Free Essay

Thesis

In: English and Literature

Submitted By marianengpinas
Words 4590
Pages 19
2.4 LOCAL LITERATURE

2.4.1 Electronic Voting Literature Review

Computer scientists who have done work in, or are interested in, electronic voting all seem to agree on two things: * Internet voting does not meet the requirements for public elections * Currently widely-deployed voting systems need improvement

Voting on the Internet using every day PC's offers only weak security, but its main disadvantages are in the areas of anonymity and protection against coercion and/or vote selling. It's such a truly bad idea that there seems to be no credible academic effort to deploy it at all. The Presidential elections of 2000 brought national attention to problems with current American methods of casting and counting votes in public elections. Most people believe that the current system should be changed; there is much disagreement on how such changes should be made.

The MIT/Caltech researchers [1] “see a promising future for electronic voting, despite its problems today” (under a few conditions). They advocate using the methods currently in use which result in the lowest average numbers of “uncounted, unmarked, and spoiled ballots,” like in-precinct optical scanning. Their report even proposes a framework for new voting system with a decentralized, modular design.

Other researchers have done work in electronic voting; while they may not explicitly mention voting from remote poll sites, their work is nonetheless relevant to any effort at designing or implementing a remote poll site voting system. Lorrie Cranor [2] could be classified, like the Caltech/MIT researchers, as a cautious optimist. She acknowledges the problems inherent in each kind of voting apparatus, but doesn't make an over the recommendation on her site for one technology over the rest. Some other academics, whom we did not study in class, like Peter Neumann who moderates the RISKS mailing list, are less optimistic. They agree mostly with the Caltech/MIT committee, but their papers focus on the immensity of the problem one faces when trying to design and implement a truly secure voting system. They often remind us of Ken Thompson's Turing acceptance speech and the fact that we really can't trust any code which we did not create ourselves. (And in reality, we cannot trust even code that we do write ourselves, since we almost always need a development tool chain written by someone else.) Therefore, they tend to be extremely suspicious of proprietary voting machines and their makers who insist that we should “just trust [them].”

Neumann [4] gives a list of suggestions for "generic voting criteria" which suggests that avoting system should be so hard to tamper with and so resistant to failure that no commercial system is likely to ever meet the requirements, and developing a suitable custom system would be extremely difficult and prohibitively expensive.

Rebecca Mercuri [3,7] invented the “Mercuri method” for electronic voting. A critical component of this method is very similar to the Caltech/MIT proposal: a voting machine must produce human-readable hardcopy paper results, which can be verified by the voter before the vote is cast, and manually recounted later if necessary. Her philosophy and Neumann's are very similar; in fact, they've written papers together on the subject.

David Chaum presents a very interesting scheme [5], whereby voters could get receipts for their votes. This receipt would allow them to know if their votes were included in the final tally or not, and to prove that they voted without revealing any information about how they voted. The security of this scheme depends on visual cryptography developed by Naor and Shamir, and on voters randomly choosing one of two pieces of paper. Mercuri and Neumann advocate the use of this technique in electronic voting systems.

Dr. Michael Shamos of CMU provides a sharp counterpoint [6] to Neumann and Mercuri's views. While his “Six Commandments” summary of requirements for a voting system is very similar to others' requirements, he's less afraid of the catastrophic failures and sweeping fraud made possible by imperfections in electronic voting machines actually occurring in a real election. Shamos is also much less impressed with paper ballots than are Neumann and Mercuri. He places a great deal of faith in decentralization to make fraud difficult to commit and easy to detect. Dr. Shamos even likes DRE machines. (We must take into account the fact that this paper was written ten years ago, long before the 2000 elections and before more modern mathematical results like Chaum's; some of Dr. Shamos' opinions may have changed since then. While Dr. Neumann's talk cited here is of similar age, his pessimism with regard to machines has had little reason for change.)

Sources:
[1] "A Preliminary Assessment of the Reliability of Existing Voting Equipment," The
Caltech-MIT Voting Technology Project, March 30, 2001 (revised).
Available at http://www.vote.caltech.edu/Reports/index.html)
[2] “Lorrie Cranor's Voting Papers,” Lorrie Faith Cranor. http://lorrie.cranor.org/pubs/voting.html [3] "A Better Ballot Box?" Rebecca Mercuri, IEEE Spectrum, Volume 39, Number 10,
October 2002.
[4] “Security Criteria for Electronic Voting,” Peter Neumann, presented at the 16th
National Computer Security Conference Baltimore, Maryland, September 20-23, 1993.
Available at http://www.csl.sri.com/users/neumann/ncs93.html
[5] “Secret-Ballot Receipts and Transparent Integrity,” David Chaum, draft.
Available at http://www.vreceipt.com/article.pdf
[6] “Electronic Voting - Evaluating the Threat,” Michael Ian Shamos, CFP '93.
Available at http://www.cpsr.org/conferences/cfp93/shamos.html\
[7] “Electronic Voting,” Rebecca Mercuri. http://www.notablesoftware.com/evote.html

