foundation, Inc. (Hospital) is a non-profit organization offering various outpatient and inpatient services. The area of concern for this study is the Physical Rehabilitation & Sports Medicine Section of the hospital. Stretching exercise is provided to patients 100% of the time and 87% of which are performed using the bed. Stretching exercise involves two subprocesses: stretching of the hamstrings and stretching of the shoulders. Currently, the plinth and the low mat are used by the physical therapists in administering stretching exercise. The current bed design should be modified based from customer needs due to their high gap percentage values. These needs are the following: (a) Bed can be easily moved (38.33%) and (b) Easy & safe patient handling (134.48%). To address these needs, technical requirements and corresponding part characteristics were generated using the House of Quality 1 and 2. Based on the derived parts characteristics, various alternatives on the design of the mattress and the bed frame were generated. These alternatives were assessed by using the technical requirements identified. The stretching exercise bed designed with height adjustability and angleadjustable split-type foot inclination features was found to reduce if not eliminate the gap on the needs of the physical therapists regarding the stretching exercise bed.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

Emotional Quality and Apparent usability in the assessment of Product Desireability Ms. Rosemary Seva Gosiaco, Katherine Pangilinan, Denise Santos, Ma. Crea

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

August 2008 20080802

The study of affect and apparent usability experienced by consumers through product-user interaction is an emerging field in the design and development of products. Affect is found to be a significant factor that influences an individual’s cognition and\ behavior. As such, consumers’ decision making may be assessed as per the emotions evoked from the product rather than the traditional or conventional belief that decisions are based on the logic and rationalization of human beings. On the other hand, apparent usability is found to be a significant determinant of consumers’ product preference on the perception that what is beautiful is in fact usable. This suggests that the perceived usability of a product represents as a criterion for consumers’ purchasing decisions whereby products that are perceived to be usable are more likely bought. The considerable role of emotional quality and apparent usability in molding the perception of consumers towards a product compel for the integration of these dimensions in the conceptualization and evaluation of product designs. Emphasis is on the conceptualization stage of the design process as deemed appropriate for the context. As such, a methodology and a measurement system for the assessment of product designs considering the mediating effect of emotional quality and apparent usability in relation to product desirability is deemed necessary. The development of a Usability Perception and Emotion Enhancement Model contribute to the assessment of product designs. Emotional quality in the context of this study refers to the affective state engendered as influenced by product design attribute settings whereas apparent usability denotes the priori perceptions of consumers towards a product’s aesthetic quality. In order to validate the developed model, application to a high involvement product, specifically through a mobile phone case study was conducted. Emotional quality is measured considering Richins’ Consumer Emotion Set where Optimism, Love, and Discontent were obtained as the observable dimensions to measure such. On the other hand, apparent usability criteria were adopted from mobile phone usability questionnaire such that dimensions of Controllability, Attractiveness, and Ease of Use were deduced

Surveys were administered to mobile phone users to evaluate the product’s design as per its emotional quality and apparent usability. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)\ was utilized to analyze data collected as well as validate the model developed. As such, emotional quality and apparent usability were found to be mediating variables of product attributes and consumer rating of desirability. Results obtained revealed that mobile phone attributes related to dimensions such as area of the screen and length and width ratio of the body influences emotional quality whereas body shape and number button arrangement affects perceived usability. As these attributes induce emotions and influence one’s perception of usability, it is essential that designers identify the effects of this attributes to the aforementioned dimensions such that knowledge gained can be utilized in the creation of more satisfying designs.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author: Date: Call Number: Abstract:

An Ergonomic Study on the Workplace Efficiency improvement for the Jeepney Drivers in Metro Manila Ms. Rosemary Seva Axalan, Jeric Daniel Landicho, Anne Rhea August 2008 20080801

The current design of jeepneys used for public transportation exposes its drivers to ergonomic risks and unnecessary tasks. Based from the Needs Analysis conducted by the group, the dimensions of the workplace are not measured according to the 5th-95th percentile of the driver’s scores of 3 and 4 for hands on steering wheel and hand on shifting gear, respectively. The action of reaching backward as evaluated from the task analysis was proven to be unnecessary and through biomechanics it was verified that it exceeds the allowable shoulder abduction of 30 degrees. To address the ergonomic needs and potential occupational hazards of the drivers, an analytical prototype of jeepney driver’s workplace and physical component for the faring task were developed. The purposes of the designs were to improve the awkward postures and eliminate the unnecessary tasks that are done by the drivers. In generating the analytical prototype, the group followed the design process that was suggested by Sanders (1993). On the other hand, different design considerations were included in making two alternatives for physical faring component and two alternatives for the inclusion of money holder in the analytical prototype. By using the Pugh’s method of screening and selection, the Adjustable Back Slide was chosen for the faring component design. Before arriving at the final physical prototype, it underwent into four iterations to refine the design. After being manufactured, the prototype was tested and reevaluated to establish its improvement. A Secondary Needs Analysis was done. From the results of RULA, biomechanics and task analysis, the prototype achieved its objective. This design was also embedded on the generated analytical prototype of the whole driver’s workplace in CATIA. With the use of the mannequin and its different positions, the objective of arriving at a modified workplace design was accomplished. Improvements from the current design were also attained. Additional concepts were cited for the recommendations for further study of the faring component and different topics were also suggested for a different perspective of the study.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

An Ergonomic Design for Equipment to Reduce MSDs Ms. Rosemary Seva Michelle Maria R. Andrews Yasmin B. Angeles Jesus Christian C. Gallegos IV

Philippine

Taho

Vendors’

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

December 2007 20071201

The re-design of the taho vendor apparatus arose in order to address the ergonomic needs and potential occupational hazards of carrying the yoke apparatus. The aim of this design was not to alleviate but to reduce the dangers of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries (MSD/MSI) experienced by the taho vendor with the present equipment. To analyze the current design, a three-part needs analysis from NIOSH was conducted, observing its biomechanical, physiological, and psychophysical aspects. The current design was found not to be ergonomically designed under this three-way analysis. The design concepts and four alternatives were based on ergonomic improvements for both load-carrying and service procedure using Pugh's method of screening and selection. The criteria included in this selection were founded on the three-way analysis mentioned as well as other criteria like manufacturability, cost and bulkiness or yokespan. The design to be developed was\ eventually selected to be the Bucket Stand Design. Iterations were then done to refine the design accordingly. After, the prototype of the Bucket Stand Design was reevaluated to establish its improvement over the current design. A secondary needs analysis was done, but this time on the use of the prototype. In all biomechanical, physiological, and psychophysical aspects, the prototype was a total improvement over the present equipment. Finally, a cost benefit analysis tying up health benefits and expenses was used as a deciding point between the current design and the prototype. The prototype was also deemed to have a greater benefit over the present design after the cost-benefit analysis.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

The effect of cultural factors in the performance of Filipino Pilots Ms. Alma Ma. Jennifer Gutierez Chandumal, Michael Sanjay p. Flores, Aubrey Kristie L. Yuhico, Emmanuel Joseph J.

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

September 2007 20070901

Establishing the effects of cultural factors to performance is more effective and manageable by selecting a sample from a particular industry where this study is of greatest impact, relevance and significance: the aviation industry. This is such because pilots routinely handle human lives in their everyday tasks. Commercial flights carry around 300 individuals (plus flight crew) back and forth flying thousands of feet in the air. It is then necessary to come up with certain dimensions of culture that allows for linkage to the different behavioral practices and performances. Hofstede’s Value Survey Module 94 is a questionnaire that enables researchers to compare culturally determined values of people across varying regions. This survey is modified for it to fit in the nature of Filipino aircraft pilots along with their culture. This modified survey questionnaire is subjected to data reduction through factor analysis to determine the main cultural factors that affects pilot performance. Pilot tasks that are most crucial are those of Approach/Landing having the most accidents, 51% according to Boeing Statistical summary, which is also validated by the Air Philippines Chief Pilot Safety and Security/ Training Officer. As such, performance related to this area of flight is measured and tallied. The grades obtained from the Simulator Training are linked with the results generated by each pilot in answering the modified value survey module. There are four cultural factors identified. These are Pakikisama , Galang, Bahala na, Hiya. Multiple linear regression is used to interpret the results acquired from the Factor Analysis. It identifies which among the cultural factors are significant in predicting performance. Calibration data is used to build the model and an independent sample is used to validate it. Two out of the four cultural factors came to be significant in the Linear Regression Model, these are Pakikisama and Galang. It is found that having good Pakikisama or working relationship is desirable as it reflects higher performance. This is also true for Galang or recognition of authority, possessing this would lead to higher performance. The study was able to come up with a model that predicts pilot performance with the Filipino cultural factors present in the Philippine aviation industry.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

A Design of an Ergonomic Rice Transplanter Ms. Rosemary Seva Jerome Carlo M. Casiño Riccardi Stasia O. Octavo Anna Katrina O. Santiago

