Free Essay

This Is It

In: Other Topics

Submitted By Wizardofwoz
Words 1418
Pages 6
Alex Espinosa Dr. Wilson
MCWP 125
2/8/16
Why Naval Sonar Use Should Be More Highly Regulated Over recent years, military- derived sonar has been found to be linked with cetacean strandings. This and the general increase of noise in the ocean within the last century, which is known to have increased with the introduction of propeller ship engines (Jasny 12), has largely impacted the oceanic ecosystem. If such strong correlations have been scientifically determined, why has the United States Navy failed to adjust its practices in favor of saving marine organisms? How much evidence will suffice for the United States government to take necessary strides towards keeping our oceans safe? It is with this in mind that I claim that the U.S. Navy’s use of active sonar, whether it be mid or low frequency, needs to be more highly regulated. Therefore, government officials need to use their political power to support the marine species being affected by these anthropogenic noises. My first sub claim supporting my driving thesis will pertain to the negative impact sonar activity has on marine organisms. I will begin with the introduction of the importance of sound to the ocean’s mammals, the most prominent subjects of mid and low frequency sonar. This is an imperative aspect of this issue because the survival of every single one of these marine animals is based concretely in their specialized abilities to hear through the oceanic medium. With this I will present the scientifically supported fact that hearing in marine animals became established for an evolutionary purpose: to enhance the abilities of “predator abundance and/ or prey detection” (Ladich 5). Therefore, the introduction of anthropogenic noise by the Navy is highly likely, if not guaranteed, to affect the survival abilities of marine animals. Additionally, sound is known to be essential in mating processes, communication, feeding, navigation etc. (Jasny 10). I will end this aspect of my first sub claim with evidence from “Navy Sonar and Cetaceans: Just How Much Does the Gun Need to Smoke Before We Act?” in support of the multitude of sound uses by marine organisms. Within the umbrella of negative sonar impacts I will define sonar in terms of its broad range of sound. I plan to compare each type of sonar, mid and low, to a universal form of measurement that will allow the average person to comprehend the impact it can have. Following the descriptions of sonar ranges I plan to introduce the fact that the frequencies being utilized are ones known to serve in the communication of marine organisms. The purpose of this point would be to demonstrate that naval activity creates a large source of competition for marine organisms that rely on sound to survive. This conclusion can be supported through various examples of marine mammal responses to noise. As evidence I will mention sperm whale silencing in the Caribbean. I also plan to use this concept of sound to address a possible counterargument pertaining to the adjustment of the Navy’s range to one not explicitly utilized by marine organisms; there is too much overlap to successfully demonstrate this idea. Supporting my first sub claim, I also plan to introduce cetacean strandings by mentioning the many marine mammals found dead globally at sea or on shore. I will utilize the Parsons article, specifically, on Navy sonar and cetaceans to exemplify the many linked instances of strandings and nearby Navy sonar activity; it will be essential to note that every case mentioned in Parsons’s report can be linked to a military training exercise nearby (2). I will also include that the well- known, due to media coverage, beaked whales are far from the only species of mammals being affected by mid- frequency sonar. The northern minke whale, the short finned pilot whale, and the pygmy killer whale are just a few other mammalian species whose strandings coincided with nearby naval activities (Parsons 2). I plan to utilize the latter information to counter the potential opposing argument that beaked whales are the only species being led to their death by active military sonar, therefore somehow considered overly sensitive— that is not the case. Alongside the strandings of marine mammals I plan to shed light on the other known effects of mid- frequency sonar use on all marine organisms. To start, I plan to acknowledge the behavioral responses seen in marine mammals as a result of exposure to sonar. This will include “…changes in vocalizations by long- finned pilot whales (Parsons 1250) and the shift in male humpback whale singing (Parsons 1250). I also want to make it clear that marine mammals may be the most recognized victims of sonar, but they are not alone. I want to include data pertaining to effects on fish and other marine organisms that reside alongside mammals in our oceans. Snow crabs, giant squid, pink snapper, and brown shrimp are known to be sensitive when they encounter intense oceanic noises (Jasny 5). Through my second sub claim, stating that established laws meant to serve as protection for all marine organisms against anthropogenic harm are not being enforced, I will introduce fundamental laws established by our American government for protection against the threats of mid- frequency sonar use. I will specifically describe the Marine Mammal Protection Act, the Endangered Species Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, and the Coastal Zone Management Act and how they are being overlooked in order to favor the naval perspective. Alongside the mention of what these laws establish, it will also be beneficial to mention a series of instances documented via law suits, such as NRDC v. Winters, that exploits consistent Naval exemptions from these laws in order to continue harmful underwater practices. I will explain potential sources of these exemptions that do not completely place the military at fault in order to avoid obviously biased accusations.
In support of my third sub claim, the assertion that the United States government has the actual ability to regulate sonar use, I plan to more explicitly report on the deliberation of the NRDC v. Winters case and its eventual ruling on the decrease of low frequency sonar use (Alexander 10). In addition to this case, although less specific to sonar, I plan to suggest the government’s abilities through other victories of compliance observed in water pollution policy stated in Vessel- Source Pollution and Public Vessels (1995). These insights will serve as evidentiary support for the success of litigation for compromise; in these cases, the balance between environmental protection and national security. Lastly, through my research on the litigation of sonar- related issues, it has occurred to me that the surveyors whose jobs are to evaluate the potential severity of naval sonar on marine animals are associated with the U.S. Navy. This naturally leads me to question their bias towards the position of their counterparts. Therefore, within the aforementioned area of argument, I plan to also address the roles of Navy- appointed surveyors in this, hopefully, objective process. With more research on this topic I hope to more directly address any potential counter arguments to my argument asserting that the U.S. Navy should be more closely regulated in its sonar use due to the detrimental effects mid and low frequency sounds can have one marine organisms. I want it to be clear that I do not oppose the use of sonar, however I believe that its use can be better controlled in order to lessen the burden on oceanic ecosystems. In order to do so, however, the government needs to be involved actively, my main claim.