2.4.2 E-Voting in UAE FNC Elections: A Case Study

The amount of reported work on the subject of e-voting is considerably significant. The literature of electronic voting states that the field needs significant improvement (Alexander, 2001; Besselaar and Oostveen, 2003; Cranor, 2000; IPI, 2001; Hargrove, 2004; Liptrott, 2006; Manjoo, 2003a; Manjoo, 2003b; Millar, 2002; O'Donnell, 2002; Oostveen and Besselaar, 2006; Shamos, 1993; Xenakis and Macintosh, 2006). Advocates of e-voting point out that electronic voting can reduce election costs and increase civic participation by making the voting process more convenient. Critics maintain that without a paper trail, recounts are more difficult and may open the door for electronic ballot manipulation, and that even poorly-written programming code, could affect election results. Many researchers have produced different studies and approaches to address these concerns. A sample outline of such research is provided in Table 3. A report worthy of note around e-voting was produced by an MIT Universality Team in the United States.Information and Knowledge Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online) Vol 2, No.6, 201227. The Caltech/MIT Voting Technology Project that was established in December in 2000, following the controversial election recount of the 2000 residential vote in Florida, assessed the magnitude of the problems surrounding voting systems, their root causes and how technology can reduce them (Caltech-MIT, 2001). The report provided a set of recommendations on the various issues related to voting and proposed a framework for a new voting system with a decentralised, modular architecture in which vote generation is performed separately from vote casting. The report emphasised the importance of developing a permanent audit trail. It also stressed the fact that the vote generation machine can be proprietary, whereas the vote casting machine must be open-source and thoroughly verified and certified for correctness and security. The National Institute of Standards and Technology draft report, issued in 2006, proposed vote verification through a parallel process of electronic and ballot count (NIST, 2006). It indicated that voting systems should allow election officials to recount ballots independently from a voting machine's software. The recommendations endorse "optical-scan" systems in which voters mark paper ballots that are read by a computer, and electronic systems that print a paper summary of each ballot, which voters review and elections officials save for recounts.

NIST indicated in its report that the lack of a paper trail for each vote "is one of the main reasons behind continued questions about voting system security and that it diminished public confidence in elections."

The California Internet Voting Report [CIVTF, 2000] suggested an innovative strategy to enable remote internet voting to improve participation in the elections process, i.e. providing voters with the ability to cast their ballots at any time from any place via the Internet. On the contrary, experts argue that the internet isn’t ready yet for "prime time" national federal elections over the internet, given the current state of insecurity of hosts and the vulnerability of the Internet to manipulation and denial-of-service attacks (Hisamitsu and Takeda, 2007; Kosmopoulos, 2004; Rubin, 2002; Schneier, 2004). They also identify security issues in social engineering and in using specialised devices and other factors that could undermine the sanctity of an Internet-based election process, and that the current infrastructure is inadequate for remote Internet voting (ibid).

Another report produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2008 concluded that widely-deployed security technologies and procedures could mitigate many of the risks associated with electronic ballot delivery, but that the risks associated with casting ballots over the Internet were more serious and challenging to overcome (NIST, 2008).Another recent NIST report (2011) concluded that Internet voting systems cannot currently be audited with a comparable level of confidence in the audit results as those for polling place systems. Other researchers point out that building secure online voting systems is far from being possible and that a small configuration or implementation error would undermine the entire voting process (Wolchok et al., 2012).

Reference is made to the pilot project of an online voting in Washington, D.C. and how researchers at University of Michigan were able to break through the security functions and gained complete control of the election server in less than 48 hours. Researchers argue that fundamental advances still need to be made in security before e-voting will truly be safe (Cramer et al., 1996; Ikonomopoulos et al., 2002; Schoenmakers, 1999; Wolchok et al.,
2012).

Researchers indicated that operationally, no commercial system is likely to ever meet all requirements, and that developing a suitable custom system would be extremely difficult and prohibitively expensive (Neumann, 1993). Others indicated that any catastrophic failures and sweeping fraud made possible by imperfections in electronic voting machines are also likely to occur in a real election (Shamos, 1993). Shamos (1993) refers to the fact that the real source of election problems is the result of human limitations. He describes that the chief source of the issue is the willingness of unsuccessful politicians to embrace any conceivable reason for their loss, except that the voters didn't want them. His reflective recommendation proposes that government efforts expended in meeting threats to the election process should be rationally related both to the probability of the threat and the seriousness of its effects.

Other researchers argue that the progress of e-voting relies on the advancement of standards and technical solutions, which should take into account discussions on general requirements, threat perceptions and the economic, political and sociological implications surrounding the use of electronic voting systems (Alexander, 2001; Cranor, 2000; Hillman, 2007; Hoffman, 2004; Jones, 2001; Shamos, 1993; UK POST, 2001; Volkamer, 2009). Rubin (2002) argues that technologists should take on a role to educate the policymakers about the issues surrounding an e-voting system and enable them to develop more effective strategies.