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

April 2008 20080401

Rice Transplanting is the most common rice planting method in the Philippines. In practicing the said method however, farmers are exposed to musculoskeletal disorders as well as back problems due to the repetitive bending as well as the awkward posture needed in performing the task. Observations were made and it was concluded that the general rice transplanting process could not be changed and therefore the awkward posture as well as repetitive motion could not be eliminated nor minimized unless mechanization was introduced. Rice transplanters, instead of farmers manually driving the seedlings into the soil will do the task by having pickers that can simulate the farmer’s seedling driving process. More than its ergonomic benefits, engineers from Philipppine Rice Research Institute confirmed the important role of rice transplanters in alleviating the problem of scarcity in manual labor as well as its contribution to a probable increase in the farmer’s harvested yield. The country has several existing transplanters under two general categories: engine driven and manual, both of which are limitedly accepted in the country due to acceptability issues that the existing transplanter was not able to deliver through its design. The major concerns of the farmers on the engine driven machines were its expensive value (Php 180,000) and the difficulty in its maintenance since these are all imported. Under the manual transplanter however, farmers were concerned about its low output capacity of 0.30 ha/day, the picker efficiency of 80% and the drudgery brought about by the manner of operating the manual transplanter. The design for an ergonomic rice transplanter that could cater to the needs of the customers (farm owners) as well as the user (farmers) was then sought after and was formed by incorporating the functional requirements of a rice transplanter with ergonomics as well as usability principles. Three design iterations that were based on the customer needs were made before the prototype was fabricated and was later on validated by allowing farmers operate it on rice fields. In order to improve the picker efficiency, the picker assembly is now spring loaded with a seedling pusher. For capacity, the authors mounted an engine to increase the planting speed and reduce ergonomic hazards since the repetitive push and pull motion is eliminated. The picker assembly can be disengaged so that the transplanter can run while the picker assembly, seedling feeder assembly, and the tray indexing assembly are on hold. The number of the

seedling tray compartments was changed from 6 to 4 to adapt to the standard size of seedling mats which is 30cm in width. The authors adapted the standard size tray to eliminate the time required in cutting seedbeds before transplanting. Under the ergonomic evaluation, the drudgery felt was reduced as the manner of operating the transplanter was modified from push and pull to minimal pushing, as engines were incorporated in the design. For the performance tests however, the evaluation conducted on the prototype unit showed an output capacity rate of 0.84 ha/day and an increased planting efficiency by 12% from the 80% efficiency of the current 6-row manual paddy transplanter. A cost and benefit was further made and it was verified that upon acceptance of the mechanization, farmers can save a significant amount of more than Php1,000 per hectare.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

Designing a Pothole Patching Device for the Department of Engineering and Public Works Ms. Alma Maria Jennifer Gutierrez Ang, Charlene Claire S. Pincaro, Jarlan V. Ty, Howard Philip M.

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

August 2005 20050801

The practice of manual patching of potholes in Metro Manila can be considered as on e of the most hazardous practices to date. Asphalt fumes by itself are regarded as a potential carcinogen. The current manual routine of patching potholes has also been discovered to impact the occurrence of cumulative trauma disorders on the workers. After conducting surveys, interviews, OWAS postural assessments and statistical analysis, it was concluded that the current pothole patching practices threatens the health conditions of the operators with cumulative trauma disorders and illnesses. According to the statistical analysis, the major pains experienced by the sweeper/compactors are lower arm and wrist. The paver/spreaders, on the other hand, experience lower back pains. These bodily discomforts have been proven to be persistent, lasting more than a week to a month’s time, which gives them chronic considerations. Also, it was proven by the OWAS procedure that the working postures of the said workers need corrective measures. The predominance of long-term cough that lasts for more than a week to a month’s time was also discovered to have been plaguing the majority of betamol coaters and paver/spreaders. With the goal of eliminating or at least minimizing the pains and illnesses of these workers, a pothole patching device was designed. The device contains the asphalt in its special asphalt dispensing chamber thereby reducing up to 74% of asphalt fume exposures. Also, pains and discomforts were eliminated and OWAS scores were decreased as the occupational postures of the workers were greatly improved.

Title: Center Thesis Adviser: Author:

Analysis of factors influencing work performance in a Call Mr. Jose Edgar Mutuc Alfaro, Rose Ann O. De Leon, Catherine Ann C. Guieb, Patricia C.

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

April 2005 20050401

This study deals with the analysis of factors influencing work performance of phone bankers in a banking call center. The objectives of the study are to screen and extract factors, which prove to significantly affect phone banker job performance, determine the levels of controllable factors at which job performance is at its optimum, and address the issues in relation to improving over-all job performance. Study results showed that job performance ratings significantly vary from one shift to another, and majority of phone bankers fail to comply with callhandling criteria. Factors that were deemed significant are as follows: civil status of the phone banker, work experience in a similar field, the average length of sleep time, feelings of fatigue related to both duration of work and rest period, work environment, and motivation. Significant controllable factors were subjected to Response Surface Methodology to determine which level/s yield optimal performance. From RSM, the optimal setting for length of shift rotation is 7 days with consecutive days off. Validation of the optimal settings yield a significant increase in job performance rating. Also, motivational aspects such as opportunities of growth and relationship with co-workers were found to be significantly affecting worker performance. Proposals addressing these issues were presented to the management and majority of them believed that the proposal would help improve the current work situation of the company.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

Design of an Exerciser for the Filipino Swimmer Ms. Rosemary R. Seva Buenviaje, Ma. Teresa Dela Cruz, Paul R. Jao, Ramon Liza T.

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

January 2004 20041203

Swimming is one of the few exercises that allow a complete workout without significant danger of injury to the joints. Competitive swimmers undergo dry-land training to improve their performance. This consists of a set of exercises and the use of exercisers. However, to date, no exerciser has met the specific training needs of swimmers. A design of an exerciser for the Filipino swimmer was conceptualized to specifically target trained muscles in swimming. These include the pectorals, trapezius, deltoids, rotator, cuffs, biceps, triceps, abdominal muscles, lower back muscles, quadriceps, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius. Furthermore it attempts to facilitate proper stroke mechanics and promote endurance training needed for swimmers. The design of the exerciser came about with the consideration of usability principles, stroke mechanics and anthropometry. By employing Quality Function Deployment through the use of the Housed of Quality, the specific training needs of both swimmers and coaches were translated into workable design parameters. These served as the bases for conceptualizing initial designs. An iterative process was employed in developing design concepts. Each succeeding design became an improvement of its predecessor. Initially, three designs were generated accommodating the essential features of the exerciserits ability to facilitate the different leg kicks namely, the flutter, dolphin and whip kick and their accompanying armstrokes. Usability inspection and testing were employed at the beginning of the prototype development stage. Coaches and swimmers took part in uncovering usability problems. Key areas, which surfaced out was the exerciser’s inability to promote proper leg kick movement and lack of resistance offered. Based on these feedbacks, design modifications were effected. With both coaches’ and swimmers’ approval earned,a final prototype design was arrived at. A Failure Mode and Effect Analysis ( FMEA) was performed to provide an initial evaluation.

A biomechanical analysis was performed in order to determine the amount of force needed to be exerted by the users of the exerciser. This paved the way for identifying the appropriate set of weights to use for resistance as well as the force required to recruit target muscles in swimming, which are to be developed during dry-land training. A validation process was performed to establish the exerciser’s ability to meet the objectives of the study. The electromyography test verified that all eleven targeted muscles have been stimulated by the exerciser. This was proven by the increase in muscle motor recruitment from the baseline. The maximum oxygen uptake or the VO2 Max test gauged the endurance training the exerciser was capable of facilitating. The subject tested registered 70% of his maximum heart rate with corresponding oxygen consumption of 41.78 ml/kg/min. Although verified to be below the average rating of 68 ml/kg/min, it was found out that results of the test were relative to the type of swimmer. Falling below the average does not necessarily mean poor athletic performance or bad machine design. Comparing expert’s opinion of the importance, expectation and satisfaction of exerciser features and functions it was found out that the machine is capable of simulating the four competitive strokes of swimming. Furthermore, the exerciser was able to facilitate proper armstrokes, leg kicks and body positioning. The exerciser was able to target trained muscles, facilitate proper stroke mechanics, and promote endurance training. It is capable of simulating all four strokes in swimming with their corresponding armstrokes, leg kicks and body positioning. Furthermore, it allows users to determine the amount of force they need to exert in order to stimulate their muscles. Recommendations for further study include the development of a whip kick mechanism, determine an optimal default exerciser set up and accommodate additional swimmers as subjects for the validation tests and coaches for the stroke evaluation. More so, the mathematical integration of force analysis into training to determine the forces that each muscle involved in swimming has to contribute becomes another area to deal with in future studies.

Title: A Design of a Manicure and Pedicure Workstations for California Advanced Nails and Skincare Thesis Adviser: Author: Dr. Jose Edgar Mutuc Chang, Genevieve K. Lagdameo, Christine R. Veranga, Theresa Beth N. Date: Call Number: Abstract: This study is geared towards addressing the factors that affect the pains of the manicurists at California Advanced Nails and Skincare through administrative and/or engineering controls. The operators have been found to experience upper back, lower back, neck and lower arm pains due to awkward working postures from the pedicure services and 97.27% of the operators have already predisposed to cumulative trauma disorders. In order to improve there working condition, a Quality Function Deployment tool, Houses of Quality (HOQ) 1 to 4 was used. The factors that affect their working condition were analyzed using Multivariate Factor Analysis and compared against the need of the operators. In doing so, it was logically found out that the best way to improve their condition is to improve their workstation. The design of the workstation is composed of three parts – customer chair, manicurist chair, and pedicurist chair. The dimensions of the workstation are ergonomically designed where the anthropometric data of the operators fit. Illumination levels and proximity of tools of the operators were additional design considerations. The comfort of the customer was also an important consideration since they are the ones who bring profit for the company. A constraint in the design process is the conservation of the manicure and pedicure processes of CANS. The design of the workstation is an engineering control that had proved to improve the working postures of the operators. Results of the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) revealed that the previous score of 6 dropped to 3. Pains of the operators have decreased from an average of 3.6 down to 0. Customers’ comfort was improved from the initial assessment of 1.43 to a perfect score of 4. With the new workstation, processing time of the pedicure service also decreased from 50.37 minutes to 43.12 minutes that lead to an increase in the capacity of the store to an additional of 2 customers per workstation per day. In conclusion, the workstation have addressed the problem in eliminating the upper back, lower back, neck and lower arm pains due to awkward working postures. Since their postures have improved, the occurrence of cumulative trauma disorders is also reduced. December 2004 20041201

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

An ergonomically designed walker for the Filipino Elderly as an assistive device Ms. Rosemary Seva Gador, Marie Charmelaine V. Salomon, Anna Patricia M. Estella, Rogelio Jr.

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

December 2004 20041202

(No Abstract Attached)

Title: Interactive, Inc Thesis Adviser: Author:

A Design for A Production System of Speaker Frames for 3D Mr. Dennis Cruz Gabriel, Aigel R. Tsang, Kristoffer K. Yap, Ana Lily N.

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

August 2004 20040801

3D Interactive, Inc. is a manufacturing company that offers various audio and electronic visual parts and products. Speakers are considered to be its top selling product. However, its past sales records revealed that the unmet demand of the company, which is 2.88%, has exceeded the allowable percentage. This resulted to a significant amount of opportunity loss. In reviewing the current system, it was known that speaker frames have the longest lead-time among the components of speakers since most suppliers are based abroad. However, large inventory is not possible since the warehouse space is limited. Also, the unit costs of frames that are acquired from foreign suppliers are higher compared to local suppliers. Consequently, the study focused on developing a detailed production system for the speaker frames. The production system design is composed of the machine mix, layout, manpower and methods of operation, materials requirements, layout of the system and the production schedule. To acquire the different operations in frame forming, the proponents conducted a Benchmark Study on the suppliers of the company. Since the methods used by suppliers are the current practices in the industry today, its sequences are applied in the proposed production system. Machines were determined through canvassing of latest power presses in the market. Alternatives are generated, in flow diagram, based on the number of machines to be used in the system. Using Kepner-Tregoe Decision Analysis (KTDA), the chosen alternative is the 5th alternative, which is comprised of nine (9) machines. The alternatives for the machine mix layout are generated and evaluated through Adjency Score Computation and Relationship Matrix. The alternative layout having the highest adjacency score is chosen. Its efficiency is seen on the generation of Flow diagram. The number of operators is determined depending on the forecasted demands for the frames. Since the machines are not fully utilized, one (1) operator for each machine is found efficient. For the raw materials, only the cold roll sheets need to be ordered from foreign suppliers. Other raw materials include the chemicals used in metal preparations and the powder pain for spray painting. The schedule of production is generated using the Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) to indicate the demanded amount

the expected production of these demands, considering the lead time of raw materials and the inventory on hand at the beginning of each time period. The existing production system of speakers is compared with the adoption of proposed solution through the use of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) Technique. This enabled the proponents to observe a reduction of speaker lead time up to only two days. Financially, the total benefits to be acquired by the system exceeded the over-all operating costs. Total projected cost is summed to be Php 11,352,450.00. The Net Present Value (NPV) of the project, which is Php 29,768,761.32, concluded that it is worth investing with a payback period of two (2) years. Hence the study has validated the effectiveness of the proposed solution is addressing the problem of the current system. The implementation of the solution is estimated to take 75 days before operation can be started. However, the following issues are recommended for further study since they are found to be outside the scope of the study: 1) study of other raw materials of speaker, 2) possibility of being other companies’ supplier of speaker frame and provider of powder coating services, 3) feasibility study of other product lines; and 4) automations of speaker frame machines.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

An Ergonomically Designed Drafting Table and Chair for Engineering Students of De La Salle University Ms. Rosemary Seva Chua, Nicholas P. Sy, Andrea S. Tan, Rachelle M.

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

April 2003 20030401

GRAPONE is one the prerequisite courses that engineering students must enroll in. In this subject, sitting is the major posture throughout the class. The chair represents the primary support system and its function is even more important for tasks, increasingly characteristic of modern workplaces, which require precise and accurate measurement fo the object being drafted and high degrees of visual attention for prolonged periods of time. One important factor that greatly hinders efficiency and productivity in fulfilling the task can be associated with posture. The existing drafting table and stool has caused discomforts among students. Based from the Musco-skeletal survey results gathered by the proponents, the present drafting table and stool being used by the first year engineering student of De La Salle University who are taking up GRAPONE cause strain to the students, the percent of students affected at the neck (55%), shoulder (59%), elbow (42%), hand and arm (32%), upper back (100%), lower back (100%), hips and thigh (37%), knee (12%) and ankles and feet (4%) are evidence that prove that this activity causes pain and discomfort due to long hours of use and incorrect postures that are caused by the current design of the drafting workstation. In addition to the survey, all RULA results generated action level 3 which indicates that investigation and changed are required soon. This study is primarily concern with the development of a drafting workstation, which would reduce the discomfort being felt by the users. With the aid of anthropometric measurements taken from the subjects, the musculoskeletal survey, biomechanical analysis and the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), the proponents were able to develop and ergonomically design workstation. The unique feature of the prototype developed by the proponents is the incorporation of the chair and table as a single structure (a combination of the table and chair). Through the data gathered by the proponents, the adjustability of the workstation is gauged to its proper inclination and proper adjustments.

The result of the study showed improvement on the postures of the students in De La Salle University. A comparison of the previous drafting workstation and the proposed drafting workstation was made through the musculoskeletal measurements. Application of biomechanics and RULA was used in order to confirm the improvement in the postures of the students. The change of the design has improved the efficiency of the students.

Title:

A Design of an Improved Wheelchair for Paraplegic Children at N.O.H. School for the Crippled and Philippine Orthopedic Center Dr. Jose Mutuc Araga, Ma. Lourdes Cana, Aileen Gutierez, Christine

Thesis Adviser: Author:

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

April 2002 20020401

Wheelcharis are very important aids for those people who suffer from immobilization of legs that are due to some accidents and sickness such as spinal cord injury, paralyzed lower body, amputation and cerebral palsy. Having wheelchair aids, these people at least perform other things that normal persons do and enjoy in performing physical activities. As of today, manufacturers give less attention to wheelchair designs that give comfort to children who suffer from the same illnesses. Children would either have to wait until their body is compatible to the present design and dimension of the wheelchair or use the current wheelchair design but have to endure the consequences of that incompatibility such as discomfort and pain. This has motivated the group to design a wheelchair that is ergonomically designed fro paraplegic children in order to help them improve their present status. With this in mind, a survey of children ranging from 6 to 12 years old in the N.O.H. School for the Crippled and Philippine Orthopedic Center was made in order to ensure that whatever the group would design is in accordance with their need. There were 44 respondents and among them are 54.55% male and 45.45% female whoa re all using wheelchairs. The result of the survey showed that all of the subjects felt discomfort that leasds to pain when using their wheelchairs. 70.45% of the subjects felt pain in their backs followed by the 63.64% who felt pain in their buttocks, 40.91% experience pain in the arms, 18.18% felt pain in the head and neck and 9.09% of the subjects felt pain and discomfort in their legs in using the wheelchair. There are reasons why pain and discomfort occur in the part of the body of the wheelchair users. The subjects enumerated the reasons or the types of complaints. The top five reasons of complaints are the following: (1) Too large/ too small seat width (79.55%); (2) Too low/ high armrest height (61.36%); (3) Difficulty in transferring from wheelchair to another chair/ bed (59.1%);(4) improper cushion of seat (56.82%); and (5) Too low/ high backrest height (43.18%). The checklist were also made with the objective of formulating a House of Quality Matrix in order to ensure or validate that the problem obtained from the

first survey from is the same with the answers in the checklist or in the House of Quality Matrix. With all the survey and data gathered, the problem of the study is “ Current wheelchair designs are not suitable to children ranging from 6 to 12 years old since they are experiencing discomfort and pain in the different parts of the body such as the back, buttock, arms, head and neck and legs.” Based on the data gathered, the group formulated three alternative designs that could address the needs of the users. These alternatives are evaluated by making use of a Kepner-Tregoe Decision Analysis. After the evaluation, the proposed design was selected due to its advantages such as: Push levers for Maneuverability Using Shafts, Adjustable Seat rest & Backrest using Nuts and Bolts, Adjustable Aluminum X-brace, Foldable Headrest, Reclined seat rest, Reclined Back Rest, Breathable Seat and Backrest Canvas, Elevating Footrest/Leg rest Swinging Armrest and Pocket. Then the different materials that could be used for the design were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe Decision Analysis. The group came up with the aluminum steel for the x-brace, vinyl upholstery, 16-inch pneumatic tires, and 6-inch caster wheels. After the design and materials were selected, the group went to Tahanang Walang Hagdanan to have the design manufactured. The proposed design was then brought to the different N.O.H. School for the Crippled Annexes and Philippine Orthopedic Center for the product trial/ testing. The subjects used the wheelchair for half (1/2) to whole (1) day. After these, the group made use of the Nordic Questionnaire once again to get the comments of the subjects about the design. The group interviewed the subjects, parents, doctors and the occupational therapists of the Philippine Orthopedic Center for their comments about the proposed design. Then FMEA was used to evaluate the possible causes of failure of the product that it loose/ broken screws. Strength tests were also done to know the weight capacity of the different parts of the wheelchair. And lastly, the cost and benefit analysis was done to know if it would be profitable to manufacture the new wheelchair design. Based on the analysis, a profit of Php 892.39 will be gained from the production of a single wheelchair. It has been concluded that the proposed design reduced the pain and discomfort felt by the wheelchair users. Many of the subjects appreciated the breathable upholstery and the swinging armrests for better transfer. Even the parents said that the design was good and it can really improve their child’s condition. The doctors and therapists said that the design if modified could be used for quadriplegic patients. They said that it would be much cheaper than powered wheelchairs. For the recommendations, the group suggests that a longer product trial/ testing should be done to get better results, high quality materials for the screws should also be used and to do a further study about other materials for the steel frame such as the aluminum-titanium alloy. Aside from these, some criticisms about the design from subjects, parents, occupational therapists and doctors should also be taken into consideration.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