Another part of the literature deals with public trust and confidence. It argues that, if the public perceives elections to be unfair, the foundation of the government is weakened. Whether electronic voting systems are fair may not even matter; it is the public perception that is crucial (Bonsor and Strickland, 2011).
On a different standpoint, the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance published a policy report that identified some essential considerations for e-voting systems to gain public trust and confidence (IDEA, 2011). It introduced a pyramid of trust that consists of three levels: credible electoral process, socio-political context, and operational and technical context. See also Figure 2. Information and Knowledge Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online) Vol 2, No.6, 201228

The top level represents the ultimate goal of the electoral reform and the introduction of the e-voting system, and is a factor that is dependent on the two levels shown below. Public trust is seen to be determined by the socio-political context in which e-voting is introduced. Some factors in this context can be directly addressed by a comprehensive e-voting implementation strategy, while others, such as a general lack of trust in the Election Management Body (EMB), or fundamental political or technical opposition, will be more difficult to change. A negative socio-political context has the potential to create serious risks, even if the technical and operational foundations of the e-voting solution are sound.
Chiang (2009) developed a technology acceptance model that constitutes four trust variables, namely ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude of usage, and security. The research results showed the effect of 'ease of use' on voters’ attitude towards using the e-voting system required 'perceived usefulness' as a medium. Then, the effect exhibited positive and significant influences among ease of use, perceived usefulness and attitude towards using the e-voting system. Security of the e-voting system has a positive and significant effect on attitude and trust in the e-voting system. The study concluded that the security of the e-voting system plays an important role in establishing user trust. Overall, the literature identified key elements that e-voting systems need to heed. These are listed in Table 4.

Though debate on the issue of e-voting has been and will continue to be passionate, most critics recognise that a move towards an electronic voting system is an inevitable step in the evolution of the voting process (2007).Governments seem to be motivated to adopt e-voting systems, despite the issues and concerns reported in the literature, as the next section will present.

Source: http://www.emiratesid.gov.ae/userfiles/EVoting_UAE_%20A%20Case%20Study.pdf 2.4.3 Electronic Voting - A Survey

Prashanth P. Bungale and Swaroop Sridhar
Department of Computer Science
The Johns Hopkins University

As the world watched the electoral drama unfold in Florida at the end of 2000, people started wondering, “Wouldn’t all our problems be solved if they just used Internet Voting?”. People all over the world soon started taking a hard look at their voting equipment and procedures, and trying to figure out how to improve them [1]. There is a strong inclination towards moving to Remote Internet Voting – at least among the politicians – in order to enhance voter convenience, increase voter confidence and voter turnout. However, as will be seen later in this paper, there are serious technological and social aspects that make Remote Internet Voting infeasible in the visible future. Therefore, many technologists have suggested that remote poll-site electronic voting, where the voter can vote at any poll-site (not only his home county poll-site), seems to be the best step forward as it provides better voter convenience, but at the same time, does not compromise security. This paper presents a survey of the state of the art in Electronic Voting, including the various works done in Internet Voting (and the arguments against its use), as well as in electronic poll-site voting.

Electronic voting refers to the use of computers or computerized voting equipment to cast ballots in an election. Sometimes, this term is used more specifically to refer to voting that takes place over the Internet. Electronic systems can be used to register voters, tally ballots, and record votes [2].

The Caltech/MIT Voting Technology Project [3] came into being in order to develop a new voting technology in order to prevent a recurrence of the problems that threatened the 2000 U. S. Presidential Elections. The report assesses the magnitude of the problems, their root causes and how technology can reduce them. They address a wide range of “What is” issues including voting procedures, voting equipment, voter registration, polling places, absentee and early voting, ballot security, cost and public finance of elections, etc. They then propose a novel “What could be” framework for voting technology (that moves away from monolithic voting structures), and propose that a process for innovation be setup. The framework is “A Modular Voting Architecture (“Frogs”)” [4,5,6] in which vote generation is performed separately from vote casting, and the “Frog” forms a permanent audit trail, the importance of which cannot be over-stressed. Here, the vote generation machine can be proprietary whereas the vote casting machine must be open-source and thoroughly verified and certified for correctness and security.
Finally, the report provides a set of short-term and long-term recommendations on the various issues related to voting.

In “Electronic Voting” [7], Rivest addresses some issues like the “secure platform problem” and the (im)possibility of giving a receipt to the voter. He also provides some personal opinions on a host of issues including the striking dissimilarity between e-commerce and e-voting, thedangers of adversaries performing automated, wide-scale attacks while voting from home, the need for extreme simplicity of voting equipment, the importance of audit-trails, support for disabled voters, security problems of absentee ballots, etc.