An ergonomic stand-type water dispenser for Filipino users Ms. Alma Ma. Jennifer Gutierrez Ong, Mark Randall Ong, Rizaldy Yu, Ann Karen

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

April 2002 20020402

The bottled water industry has become popular due to many households and establishments opting to drink bottled water compare to tap water. With the increasing consumption of bottled water, device called water dispensers have become part of the appliances of houses and establishments in our country, this is what brought about to this study. From the initial findings of the study, based on interviews and surveys and with the aid of Quality Function Development- House of Quality analysis tool, it showed that there are customers’ attributes that were not satisfied by the present water dispensers in the country. These are Drip-free faucet, Size of the dispensing area, No water spillage during installation, Ease of water container installation, effortless dispensing of water, and faucet is within a comfortable reach. The study aimed to design a water dispenser that would satisfied the above customers’ attributes, which considered the significant factors or engineering characteristics of the water dispenser. This goal was achieved by applying risk analysis using Failure Model and Effects Analysis (FMEA) on the engineering characteristics. And also by applying the statistical design of experiment using the Design Expert 6.0 (DX6) software on the engineering characteristics that was analyzed, which were body casing height, dispensing area height, faucet to floor height and type of faucet. The optimal setting of the factors was derived from the model generated in the analysis process of the stages in DX6 software, and it showed that the solution was given at 75.48 cm body casting height, 49.65 cm dispensing area height, 109.55cm faucet to floor height, and push-pull faucet type. This proposed prototype proved to be better because of an average 30% increase on satisfaction level of the users by improving an average of 20% one ach customers’ attribute, thus eliminating the positive gap from the importance level, during the justification period. Based on the demonstration of improvements, the objectives of this study were achieved. This study was focused on the aesthetic features, physical dimensions, and ergonomic aspects of the present stand type water dispensers in the country. This study was focused on changing the design of the water dispenser itself and not the water gallon container that is being placed on top of the water

dispenser. This is for the reason that water gallon container is not a part of the water dispenser and this is standardized for all the water dealer stations, thus, changing it will incur a lot of cost for the industry.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author: Date: Call Number: Abstract:

An Ergonomically Designed Wrist- Friendly Mouse for Gamers Mr. Dennis Beng Hui Hernandez, Mark Adrian M. Lopez, Joseph Ryan A. April 2002 20020403

The study is an applied research that deals with ergonomically improving the computer mouse and not with the technical aspect. At present, the personal computer is no longer only used for work; it is also used for entertainment, fun and to play games. And with increasing use comes increasing risks. A survey was conducted in order to determine which existing type of mouse is the most commonly used. It was found out that the ordinary mouse is the most common type of computer mouse being used. The chosen mouse was further investigated. The progress of pain was tracked across time. It was determined that 44% of the respondents experienced the early signs of pain after three minutes of continuous usage. Among these complaints, 10.12% occurred in the wrist area. In coming up with a new design the correct mouse usage should be encouraged. The wrist should not be used to move the mouse, but the whole arm should be involved in moving the mouse. It is therefore important to improve the existing mouse in order to correct this habit. Another survey was conducted to determine the best alternative. Using the Design Expert Software, it was determined that texture and shape are important factors in coming up with a new design for the mouse. Also based on the results form the Design Expert Software, it was determined that the best design should be elongated in shape and smooth in texture. A final survey compared the best alternative to verify whether or not the new design is an improvement of the existing design. Based on the survey results, it can be concluded that the new design has helped reduce the pain experienced by the user of the computer mouse.

Title: An Ergonomic Study on the Shift Work of Medical-Surgical Unit Nurses of the Manila Sanitarium and Hospital Thesis Adviser: Author: Ms. Alma Maria Jennifer Gutierrez Averia, Jason Robert C. Joson, Jacqueline S. Reyes, Jennifer Mae M. Date: Call Number: Abstract: The initial findings of the study reveled that the rotating nurses when assigned in the night shift experience a significantly higher memory error rate, poor mental health, more subjective feelings of fatigue, and longer stimuli reaction time as compared to when they were assigned in the morning shift and to those with permanent shift schedule. The study aimed to design an improved works hift system for the nurses, which considered the significant factors that caused the negative impacts in the current shift schedule. This foal was achieved by applying the statistical design of experiment using the DX-6 software, which involves two phases: the screening stage and the response surface methodology (RSM) The former aimed to screen out the few important main effects from the many lesser important ones. This revealed that out of the five factors (lighting, music, schedule of break time, shift rotation and nap time), only the factors “shift rotation” and “naptime” were found to be significant. These two factors affected the respondents’ responses in the experimental settings. The latter phase aimed to determine and quantify the relationship and optimal settings of the factors involved in the study that would eventually yield the best set of response values. The response values refer to the respondents’ scores in the mental health, fatigue, memory, response to stimuli tests. The results of the RSM were analyzed in three ways: analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression analysis and graphical analysis. ANOVA indicated that all models for the fours responses are significant. Regression analysis generated different model equations that were appropriate and it showed in the plot vs. predicted that no evident patterns were exhibited, thus were considered reliable predictors of responses. Likewise, the residuals models methods demonstrated positive results that there were no biases present in the model equations that suggested its consistency in predicting the responses. Thorough graphical analysis revealed that responses increased whenever the days of shift rotation were increased and the minutes of naptime were decreased. Since lower responses were more desirable, shorted shift rotation and longer minutes for nap time were considered more advantageous. The optimal setting was obtained from the generated model from the experimental design, which revealed that the comprehensive solution is given at December 2001 20011201

three days for shift rotation and 15 minutes for nap time. This proposed change in the current settings of the shift work schedule proved to be better, which were noticeable in the decrease of the respondents’ responses during the validation period. Owing to the manifestations of these improvements, the objective of this study was fully achieved. The environmental aspect of shift work, such as sound intensities and temperature of the immediate environment were not considered. Furthermore, the postured of the nurses were not taken into consideration in this study, as these do not fall under a cognitive ergonomics study, instead under physical ergonomics. Also, the hospital administration restricted the researchers from making observations and measurements in the patients’ rooms, thus limiting the proponents to the scope of the study.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

An Ergonomically Designed Stress Reliever for standing Workstation Dr. Jose Edgar Mutuc dela Cruz, Ryan Go, Yvette Madrid, Melanie

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

December 2001 20011202

Prolonged standing, which is define as 7 to 8 hours of prolonged working while maintaining any posture such as standing, on one’s feet is considered to be common in different types of workplaces (Winkel, 1981 and Rys and Konz, 1982). People experiencing prolonged standing consequently experiences lower back pains and have a high risk of having cumulative trauma disorder. Such foot discomfort leads to different ailments like metatarsaglia, heel spur and arthritis. It was normally the lower extremities that workers complain about. Lower extremeties specifically the foot which carries all the weight of a person especially during standing. Majority of pain, stress and strain occur in the foot. Therefore, footing conditions must be given enough attention. Presently, there are 4,315,000 as the total count of sales workers in the Philippines (National Statistics Office, October 2000). Salesladies are the main subjects or concern of this study since they account for a high percentage from the total population of the Philippines. From an interview with the subjects, it was proven that the foot is the part that really experienced pain and discomfort most. With this, the problem arises to be, “Twenty-nine out of thirty respondents or 97% are complaining about the pain experienced on the foot. Moreover, the pressure sensor test revealed that 13.19 psi is placed on the fore foot and 10.17 psi on the heel when standing”. It is the objective of the study to reduce the amount of pressure placed on the foot when standing. Furthermore, factors that affect the cumulative fatigue on the feet by the respondents will also be determined in this study. Based on the results of the testing and interviews made, the proponents would design a stress reliever that would contain a sandal cushioning and foot support that was especially shaped like the arch of the foot for support, to give comfort and distribute evenly the loading in the foot during prolonged standing. The prototype made was tested to the subjects over a 3-week period. After which, the same interview/ questionnaire survey was conducted to validate if the pain felt per part of the body specifically in the foot really decrease. Furthermore, a pressure sensor was again used to quantify the amount of pressure reduced.