The NSF Internet Voting Report [8] addresses the feasibility of different forms of Internet voting from both the technical and social science perspectives, and defines a research agenda to pursue if Internet voting is to be viable in the future. It groups Internet voting systems into three general categories as follows:
• Poll-site Internet voting: It offers the promise of greater convenience and efficiency in that voters could cast their ballots from any poll site, and the tallying process would be both fast and certain. More importantly, since election officials would control both the voting platform and the physical environment, managing the security risks of such systems is feasible.
• Kiosk voting: Voting machines would be located away from traditional polling places, in such convenient locations as malls, libraries, or schools. The voting platforms would still be under the control of election officials, and the physical environment could be modified as needed and monitored (e.g., by election officials, volunteers, or even cameras) to address security and privacy concerns, and prevent coercion or other forms of intervention.
• Remote Internet voting: It seeks to maximize the convenience and access of the voters by enabling them to cast ballots from virtually any location that is Internet accessible. While this concept is attractive and offers significant benefits, it also poses substantial security risks and other concerns relative to civic culture. Current and near-term technologies are inadequate to address these risks.

The report presents some findings on the feasibility of each of these categories and provides research recommendations for the long-term future. It then identifies criteria for election systems. Finally, it addresses the technological issues (including voting system vulnerabilities, reliability, testing, certification and standards, specifications of source code, platform compatibility, secrecy and non-coercibility, etc.) and social science issues (such as voter participation, voter access, the election process, voter information, deliberative and representative democracy, community and character of elections, distribution of roles, legal concerns, voter registration, etc.)

The California Internet Voting Report [9] suggests a strategy of evolutionary rather than revolutionary change towards achieving the goal of providing voters with the opportunity to cast their ballots at any time from any place via the Internet. The report defines four distinct Internet voting models – Internet voting at voter’s polling place, Internet voting at any polling place, Remote Internet voting from County computers or kiosks, Remote Internet voting from any Internet connection – and the corresponding technical and design requirements that must be met when implementing any of the stages. It addresses the advantages, implementation and security issues of each of the four stages. They believe that additional technical innovations are necessary before remote Internet voting can be widely implemented as a useful tool to improve participation in the elections process and that current technology however would allow for the implementation of new voting systems that would allow voters to cast a ballot over the Internet from a computer at any one of a number of county-controlled polling places in a county. Finally, the report presents the findings and recommendations of the task force on policy issues. The Appendix A [10] of this report contains a technical analysis of the communication and security issues inherent in Internet voting, along with recommended privacy and security requirements for any Internet voting systems. It also deals with potential Internet-based voter registration systems and, briefly, with Internet petition-signing systems as well.

An extensive survey of e-voting technology has been provided in “e-Voting Security Study” [11]. It provides a survey of recent academic and commercial projects in the area, in addition to the area’s prominent academics’ personal views and testimonies regarding the issues. It identifies threats, potential sources of attack and possible methods of attack in such voting systems. It also identifies security objectives and requirements of an electronic voting system.

The foundation of much of the academic work in the area of remote voting is a paper by Fujioka, Okamoto and Ohta (FOO) [12]. It gives a mathematical framework for a secure election that involves an administrator, and a counter and the voter connected by an anonymous channel.
Practically focused projects build on the blind voting protocol proposed in this paper. Sensus [13] uses blind signatures to ensure that only registered voters can vote and that each registered voter votes exactly once, while at the same time maintaining voter’s privacy. It allows voters to verify independently that their votes were counted correctly and anonymously challenge the results, should their votes be miscounted. Another project called E-VOX [14] at MIT implements a simplified, user-friendly version of the FOO framework using Java, Netscape and JDBC (Java Database Connectivity). This system is still involved in teaching and research and was used for an Undergraduates Association election at MIT in 1999. “Multiple Administrators for Electronic Voting” [15] improves this further by distributing the authority among multiple administrators to prevent vote forging.

“An untraceable, universally verifiable voting scheme” [16] presents a remote voting scheme that applies the technique of blinded signature to a voter's ballot so that it is impossible for anyone to trace the ballot back to the voter. They achieve the desired properties of privacy, universal verifiability, convenience and untraceability, but at the expense of receipt-freeness. The E-Poll (Electronic Polling System for Remote Voting Operations) project [17] investigates broadband mobile communications based on the UMTS standard for providing the E-Poll network with the required bandwidth and security. This makes it possible to use E-Poll kiosks anywhere, within a private, reliable and protected network. The voter-recognition system is based on an innovative smart card with an embedded biometric fingerprint reader, which performs voter recognition with absolute security. An ergonomic kiosk facilitates use by disabled people. The FREE e-democracy project [18] is dedicated to creating the GNU.FREE Internet Voting system and also advocating Free Software, which is non-partisan and non-commercial in origin. [19] presents a system for secure electronic voting which does not rely on persistent network connections between polling places and the vote-tallying server. They build the system on a disconnected (or, more accurately, an intermittently connected) environment, which behaves well in the absence of network connectivity.

“Security Criteria for Electronic Voting” [20] considers some basic criteria for confidentiality, integrity, availability, reliability, and assurance for computer systems involved in electronic voting. After an assessment of the realizability of those criteria, it concludes that, operationally, many of the criteria are inherently unsatisfiable with any meaningful assurance.

In [21], Rubin identifies the new risks brought about by introducing the state-of-the-art technology into the election process, which may not be worth taking. The major security risks identified include those at the voting platform – including malicious payload (attack programs, remote administration and monitoring toolkits, etc.) and delivery mechanism (worms, viruses and bugs, active content downloaded automatically, etc.) – and the communications infrastructure – including (distributed) denial of service attack, DNS server attack, etc. He also identifies security issues in social engineering and in using specialized devices. Discussions on requirements, threat perceptions and socio-political issues regarding electronic voting can be found in [22, 23, 24, 25, 26].

Sources: “Voting After Florida: No Easy Answers,” Lorrie Faith Cranor, December 2000, http://lorrie.cranor.org/.
“Electronic Voting,” Encyclopedia of Computers and Computer History, prepared by Lorrie Faith Cranor and edited by Raul Rojas, published by Fitzroy Dearborn, 2001.
“Voting – What is, What Could be,” Caltech/MIT Voting Technology Project (VTP) Report, July 2001.
“A Modular Voting Architecture (“Frogs”),” Shuki Bruck, David Jefferson, and Ronald L. Rivest, August 2001.
“Comments of Professor Ronald L. Rivest”, Caltech/MIT VTP Press Conference, July 16, 2001, http://theory.lcs.mit.edu/~rivest/publications.html.
“Testimony given before the U.S. House Committee on Administration”, Ronald L. Rivest, May 24, 2001, http://theory.lcs.mit.edu/~rivest/publications.html.
“Electronic Voting,” Ronald L. Rivest, Technical Report, Laboratory for Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
“Report of the National Workshop on Internet Voting: Issues and Research Agendas,” Internet Policy Institute, Sponsored by the National Science Foundation, Conducted in cooperation with the University of Maryland and hosted by the Freedom Forum, March 2001.
“A Report on the Feasibility of Internet Voting,” California Internet Voting Task Force, January 2000.
“Appendix A: Technical Committee Recommendations,” California Internet Voting Task Force, January 2000. “e-Voting Security Study,” E-Democracy Consultation, U. K. Cabinet Office, http://www.edemocracy.gov.uk/library/papers/study.pdf.
“A Practical Secret Voting Scheme for Large Scale Elections,” A. Fujioka, T. Okamoto, and K. Ohta, Advances in Cyptology - AUSCRYPT ‘92.
“Sensus: A Security-Conscious Electronic Polling System for the Internet,” Lorrie F. Cranor and Ron K. Cytron, Proceedings of the Hawai`i International Conference on System Sciences, January 7-10, 1997, Wailea, Hawai`i, USA.
“Secure Electronic Voting Over the World Wide Web,” Master’s Thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, May 1999.
“Multiple Administrators for Electronic Voting,” Bachelor’s Thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, May 1999.
“An Untraceable, Universally Verifiable Voting Scheme,” Professor Philip Klein, Seminar in Cryptology, December 12, 1995. http://www.e-poll-project.net/ http://www.free-project.org/
“Secure Voting Using Disconnected, Distributed Polling Devices,” David Clausen, Daryl Puryear and Adrian Rodriguez, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University.
“Security Criteria for Electronic Voting,” Peter G. Neumann, 16th National Computer Security Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, September 20-23, 1993.
“Security Considerations for Remote Electronic Voting,” Aviel D. Rubin, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 45, No. 12, December 2002.
“Ten Things I Want People to Know About Voting Technology,” Kim Alexander, President and Founder, California Voter Foundation, Presented to the Democracy Online Project’s National Task Force, National Press Club, Washington, D. C., January 18, 2001.
“Electronic Voting – Evaluating the Threat,” Michael Ian Shamos, International Conference on Computers, Freedom, and Privacy, Burlingame, California, 1993.
“Internet Voting: Will it Spur or Corrupt Democracy?,” Lance J. Hoffman, Technical Report, Computer Science Department, The George Washington University, Washington, D. C.
“Online Voting,” postnote – a publication of the U. K. Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, May 2001.
“Evaluating Voting Technology,” Douglas W. Jones, Testimony before the United States Civil Rights Commission, Tallahassee, Florida, January 11, 2001.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Thesis for College

...fi/bitstream/handle/.../Thesis%20Timo%20Aho.pdf?... by T Aho - ‎2012 - ‎Related articles The purpose of this thesis project was to find and create a better solution for handling ... for example, of names, preferred shoe sizes and address information. During this project, it was decided that a customer information system will to be cre-. Thesis Proposal For Management Information Systems Free ... www.termpaperwarehouse.com/.../thesis...management-information-syste... Free Essays on Thesis Proposal For Management Information Systems for students. Use our papers to help you with yours 1 - 20. [PDF]Web-based Information System for Land Management www.ucalgary.ca/engo_webdocs/MR/05.20223.LimanMao.pdf by L Mao - ‎2005 - ‎Cited by 1 - ‎Related articles Web-based Information System for Land Management .... 1.5 THESIS STRUCTURE. ..... Figure 4.7: Sample of Attribute Tables of Web-GIS Prototype System . [PDF]Developing effective hospital management information ... ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2411&context=theses by C Bain - ‎2014 - ‎Related articles Oct 5, 2014 - The central contention of this thesis is that the current ecosystem models in the information ... This research seeks to highlight an example of ... hospital management information system environment, using the technology. [PDF]Thesis Management System for Industrial Partner ... - IS MU is.muni.cz/th/374278/fi_b/thesis-text.pdf by V Dedík - ‎Related articles Keywords. Thesis, Thesis Management,......