With the prototype, the result of the pressure experienced in the forefoot decreased of an average of 57% while in the heel of an average of 38%. This only means that the amount of pressure decreased brought about by the prototype is very significant as proven in statistical testing. Statistical testing revealed that a 5% decrease in the amount of pressure is already enough to say that the prototype is effective.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

An Ergonomic Study of Furniture Fabrication Workstation Mr. Rumel V. Atienza Duque, Mark Gabriel T. Ella, Joseph Gabriel C. Ramirez, Carl Ian C.

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

September 2001 20010902

The thesis is about an ergonomuic study of furniture fabrication workstation. Three (3) carpentry shops were assessed to determine the present working conditions of the carpenters. Ergonomic tools like the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and Body Part Discomfort Location and Intensity Scale were used to identify problems in the present working condition of the 18 workers. Based on the results of the Nordic Survey, it was determined that 94.44% of the carpenters experience discomfort in the lower back, 66.67% in the shoulder, 83.33% for the wrists and hands, and 83.33% for the neck. The Ovako Working Postural Analysis (OWAS) and Biomechanical Analysis were used to determine the cause of the problems on the sampled companies. Their backs, shoulder and neck, were confirmed to follow awkward and undesirable postures. Because of this, the study came up with a new modular table workstation with slide that was able to improve the areas of concern in the present system. With regards to posture, the unfavorable bent and twisted backs were significantly reduced, and the kneeling on the floor was completely eliminated. Therefore, the study proved that with the use of the suggested prototype, appropriate postures and proper working procedures are imposed upon the workers. Of course, several considerations were taken into account in making the proposal effective. Factors such as materials to be used, anthropometry, physiological factors, cost, and safety, were considered for this study.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

An Ergonomically Designed Workstation for the Workers of the Winder’s Deparment of LES Products Company, Inc. Mr. Dennis T. Beng Hui Dublon, Lindsey Dwight T. Maglonzo, Michael Y. Monserrate, Ella Maria C.

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

September 2001 20010904

This study sought to investigate the work methods and postures of the workers in the Winder’s Department of LES Products Company, Inc. The area of concern of this study is the Winder’s Department, which is the packing area of the garter-manufacturing company. It is divided into three work sections, namely: the cake-winding section, the cone-winding section, and the weighing section that has two, three and one assigned worker, respectively. The weigher is the one who check the garter before the winders pack them. The cake- and cone- winding workers perform their tasks under the same area with similar workstation set up, which uses the winding machine. All sections in this department work under prolonged working hours. Postural stress analysis was achieved using REBA, Nordic Survey, and RULA methods. Task analysis was also applied to verify the workers’ method in performing their tasks. Hence, the researchers came up with a new chair design with additional box platform and helper. While performing their respective tasks, testing and evaluating procedures were conducted with the performance of the workers using the newly designed workstation. The chair has the following features: 1) an adjustable height of 18 to 22 inches; 2) a footrest ring; 3) sufficient seat pan size of 15 ½ x 17 inches; 4) concave backrest of 8 ½ x 15 ½ inches ; and 5) a 360˚ rotating seat. Furthermore, the box platform features 1) a sufficient 12 x 20 inches surface dimension to hold the garter box; 2) a fixed height of 15 inches; and 2) easy mobility though the wheels attached to its legs. Finally the helper is also an essential part in speeding up the production process. By providing a helper, the worker is in-charge of refilling empty garter boxes. The winders would be able to pack more garters from the saved time. The results of the proposed design were evaluated and presented with and without the presence of the helper. The new workstation design was proven to be beneficial by using the analysis done for the present system (REBE, Nordic Survey, and RULA). The chair would eliminate stress/complaints of the workers for their lower body. The platform would eliminate the trunk twisting done by the winders and weigher when getting garter from the box. The additional helper allows the winders to work continuously and that the task of the winders is not disturbed. The materials used for the new design have been chosen to minimize all material costs.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

A workstation design on the computer assembly process for the computer assemblers in Greenhills Mr. Dennis Beng Hui Ngo, Erick Sia, Jason Yee, Jeffrey

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

September 2001 20010901

Initially, the computer assembly companies were interviewed. The different postures that assemblers encountered were derived from the pictures and videos that were taken. The survey was analyzed by the perception ratings that were obtained. Risk and pains encountered in the existing workstation, used by the assembly workers in the various computer hardware companies in the Philippines were also determined with use of a survey-interview. To be able to identify the different problems and difficulties, an appropriate survey questionnaire was used. Interviews were conducted to have first hand information about the work description and the assembly workers workplace. The different pains that were with high ratings were noted. After all the feedbacks and perceptions of the assemblers towards the tasks have been gathered the actual assembly process was observed. In this study several ergonomic principles were followed. These principles were gathered from the review of literature, which consists of articles and theories about the different studies made on workstation design. With the use of literature that was researched, steps in gathering anthropometric measurements were followed. FMEA was performed and the high ratings of RPN were obtained. Different ideas were generated in order to address the problems that are encountered by the assemblers. In order to determine the important factors such as the height, lighting, and angle of design of experiments. The software also validated all the procedure of testing made. After the significant factors have been determined, the optimal setting was obtained. The problem was solved through the decrease in the response ratings that were evident in the final prototype.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

An Ergonomic Study on the Design of Motorcycles used on Tricycles for the Filipinos Dr. Jose Edgar Mutuc Navarro, Mely Nor Ong, Nenita Verceles, Everly

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

September 2001 20010903

Ergonomics is concerned about “fitting the task to the person”. It focuses on improvements on human well-being, quality and productivity of work. It takes into consideration the limits of human performance and provides opportunities on improving designed workstations. So far there have been a study made concerning jeepney drivers, but there has been no study yet on the conditions of the tricycle drivers. Tricycles are everywhere. Tricycle driving is one way of earning a living considering the scarcity of jobs available in the country. Venturing in the tricycle industry, tricycle drivers would have to invest Php 50,000 to Php 70,000 in order to have a tricycle. Tricycle drivers spend an average time of 11 hours in a day. Based on the proponent’s observation, tricycle drivers have a tendency to sit on the tank so that it can accommodate more passengers. Ideally the design of the motorcycle allows only 1 passenger at the back of the tricycle driver, however, the usual practice is to accommodate 1 or 2 more passengers at the back for additional income. A survey on the working conditions of the tricycle drivers was conducted; this is supported by the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and the Anthropometric measurements of the tricycle drivers. The survey shows that tricycle drivers experience pain the wrists or hands, feet and lower back. The assessment of the working posture of the tricycle drivers has shown that present working posture is not appropriate and should be changed. Based from the results of the comparison of measurements, some parts of the motorcycle do not fit at least 95% of the population. The Quality Function Deployment (QFD) was used to determine the right measurements for the proposed design. The voice of the customers and the technical aspect of designing an ergonomic motorcycle for the tricycle drivers are considered. Several factors were evaluated in designing the ergonomic motorcycle such as the motorcycle movement and control, occupant safety and access.

In making the prototype, the feasibility of the design was also considered. Several adjustments were made in the manufacture of the prototype. Some of the adjustments made were the length of the tank, the length of the passenger seat and etc. After the prototype was made, the prototype was subjected to several ergonomic testing, Another survey was conducted and the RULA analysis was made. The result of the survey and the RULA analysis was compared to the previous results.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

An Ergonomically Designed Multi Purpose Hand Lift Truck for Handling Construction Materials Ms. Rosemary Seva Advincula, Edgar M. Oliveros, Anne Marie M. Valencia, Alvin Augusto M.

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

April 2001 20010403

(No Abstact Available)

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

An Ergonomic Study on the Analysis of Lifting and Camying Tasks of a Stevedore Mr. Dennis Beng Hui Cruz, Jan Michael Deada, John Carlo Mejia, Samantha

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

April 2001 20010401

Stevedoring is a labor- extensive job. This involves loading and unloading of heavy equipment, baggage and other goods being shipped by way of cargo ships. As much as new material handling equipment has been developed to automate lifting and carrying, still, the local harbors cannot afford such equipment. Instead, local harbors hire stevedores for lifting and carrying tasks or more specifically, stripping and stuffing tasks. Stevedores lift, carry and unload as much as 60 kilos per sack. Under lifting recommendations, a person should carry only loads that are equal or below his weight. Carrying loads more than his weight will cause physical discomfort in different parts of the body such as neck, shoulders, arms, back, hips, legs and foot. The stevedores are exposed to this strenuous task. They lift can carry loads more than the allowable weight for them to carry. Because of that, they indeed experience physical discomfort particularly in their lower back as evidenced by different ergonomic assessment tools. These assessment tools justify that the stevedores carry loads more than their weight causing physical discomfort to intensify and posture to be awkward. There are several ways in which to improve the posture of the stevedores. Four alternatives were suggested and a lifting brace was proposed as the appropriate tool to minimize physical discomfort. This was validated by the same assessment tools used to determine the specific physical discomfort in the lower back. The lifting brace fall under the category or principle of a personal protective equipment where it is seen to protect the stevedore from further physical discomfort in their lower back.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

An ergonomic workstation design of the tightening operators of JAD Co., Inc. Ms. Alma Ma. Jennifer Gutierrez Borromeo, Jonathan Reyes Canare, Cristina Lim Javellana, David Alan Torres

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

April 2001 20010402

The thesis study is about an ergonomically designed workstation for the tightening operators of JAD Company. It mainly focuses on the tasks of the tightening workers and its workstation. It has been found from several tools and method for analysis that the current design of the tightening station in the liquid line of JAD Company Inc. is the main source of complaint regarding the musculoskeletal pains being experienced by the operators. The tightening operators complain that they experience pain in the hands (17.44%), neck (16.57%), shoulders (15.12%), and in the arms (14.24%). Several related literatures were gathered to provide sufficient resolution to the problem. From these literatures the idea of coming up with a proper workstation design was determined. The method of coming up with the study and all the things undertaken on the duration of the study was also discussed. It explains thoroughly the steps performed in order tot attain the completion of the study. On the Design Process, it discusses several design considerations, methodology and [product design and feature. Different alternative designs were conceptualize and each was analyzed using the Kepner-Tregoe Analysis. Parts from these alternatives are the different materials available in the market. These materials were analyzed using a Decision matrix and it determined which material is best and suitable for use in the design. The cost for producing the whole proposed design was also presented. The proposed design was utilized by the tightening operators to see if there are changes or improvement on the pain experienced by the workers. Aside from this, further evaluation and analysis were performed to determine the benefits of the proposed design to the company. After gathering all information and data, it has been concluded that the proposed workstation design improves the posture of the workers and minimizes the pains felt by the workers. It has also been found that the proposed workstation design has benefited the company by increasing its production and reducing the time.