Words: 525 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Thesis Writing

...------------------------------------------------- Thesis Writing: A Guide for Students By Jennifer Swenson The Sparrow’s introduction to thesis writing is a clear-cut and comprehensive tool for those who are about to embark on one of the more difficult projects in all of academia. Thesis writing is not an art; rather, it is the product of many months of research and painstaking hard work. Whether you are writing a master’s thesis, a PhD thesis, or any other form of this venerable genre, I hope this guide will serve you well. Thesis Writing Background What is a thesis? A thesis is essentially a research report. It addresses a very specific issue and describes what is known about that issue, what work the student has done to investigate or resolve it, and how that issue may play out in the future. It is the thesis writer’s responsibility to familiarize her with the history of the issue and the different points of view that exist. The thesis writer works with a mentor who is an expert in the field that the thesis concerns, but not necessarily an expert on that exact topic. Usually thesis topics are so specific that very few people in the world except the thesis writer herself could be considered an expert on them. Your thesis writing will make a contribution to the field about which you are writing, and in a larger sense, to all of human knowledge. A thesis is distinctively different from an undergraduate research report because it is so original. How Specific Should My......

Words: 2925 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Thesis Writing

...------------------------------------------------- Thesis Writing: A Guide for Students By Jennifer Swenson The Sparrow’s introduction to thesis writing is a clear-cut and comprehensive tool for those who are about to embark on one of the more difficult projects in all of academia. Thesis writing is not an art; rather, it is the product of many months of research and painstaking hard work. Whether you are writing a master’s thesis, a PhD thesis, or any other form of this venerable genre, I hope this guide will serve you well. Thesis Writing Background What is a thesis? A thesis is essentially a research report. It addresses a very specific issue and describes what is known about that issue, what work the student has done to investigate or resolve it, and how that issue may play out in the future. It is the thesis writer’s responsibility to familiarize her with the history of the issue and the different points of view that exist. The thesis writer works with a mentor who is an expert in the field that the thesis concerns, but not necessarily an expert on that exact topic. Usually thesis topics are so specific that very few people in the world except the thesis writer herself could be considered an expert on them. Your thesis writing will make a contribution to the field about which you are writing, and in a larger sense, to all of human knowledge. A thesis is distinctively different from an undergraduate research report because it is so original. How Specific Should My......

Words: 2925 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Thesis Guide

...pr pr acti od ca uc l a ing sp a ects th es of is at un sw po th stg es rad is gu uate ide PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF PRODUSING A THESIS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES P.GRADUATE A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Postgraduate Board January 2002 University of New South Wales Please note: the web version does not contain two sections of the printed version. The differences are due to differing formats which makes it impossible to convert some pages into a PDF format. Missing are a mock up of a UNSW Thesis/Project Report Sheet and the information in Appendix IV. A copy of the printed guide can be sent to you if you email your address to campaigns@unsw.edu.au. This missing information was taken from the Thesis Submission Pack which is available from New South Q on the Kensington campus (download from or phone: (02) 9385 3093). ABSTRACT This booklet is designed to assist research students with the practical aspects of producing a postgraduate research thesis at the University of New South Wales. As well as providing advice in regard to the University’s requirements, formatting, layout, referencing and the use of information technology, this guide also describes what some students might regard as the more arcane and ritualistic aspects of producing a PhD thesis, in particular, those associated with accepted academic conventions. A section on posture and ergonomics has also been included to help......

Words: 12383 - Pages: 50

Free Essay

General Thesis

...INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY THESIS TITLE A PROJECT Presented to the Department of Information and Communication Technology, Garden City University College in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science In Computer Science By NAME1 NAME2 Month, Year DECLARATION I hereby declare that the entire thesis work entitled, “……………..” submitted to the department of Information and Communication Technology, Garden City University College, in fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of BSc Computer Science, is a bonafide record of my own work carried out under the supervision of Mr/Mrs/Ms . ……….. I further declare that the thesis either in part or full, has not been submitted earlier by me or others for the award of any degree in any University. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This section contains expressions of gratitude to advisor(s) and anyone who helped you:  1. technically (including materials, supplies) 2. intellectually (assistance, advice) 3. financially (for example, departmental support, travel grants)  ABSTRACT The abstract is an important component of your thesis. Presented at the beginning of the thesis, it is likely the first substantive description of your work read by an external examiner. The abstract is the last section to write. An abstract is not merely an introduction in the sense of a preface, preamble, or advance organizer that prepares the reader for the thesis. In addition to that function, it......

Words: 2039 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Thesis Statement

...Thesis Statement and Outline Online Shopping vs. Brick and Mortar Shopping Both forms of shopping have one goal in mind. That goal is to get the item that you desire. Many of the stores that you visit on a daily basis can come to you online. I. You can shop in the comfort of your own home. A. You do not have to worry about getting ready to go shopping. 1. You can shop in your pajamas if you prefer. 2. You can shop when it is convenient for you. B. You do not have to fight crowds in the mall or store. 1. There is no traffic to worry about getting to the stores. 2. During the holiday season, you do not have to worry about many people crowding you. II. You can see what you are buying. A. Depending on what you buy, you can feel the item and actually see the item. 1. You can feel the texture or weight of an item. 2. You can see if the item is big or overweight. B. There is no wondering if you are getting the item that you ordered. 1. You can be positive that you are getting the correct item. 2. You can see the exact shade or style of what you are buying in person. III. Instant gratification A. There is no waiting to receive your item. 1. You are able to take your purchase home that same day. 2. Site to store is an option with many stores and it is possible to pick it up that day. B. Being able to......

Words: 339 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Thesis Statement

...The thesis statement that I have come up with for my “big idea” topic is: I believe we can better our economy by changing the way the government assists the citizens financially with programs such as food stamps, otherwise known as EBT. The government shapes society and the government needs to help society help themselves by making a few changes to the way it disburses our tax money. I think this thesis is going to be effective because it shows my main focus of the essay I will be writing, which is to change the way government assists families of low income. I want to stress the option of giving more money as school grants rather than giving it for food. Another option would also be limiting the options of foods that are okay to purchase with EBT. Right now, there are no limitation other than alcohol or pre-prepared foods. You can even purchase energy drinks at the moment. If people weren’t given everything for doing nothing, they may be more likely to further their education and get a better job to provide such luxuries as fatty foods or sweets and energy drinks. I see a major problem supporting this thesis with fallacy, mainly because I have such strong personal opinions. I am going to have to force myself to rely on straight facts and pure research to get my point across. For my research, I am going to stray away from any sort of blogs or websites put up as a riot against the government. I will do my best to find websites that are “.org” or .gov”. I think a......

Words: 727 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Hot to Write Thesis

...How to write chapter 1 of a Thesis: Basic Guide How to writer chapter 1 of the thesis? This is the mainly question on every researcher. In every thesis writing, some of the people say that the first part will be the most difficult part. Because here you must think of a topic that you can proposed and in this chapter you must conceptualize your whole thesis or your whole research. The whole research will be reflected by the first chapter. Some of the school have different format than other school so please use this guide for your references. Be sure to check out the Attributes of a Good Thesis before you start and check out the basic parts of the thesis also. This can also serve as your guide for your case study, research paper, and term paper. This will help you to understand the chapter 1 of your school paper works. Chapter 1: Introduction also includes the following: * Introduction This must include introduction of your study. You must tackle the field of your study.  Your introduction must be consisting of 1-2 pages only. * Background of the Study This must include some of the past study that is currently connected to your topic or study. You can include some of the history but it must be 2-3 lines only. * Rationale This section must describe the problem situation considering different forces such as global, national and local forces.  Stating some the existence of the problem included in your topic. * Objectives of the study The objective of your......

Words: 533 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Human Trafficking Facts, Statistics, Truth, Research Papers, Reports, Essays, Articles, Thesis, Dissertation

... Research papers, reports, essays, articles, thesis, dissertationHuman Trafficking Facts, Statistics, Truth, Research papers, reports, essays, articles, thesis, dissertationHuman Trafficking Facts, Statistics, Truth, Research papers, reports, essays, articles, thesis, dissertationHuman Trafficking Facts, Statistics, Truth, Research papers, reports, essays, articles, thesis, dissertationHuman Trafficking Facts, Statistics, Truth, Research papers, reports, essays, articles, thesis, dissertationHuman Trafficking Facts, Statistics, Truth, Research papers, reports, essays, articles, thesis, dissertationHuman Trafficking Facts, Statistics, Truth, Research papers, reports, essays, articles, thesis, dissertationHuman Trafficking Facts, Statistics, Truth, Research papers, reports, essays, articles, thesis, dissertationHuman Trafficking Facts, Statistics, Truth, Research papers, reports, essays, articles, thesis, dissertationHuman Trafficking Facts, Statistics, Truth, Research papers, reports, essays, articles, thesis, dissertationHuman Trafficking Facts, Statistics, Truth, Research papers, reports, essays, articles, thesis, dissertationHuman Trafficking Facts, Statistics, Truth, Research papers, reports, essays, articles, thesis, dissertationHuman Trafficking Facts, Statistics, Truth, Research papers, reports, essays, articles, thesis, dissertationHuman Trafficking Facts, Statistics, Truth, Research papers, reports, essays, articles, thesis, dissertationHuman Trafficking Facts,......

Words: 353 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Mis Thesis Thesis Thesis

...thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis thesis......