Title: A Multi-Purpose Ergonomically Designed Chair for the Physical Therapy Patients in the Rehabilitation Centers of Selected Hospitals in Metro Manila Thesis Adviser: Author: Date: Call Number: Abstract: This thesis is about an ergonomically designed physical therapy chair that can be used by patients that are undergoing therapy sessions in a sitting position. Sitting is an important position not only to people who work in an office or in a manufacturing firm but also to a physical therapy patients who perform different therapy activities for a minimum of two hours or more depending on the condition of the patient. Activities involve in physical therapy are divided into two major classifications, the Assessment and the Treatment Activities. The Assessment Activity deals with the therapist evaluating the sickness of the patient and its corresponding treatment. While, the Treatment Activity is the giving of actual therapy to the patient. In both of these activities, the patient may sit or stand. The scope of this study will only be the patients who perform their activity in a sitting position. The proponents of the study limit their study to the Rehabilitation Centers of the tertiary hospitals in Metro Manila, namely Philippine General hospital (PGH), V. Luna General hospital, and Philippine Orthopedic Hospital. Patient whose age ranges from 18 to 80 years old are the subjects of this study. The design of the physical therapy chair will be based from the frequent positions that the patient assumed during their therapy. The measurements of the parts of the proposed design are according to the anthropometric dimensioning of the physical therapy patients. The proposed chair was tested to the physical therapy patients and the results showed that there was an improvement compared to the wooden chair, monoblock chair, and office chair. Disregarding the present sickness or disability of the patient, their musculoskeletal pains decreased and the ergonomic chair becomes fitted to the user. Hence, the patients were more comfortable to the proposed physical therapy chair than the present chairs used by the different hospitals. The physical therapy chair has the following basic parts; headrest, backrest, seatpan, armrest, footrest, and leg support. All of them were cushioned except for the footrest. This was done in order to soften the impact of the chair to the body. The backrest and seatpan were body contoured so that the natural curves of the body will be maintained. The leg support is detachable and can be kept at the back of the chair when not in used. The function of the leg Dr. Aida Licaros-Velasco Luna, Parrish Trabenn L. Nicolas, Rosette M. December 2000 20001201

support was to support the leg of the patient when in long sitting position. Also, the footrest frame and the height of the chair can be adjusted to address a larger population. The length of the armrest of the proposed chair can be extended up to the forearm of the patient. This was done because during the assessment of the blood pressure of the patient (This performed before, in between, and after therapy of the patient.) his/ her arm should be extended. Both of the armrest were also made detachable to give way to patients who don’t need the armrest during their therapy. Furthermore, the chair can be moved easily by the therapist because its wheels were placed at the back of the seat stand. It also has a handle located at the back of the backrest to help the therapist in directing or maneuvering the patients. The backrest has an angle of inclination of 105 degrees. An additional cushion was added at the backrest to make the angle 100 degrees. Through inspection, these angles are the inclination that the patients are most comfortable. In addition, the proposed design also has a seatbelt to help the patients who have immobilized upper body like stroke patients. Refer to Figure 1 for the actual design of the chair and to Figure 2 that shows its different forms. The material used in the seat frame was steel to withstand the weight of the patient. In the seat height adjustment, the hydraulic lift adjustment was the most suited type. Thus type of adjustability was very helpful for the patients since they would not stand up anymore for further adjustment of the height. The sear support was made up of laminated wood, which is responsible for the contour of the cushion and upholstery. The armrest and footrest was made up of hard aluminum because it is lightweight and durable. Moreover, the armrest and footrest frame was made up of steel that serves as the mechanisms for adjustability of the length of the armrest and height of the footrest. In the upholstery of the ergonomic physical therapy chair, Taiwan leatherette and Uratex- Permahard foam were used. The multi-purpose ergonomically designed chair for physical therapy patients is beneficial to the patients because their musculoskeletal pains were decreased. Moreover, the ergonomic chair helps the patient perform their assessment and treatment activity because it supports all of the positions required in achieving proper treatment. It also helps the therapist achieve full access for the manipulation of the body parts of the patients needed for the therapy.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

Applied Ergonomics on the Improvement of the present Airport Luggage Cart Ms. Rosemary Seva Cantor, Rhea Grace S. Gomez, Ma. Patricia A. Javellana, Pamela Anne G.

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

December 2000 20001202

The porters use baggage cart as an aid in carrying baggage. The study is conducted to improve the present design of the airport baggage cart based on the needs and wants of the porters. QFD questionnaire was used as guide to determine the importance and satisfaction ratings that porters identified for a specific cart attribute. Porters from the Ninoy Aquino International Airport and Manila Domestic Airport were surveyed. The result of the survey showed that there is a need to redesign the cart due to dissatisfaction that porters expressed over the cart. It was revelad that the porters are greatly dissatisfied with the following cart attributes: (1) maneuverability, (2) ease of stopping, (30 weight of cart, (4) handle height, (5) basket dimensions, (60 base dimensions, and (7) base support. The study designed a new baggage cart that takes into consideration the needs and wants of the porters based on the QFD survey. The major component that was added into the cart was the provision of a base support that can be adjusted based on the size of the luggage. The improved design also took into consideration anthropometric measurements of porters for the handle height and diameter. Steel was chosen as the material to be used because it could withstand heavy loads. A brake system was provided to facilitate stopping of the cart. The base and basket dimensions were improved based on the load placed on the cart and the provision set by airline companies respectively. Upon validation, it was realized that the new design met the requirements of the porters, for upon comparison of the satisfaction ratings for the initial design against the proposed design, the latter proved to be significantly superior.

Title:

Perception Testing on the Tolerable Fit Allowance of the Upper Garments of Young Filipina in the National Capital Region Dr. Aida L. Velasco Sudharta, Joanna Tan, Mary Rose Tiu, Arthur Stanley

Thesis Adviser: Author:

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

October 2000 20001001

A national standard for the body measurements of young women was established by the Philippine Bureau of Product Standards (BPS) to serve as a basis for the clothing measurements of locally produced upper garments. Its existence however is largely unknown. As a result, a majority of garment manufacturers are currently following their respective body measurement standards. Despite this fact, the measurements followed by these manufacturers were found to be approximately equivalent to those set by the BPS. In addition, the S,M,L sizing scheme set by the Philippine National Standards (PNS) is largely followed by garment manufacturers. Nevertheless, surveys conducted have shown that a significant number of Filipina consumers complain of problems pertaining to the fit of locally produced upper garments. The study was conducted to address this need by developing tolerable fit allowances for upper garment parts through a perception testing method. It is noted that these allowances are only applicable for proper fitting of blouses. The perception experiment was initially conducted to acquire the preliminary fit allowances of the blouses. Test blouses carrying experimental fit allowances were prepared for this purpose. These were constructed using Gina (Konji) fabric because of its high durability and low cost. The proposed allowances acquired from the experiment were later proven to provide the fit and comfort desired by local consumers. The essential garment dimensions for a typical proper-fitting upper garment for ladies with their corresponding fir allowance values are comprised of the following: (1) the bust girth with 5cm., (2) the waist girth with 7cm., (3) the hip girth with 7cm., (4) the upper arm girth with 5cm., (5) the under arm girth with 7cm., and (6) the shoulder breadth with 1.5cm.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

An Ergonomic Intervention for the Female Elderly Residents of Hospicio de San Jose Mr. Luis Miguel Zuluaga Alvarez, Kristine T. Hilario, Winny D. Uy, Helene Bernice G.

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

September 2000 20000903

For the past ten years, the rate of growth of the elderly population in the Philippine has been substantially and progressively high. To date, there is an estimated four million elders in the Philippines, 59% of which are women. Hospicio de San Jose. A typical institution for the elderly is used as a subject of the study in developing ergonomic interventions for their elderly female residents. From their population of 31 elderly women, it was investigated that these elders experience difficulties due to environmental factors while performing daily tasks. To alleviate at least 80% of these difficulties, ergonomics intervention was done in the form of an ergonomically designed dining chair to relieve seat pan discomfort and lack of a backrest, an ergonomically designed bed to facilitate easy mobility to and from the bed, and bathing system that would reduce or eliminate bending while bathing. Overall, complaints on difficulties and pain were reduced by at least 80% when the proposed prototypes were used. The proposed prototypes have dimensions that conform from the 5th to the 95th percentile of the female elderly residents, since majority of their residents is female. The materials used in the proposed prototypes are chosen because of their outstanding characteristics of durability, cost, availability, and manufacturability. The proposed dining chair is designed with a cushion to relieve seat pan discomfort. Instead of a contoured seat pan, which is said to be worse than a flat seat pan, the proposed dining chair houses a cushion that follows any individual’s contour. Moreover, an ergonomically designed backrest is incorporated into the design since elders have a difficult time balancing on the presently high dining stool, which causes frequent back aches. Lastly, the proposed dining chair has armrests that facilitate mobility to and from the chair, and further supports the elders’ balance on the chair. The proposed bed has an adjusted height, conforming to the elders’ popliteal height. This facilitates mobility to and from wheelchairs, or from lying to standing positions, and vise versa. Secondly, the newly designed bed has bed rails on both sides to facilitate mobility from a sitting to a lying position, and vise versa. Moreover, the bed rails ensure the safety of the elders from falling form the bed.

Lastly, the proposed bathing system replaces the pail-and-water-scooper system with a basin-and-platform system. This new system includes a chair, where the elders can sit while taking a bath, and reduces bending by not letting them bend toward the tip of the basin, and toward the bottom of the basin. The change in the design of the dining chair, bed, and bathing system has reduced the pains experienced by the elders, and securing ease of use and comfort for them. This improvement is beneficial for both the institution and the elders. The elders’ complaints will be reduced because their pains are reduced. Consequently, the institution will not incur much cost for medical personnel or medications.

Title:

An Ergonomic Workstation for Pregnant Women working in small scale livelihood project in Kaisahang Bahay Foundation Mr. Melvin T. Sanchez Lumunsad, Jose Carlos Ravi P. Tajanlangit, Lloyd Fritz L. Tongson, Jan Vincent M.

Thesis Adviser: Author:

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

September 2000 20000905

Kaisahang Buhay Foundation (KBF) is a residential center for unmarried pregnant women. It provides services like maternal and childcare, spiritual activities, occupational therapy and livelihood projects. The pregnant women perform livelihood projects in order to sustain their basic daily needs since the institution ahs limited source of income, it is categorized as a non-profit and nongovernmental organization (NGO). The pregnant women are subjected to poor working conditions since the current workstation does not have ergonomic features to support the special need of the pregnant women. The challenge of this project is to come up with a proposed design that will alleviate the working conditions of the pregnant women. An analysis was performed based on the posture and the discomfort felt by the pregnant women. It was seen that an improvement in their current workstation was required. Focus was then made in designing an ergonomic workstation wherein improvement of posture was given emphasis. Factors concerned with designing an ergonomic workstation were then taken into consideration. Included in the factors considered for this study are ergonomics, workstation design principles, task description, and pregnancy conditions. The next step done was to gather anthropometric data that was used for the dimensions and design features of the workstation. Materials to be used in the proposed workstation were also given emphasis. A Decision Matrix was used to evaluate the alternative materials to be used in each part of the proposed workstation. Each of the parts that were chosen was then combined in order to come up with the proposed workstation. After evaluating the proposed workstation, the result revealed that there was a significant decrease in the discomfort felt by the pregnant women on their neck, upper and lower back, and buttocks. The improvement in the discomfort level can be attributed to the proposed workstation since all the other factors were held constant and the workstation was the only factor that was varied during the evaluation. The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment Tool (TULA) showed positive outcome with regards to the use of the proposed workstation. From an initial grand score median of 6, it decreased to a median of 3 which means that an improvement in the posture was realized. The use of Posture Analysis Tool further validated the improvements brought about by the proposed workstation as compared to an ordinary ergonomic chair. The proposed workstation

oriented the upper arm of the user to an improved classification of neutral from mild. Likewise, the lower arm of the pregnant woman was improved from a severe classification to normal. It was then concluded that the proposed workstation was able to address the objective of this study. The discomfort felt by the pregnant women was significantly reduced and the working posture was improved.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

An Ergonomic Design of a Post-Natal Patient Transferring Device fro Female Nursing Personnel at PCGH Ms. Rosemary Seva Co, Aileen Ho, Jennifer Perez, Roselyn

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

September 2000 20000902

Work-related back pain is a common problem within the nursing profession. This study aims to contribute to the realization of the efforts to reduce work-related discomforts, particularly those which resulted from manual patient lifting. This study commences with a review do present lifting procedure performed by OB-Gyne nurses of Pasay City General Hospital (PCGH). Several ergonomic assessment tools were presented and applied in the investigation of musculoskeletal discomforts among the nurses. Results were then compared with the standard values set by foreign researchers. The study has a primary objective of improving the process of manual patient lifting performed by the nursing personnel of PCGH. This was addressed by the development of a low-cost patient transferring device that significantly improved the current patient lifting process. The same ergonomic assessment tools were again employed in the validation of the proposed transferring device. From the Nordic Survey Analysis, it was determined that the reported cases of lower back discomfort were reduced from a value of 88.89% to 11.11%. This resulted to a percentage decrease of about 77.78%. For the severity level, moderate discomfort was reduced to minimal discomfort in the lower back. Furthermore for the frequency level, discomfort was only felt a few times a month as opposed to discomfort that never foes away in the present system. From the biomechanical analysis, the compressive forces acting on the L5/S1 of the nurses were within the NIOSH maximum acceptable limit of 6400 N. The implementation of the proposed C-type stretcher in the patient transferring task significantly reduced the load experienced by the nurses. The compressive force acting on the L5/S1 of nurse 1 and nurse 2 in the proposed system were reduced by as much as 1962.00 N and 2838.99 N respectively. From the analysis of body posture (OWAS method), the proposed patient transferring method was proven to improve the working posture of the nurses while performing patient transfer operations. This resulting to low posture codes of 1-1-2 and 2-1-2 for nurse 1 and nurse 2 respectively. The study concludes with a discussion of the implication of these findings and a justification of the importance of ergonomics especially in the Philippine Medical Industry. Recommendations for future studies were also presented for those interested to pursue a study of similar objectives.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author: Date: Call Number: Abstract:

An ergonomic design of a manual rice transplanting device Mr. Luis Miguel Zuluaga Lao, Tiffany Joyce S. Lua, Tabitha Ricci K. September 2000 20000901

Palay production in the Philippines accounts for about 18% of the total agricultural output. Rice harvests have grown for about 5% annually from 91 million tons in 1992 to about 11.3 million tons in 1996. This shows that rice has remained in the Filipino’s diet and almost all their agriculture. Therefore, many Filipinos are relying on rice production as a source of income as well as rice as a staple food for their everyday lives. With this in mind, it can be pointed out that the people who need rice should consider the safety and comfort of the farmers who are planting their food. Many ergonomic studies have been made with regards to farming. However, based on the researches made by the group, the studies made did not tackle the problem on hand-transplanting. As we know, hand-transplanting is a “back-breaking” job. It is therefore important to use ergonomics that gears toward the improvement of the Filipino farmers’ comfort and safety. It is in this light that the group decided to pursue a study that will improve the present transplanting method of Filipino farmers. In order to evaluate the present transplanting position of farmers, the group performed five ergonomic measures which include Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ), Pain Duration Survey Questionnaire (PDSQ), Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Ovako Working Postural Analysis (OWAS) and Biomechanics. It was found that the present working posture subjects the workers to several musculoskeletal pain especially lower back pains. All of the farmers interviewed for the NMQ are experiencing low back pains due to manual hand-transplanting. Within this observation, the group looked for means on how to eliminate or reduce this problem. Therefore, a design of a new transplanting device was decided on. This device should fit the needs of its uses, the farmers. Anthropometric data were collected which will be used for the measurements of the device. The group studied the step by step process of hand transplanting in order to fully understand the mechanics for the new device. Upon completion of the device, it was brought to the farmers for trial use. Again, the group studied the new working posture of farmers while using the proposed device. With the help of ergonomic measures used for evaluating the present method of transplanting. Results showed that there was a significant improvement in working posture as compared to the present hand transplanting method. In terms of RULA, statistical test showed that there was a significant difference between the present and proposed method. OWAS results also

improved since the new evaluation showed that the posture of the back was normal as compared to the hand-transplanting method wherein the back was heavily strained. In closing, recommendation for further studies of the design were presented so as to improved the manual transplanting device.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

An ergonomic study on the teller’s workstation of a Philippine Bank Ms. Rosemary Seva Jimenez, Maria Olivia V. Limqueco, Leticia O. Tangsoc, Katherine May C.