Words: 595 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Us History

...Worksheet Overall Thesis Statement (this will be the last sentence of your introduction and should contain the three main organizing points in your essay – for this essay it will likely be political, economic, social): I. Thesis of the first paragraph of the body (Political): 1. First piece of specific historical evidence that supports your thesis: a. Explanation of how this evidence supports your thesis: 2. Second piece of specific historical evidence that supports your thesis: a. Explanation of how this evidence supports your thesis: 3. Third piece of specific historical evidence that supports your thesis: a. Explanation of how this evidence supports your thesis: II. Thesis of the second paragraph of the body (Economic): 1. First piece of specific historical evidence that supports your thesis: a. Explanation of how this evidence supports your thesis: 2. Second piece of specific historical evidence that supports your thesis: a. Explanation of how this evidence supports your thesis: 3. Third piece of specific historical evidence that supports your thesis: a. Explanation of how this evidence supports your thesis: III. Thesis of the third paragraph of the body (Social): 1. First piece of specific historical evidence that supports your thesis: a. Explanation of how this evidence supports your thesis: 2. Second piece of specific historical evidence that supports your thesis: a. Explanation of how this evidence supports your thesis: 3. Third piece......

Words: 270 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Apple Paper

...highlighting tool in your word processing software. In addition, please have them identify and copy and paste your thesis statement and the topic sentences for each paragraph. |  |Exemplary |Proficient |Emerging |Not Yet Demonstrated | | |100% |86% |73% |60% | |INTRODUCTION / THESIS |Well-developed introduction |Introduction creates interest |Introduction adequately |Background details are a | | |engages the reader and creates |and contains background |explains the background of the|random collection of | |Background/History |interest. Contains detailed |information. Thesis clearly |problem, but may lack |information, are unclear, and | |Defining the Problem |background information and a |states a problem and the |clarity.  Thesis states a |may be loosely related to the | |Thesis Statement |clear explanation of the problem.|writer’s position is evident. |problem, but writer’s position|topic. Thesis/position is | | |Thesis clearly states a | |may not be evident. |vague or not stated. ...

Words: 1013 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Jnoo

...THESIS MANUAL INSTRUCTIONS CONCERNING THE PREPARATION OF THESES AND DISSERTATIONS Research and Graduate Studies Texas A&M University-Kingsville Kingsville, Texas 78363 (361) 593-2808 SPRING 2011 COPYRIGHT PRIVILEGES BELONG TO RESEARCH AND GRADUATE STUDIES Reproduction of this THESIS MANUAL requires the written permission of the Graduate Dean. FOREWORD The nature of a research study should be one in which the investigation leads to new knowledge or enhancement of existing knowledge in the student's field of study, either through acquisition of new data or re-examination and interpretation of existing data. At the graduate level, all students should learn how new knowledge is created, how experimentation and discovery are carried out, and how to think, act and perform independently in their discipline. Depending upon the degree to which the discipline has an applied orientation, the student can demonstrate mastery of the discipline through means such as research papers, literature reviews, artistic performances, oral/written presentations or case studies. The doctoral dissertation is viewed in academia as the ultimate model of documentation of the student's research. The characteristics of dissertation research include the theoretical background, description of the problem, the method which was used to solve the problem, interpretation of results and explanation of their significance. The student is expected to produce a product of excellent quality which......

Words: 10528 - Pages: 43

Free Essay

Just Like a River

...English speaking audiences. However, with this translation, the book can show any reader despite their beliefs can relate to the complexities of all relationships when people are unable to be open and share their feelings a learned behavior from society, family, or religious beliefs. See if it this meets the requirement thus far. Instructions Below: Your introduction must be no more than one paragraph in length. It should indicate the theme(s) and thesis/theses of the book, and you should include your thesis statement at the end of the introductory paragraph. The thesis statement is ABSOLUTELY essential to your paper. It tells me what your analyses will prove or argue. Your thesis statement should be an argument about the author’s purpose in writing the book or the author’s thesis in the book - and how successful (or not) was the author in achieving this purpose or proving this thesis. This may seem a bit confusing, but think of your thesis statement creation as a three step process. * First, identify what you think is the thesis or purpose of the book. *...

Words: 626 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Talambuhay Na Palahad

...CENTRAL EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY Thesis Writing and ETD Submission Guidelines for CEU MA/MSc Theses and PhD Dissertations (Revised and adopted by the CEU Senate 7 December 2007) The thesis or dissertation is the single most important element of a research degree. It is a test of the student’s ability to undertake and complete a sustained piece of independent research and analysis, and to write up that research in a coherent form according to the rules and conventions of the academic community. As the official language of study at CEU is English, students are required to write the thesis/dissertation in English to a standard that native speaker academics would find acceptable. A satisfactory thesis should not only be adequate in its methodology, in its analysis and in its argument, and adequately demonstrate its author’s familiarity with the relevant literature; it should also be written in correct, coherent language, in an appropriate style, correctly following the conventions of citation. It should, moreover, have a logical and visible structure and development that should at all times assist the reader’s understanding of the argument being presented and not obscure it. The layout and physical appearance of the thesis should also conform to university standards. The purpose of this document is to outline the standard requirements and guidelines that a master’s thesis or PhD dissertation (hereafter the term ‘thesis’ is used to cover both MA and PhD except where the......

Words: 5926 - Pages: 24