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

September 2000 20000904

Many ergonomic studies have been conducted on sewer and VDT workstations. Likewise, the need for designing workstations specifically for the use of the pregnant women and the handicapped were established. However, not one ergonomic study has been made on the bank teller’s workstation. An Ergonomic Study on the Teller’s Workstation of a Philippine Bank is a study that is mainly focused on the design of the current teller’s workstation. In order to establish the need for this study, postural stress analysis was conducted. Postural stress analysis includes Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Nordic Questionnaire and Advanced Ergonomic Checklist. In administering these assessment tools, the results ascertained that redesigning the workstation was necessary. The need for redesigning the workstation was mainly caused by the poor sitting positioned assumed by the tellers as they perform their tasks. In generating the alternative design, many factors were taken into consideration. These factors are anthropometric data, office environment, human factors, and materials to be utilized for the workstation. Moreover, other design concepts were also adapted from existing design of office tables and chairs available in the market. The alternative designs for the table and chair were evaluated through the use of the Kepner-Tregoe Decision Analysis. For the table, Alternative 3 was chosen. In this design, the money compartment was transferred on top of the table, leading to a better leg clearance. Moreover, this design has a chamfered corner that maximized the use of the table. On the other hand, the selected chair design is the first alternative. This is a high ergonomic chair with a detachable pillow positioned at the backrest. The proposed workstation design was visually pre-evaluated through the use of the software Autocad and MQPro. From the computer-generated drawings, it was established that the proposed design fives proper leg clearance. The prototype of the proposed workstation was validated through the use fo Rapid Upper Limb Assessment and Advanced Ergonomics Checklist. The results of RULA showed that the teller’s risk of experiencing musculoskeletal pains

is reduced by 25.56%. Furthermore, the findings from the Advanced Ergonomics Checklist indicate that proposed workstation provides adequate leg clearance and reach distances. Also, it was determined that the chair gives enough support for the back and that the arms do not rest on contact sharp edges. Generally, the study indicates that the use of the proposed workstation design improves the posture of the tellers as they go about their tasks. Given that this design promotes proper and comfortable positions, the possibility of musculoskeletal pains associated with their tasks is significantly reduced.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author:

A Task and Workplace Assessment Tool Prof. Melvin Sanchez Chua, Harren N. Co, Michael P. Moreno, Nikki T.

Date: Call Number: Abstract:

August 2000 20000801

The assessment of tasks and work conditions has long been a concern of ergonomics. Such assessments pinpoint ergonomic issues possible areas of improvement. In assessing the task and workplace of a worker certain factors must be considered namely posture, force, repetition, manual material handling, and environmental factors. Questionnaires and checklists are ways by which work and workplace assessment can be done. Some questionnaires and checklists are based solely on worker responses while some ignore worker input and completely rely on input from the analyst. Also, input from the analyst can be either based on measurements or just based on observations. In order to effectively assess the task and the workplace, a workplace assessment tool must be able to assess each area of concern by taking both analyst and worker input. Worker input accommodates individuality and different perceptions of certain working condition. On the other hand, analyst input must be gathered from direct observation and by measurements. While worker input gives judgments and perceptions, analyst measurements make the assessment tool accurate with the use of facts that were gathered through observation and use of different equipment. The proposed assessment tool was in the form of questionnaires. One questionnaire is for the analyst and another for the worker. Thus, both measurements and worker perception are obtained. The assessment tool covers posture, force, repetition, manual material handling, illuminance, noise level and temperature. The proposed assessment tool provides scoring and action levels for posture and manual material handling. It also gives actual and recommended values for environmental factors. A pretest was conducted at LG Collins Electronics Manila. Findings from the pretest were used to make revisions on the questionnaires. The actual testing of the tool was also done at the said company. The questionnaires were used in the Final Assembly of television sets. The results were validated by comparing them to worker response. The comparison yielded accuracy levels for the tool.

These accuracy levels were then compared to the accuracy level of existing tool. The proposed assessment tool proved to be more accurate compared to past assessment tools particularly in terms of postural analysis and lifting capacity. The reason for this is because both analyst and worker input were obtained. It is also more effective in pinpointing areas of improvement because the assessment was done on each body part assessed and not on the body as a whole. It was also able to accommodate localized effects of repetition and force which is a downfall of other tools. Furthermore, the tool is through because it covers a wide range of factors, it takes subjective and measured inputs and provides action levels.

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author: Date: Call Number: Abstract:

An ergonomically designed cellular phone for the Filipino Youth Ms. Rosemary Seva Franco, Ivan 2000 20000802

(no abstract attached)

Title: Thesis Adviser: Author: Date: Call Number: Abstract:

A Thesis on the Redesigning of the Grand Industrial Steel, inc. Workplace Dr. Aida Velasco Co, Cheryl Tan, Clinton 2000 20000803

The group first observed that there are many things in the Grand Industrial Steel, Inc, office workplace that can be improved. Then the group went back again to observe in detail. Research was made by the group and through this the group found out that there was indeed many things that can still be improved. By the related literature researched by the group the standard lighting level for the office as well as the standard sound level was gotten. From these standards the proponents found out that there were indeed deviations from the standards. The workflow of the employees was arrived at by the group through the help of certain theories that were researched. Based from the workflow diagram the group found out that the distances can be shortened and the economy of movements were not taken into consideration. Anthropometric data of about 45 people were gotten by the group to be applied to the dimensions of the pieces of furniture in order to facilitate and ease the movements of the employees. The group then set about doing the design of the prototype of the actual office workspace. A drawing or draft was first made and then the prototype was slowly built up. The sound level was verified by testing an office of similar dimensions that was fitted with partitions. The sound level tested was 55 dB which conforms to the upper limit of sound level. This supports the group theory that partitioning indeed reduced the noise level. Although the lighting level could not be verified through actual testing due to constraints, the group computed for the number of lamps needed to produce the standard lighting level required. This theoretically answers the problem in the lighting system. The office layout was improved by the distance reduce and the ease of movement. The scaled prototype as a whole was an improvement compared to the old layout since the workspace was fitted to the person and not vice versa.

Title: An ergonomic workstation design for the trimming section of Globe Plastics, Inc. Thesis Adviser: Author: Ms. Alma Ma. Jennifer Gutierrez Aoigan, Norbert Co, Jim Lewis Velez, Natalio Dave Date: Abstract: In the pursuit of finding better solutions, ergonomics aims to add value through advancement of human working conditions. It has been an age-old practice for workers to adjust to their working environment. However, awareness and the impact of ergonomics have shown that exactly the opposite is much better. More and more, application of ergonomics is emerging in various industries. Globe Plastics is the latest company to share with this development. The focus of this study is on the 30 male trimmers of the packaging company. Three general body parts emerged as the most stressed areas. They are: the trunk, the neck and the legs, particularly the left knee and the left foot. The prototype came as the product of the study. It is designed to fit the body dimensions of the trimmers. The survey indicates that the prototype successfully reduced, and in some body parts, eliminated the discomfort and pain endured by the trimmers. These data were further supported by the RULA, postural analysis and biomechanical tests. The output of the company is largely reliant on the machine’s capability. Nonetheless, the new workstation significantly advanced working conditions, and most importantly the quality of the worker’s life. The seat was designed with a height of 16 inches. Its depth and width are both 16 inches. These improved the leg positions of the trimmer. Seat cushions of 2 inches further added comfort to the buttocks. The seat was also sloped forward with ten degrees to support the back when trimming. Table height is 32 inches, tilted 44 degrees towards the trimmer. This design prevents the neck from experiencing stress from excessive flexion. To further support the neck and the lower back, the catch bin base is likewise tilted towards the trimmer with an angle of 23 degrees. This allows the trimmer to easily pick up the bottles. In addition, and importantly, posture III has been eliminated by shortening the packing stand and placing it near the trimmer. This further reduced the risk of low back pain. September 1999

Faculty Research Projects
Title: Author: Call Number Abstract: Comparative Study on Different Postural Analysis Tools Rosemary R. Seva FR0001

Three postural assessment tools were compared according to their ability to predict pain, ease of use and ability of the results to suggest necessary improvements. The results obtained showed that OWAS can predict pain more reliably and the easiest one to use. RULA, however, is the best one in terms of recommending necessary improvements.

Title: Author: Call Number Abstract:

A Study on the Effects of Computer Workstation Design on Fatigue in Encoding Tasks Rosemary R. Seva FR0002

This is an experimental study that considered the effects of chair design, inclination of the screen and the presence of wrist support in fatigue and productivity of computer encoders.

Title:
Author: Call Number Abstract:

Design of an Improved Hospital Bed
Rosemary R. Seva FR0007

Hospital beds at San Juan De Dios Hospital do not conform to the physiological needs of the users. Most users experience pain in the lower back and upper extremities. The hospital bed designed minimized the pains experienced by the users and improved the lifting technique of the patients.

Title:

Development of a Discriminant Model Based on the Relationship between Product Characteristics and Affect for Product Design Rosemary R. Seva FR0009

Author: Call Number: Abstract:

In this study, it was hypothesized that affect is triggered by the consumer’s perception of product characteristics such as color, symmetry, shape, etc. During the purchase process, the consumer examines features of a product before making a decision and one important heuristic used is “affect”. Affect is felt instantaneously and the feeling signifies whether a stimulus is favorable or unfavorable. The hypothesis posited in this study was verified by performing discriminant analysis to determine product characteristics that engender positive or negative emotions. The characteristics were measured directly or by rating and categorization. The products considered in the experiment include mobile phones that potentially embody the personality of the users.

Title: Author: Call Number: Abstract:

Predictive Models of Product Marketability Using Affect Analysis Rosemary R. Seva FR0010

This study aims to conceptualize a model of affect that will encapsulate the emotions associated with customers’ pre-purchase affective states, identify what product-characteristics discriminate positive and negative emotions, and investigate the effect of affective states on the intention of consumers to buy a product. The research will also identify cultural and demographic variables (race, materialism, collectivism, education, gender, experience, etc) that influence affect ratings and purchase intention.

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