Works Cited
Alexander, Kristina. Whales and Sonar: Environmental Exemptions for the Navy’s Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training. Washington, D.C. : Congressional Research Service, 2008. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.
Dehner, Jeffrey S. "Vessel-Source Pollution and Public Vessels: Sovereign Immunity v. Compliance Implications for International Environmental Law." Emory International Law Review 9.2 (1995): 507-552.
Jasny, Michael. Sounding the Depths II: The Rising Toll of Sonar, Shipping and Industrial Ocean Noise on Marine Life. New York, NY: Natural Resources Defense Council, 2005. 1-84. Web. 18 Jan. 2016.
Ladich, Friedrich. “Acoustic Communication and the Evolution of Hearing in Fishes”. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences 355.1401 (2000): 1285–1288. Web. 22 Jan. 2016.
Parsons, E.C.M., Sarah J. Dolman, Andrew J. Wright, Naomi A. Rose, W.C.G. Burns. “Navy Sonar and Cetaceans: Just How Much Does the Gun Need to Smoke Before We Act?” Elsevier 56 (2008): 1248-1257. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Thi Thi

...Often we hear the phrase, "promote from within" as one of the best ways to expand the talent pool. Yet sometimes firms do not post internal openings for which anyone may apply.  Instead, they select someone to promote. Why might a firm do this and what drawbacks could result? On the other hand, some firms prefer to look outside the company to increase the talent pool, including posting information on social networking sites.  What are the benefits of using social media for recruitment? A firm might want to “promote from within” because the company wants to attract their employees. Every ones want to work for a company where they will have the opportunities of promotion. This will encourage people to work harder because they want to go up on that ladder of employment. Also, “promote from with in” helps company save time and money on hiring any position. Company will not have to pay the advertising fee, won’t have to read a bunch of applications, and won’t have to interview lots of people. Another plus thing is when you promote someone from with in, that person already knows well about the company and how things work, so they don’t have to spend a lot of times to learn about the company culture and stuffs, which may lowers their performance for the first couple weeks like employees that are hired from outside of the company might. So “promote from with in is a great way to strengthen your company with out having to spend too much to find the perfect candidates. However,......

Words: 429 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

This Is It

...create the ups and downfalls for many brands on the market. In order to have future opportunities a brand would need to be successful in all area that it takes to be a major product. I think in positioning products, I would recommend that the product stand up for its words. The price of the product is what it is selling for, but if I pay so much for the item I would like to have it around for a while. If I am able to have it around for a while then it’s worth the money. Clothes are like car, wanting something reliable to get to A to B, like warm than cold. So positioning the product as a product that stands its claim from advertisement to the closet or where ever they are placed is a claim that I would use to sell the product. If I can do this then a lot would not care about pricing, and place to get the items or products. Positioning...

Words: 1835 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

This and That

...How can a rubbish bin be a delight? A rubbish bin is the sort of product most people value for its functional features. However, a Danish producer of high-quality designer rubbish bins, the Vipp rubbish bin, has managed to change the rules. People gladly pay $250-500 for a Vipp bin, and at this price they must be getting more than just a well-functioning rubbish bin. How else could you pursue consumers to pay so much for a functional product that costs significantly less than the sales price to produce? Vipp is more than functionality, it is a story, it is quality, it is design, and sometimes even perceived as art. In other words, Vipp has managed to turn something as boring and functional as a rubbish bin into a delight. The story behind Vino is an important part of the product and helps differentiate it from other products of similar functionality. The first Vipp bin was made by Holger Nielsen in 1939 in a small town in western Denmark. The rubbish bin was designed for his wife's new hair-dressing salon. From here the bin found its way into the offices of the local physician and the local dentist and slowly but steadily into other clinics, salons, and hospitals. When Holger Nielsen's daughter Jette Egelund, took over in 1994 she saw new potential for the bin and took it from being a functional, quality rubbish bin to being a designer product. She started selling the rubbish bin on the private consumer market and also took it outside of Denmark, first to Germany and then......

Words: 396 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

This

...When I was stationed in South Dakota I owned a 1994 Audi A4. I enjoyed the vehicle so much that ever since then I have wanted to own a new Audi A4. The current price of a 2013 Audi A4 is $33,395. In twelve years I assume that in order to keep consumers returning to their product they will continue to keep the price about the same. My goal is to save up enough money in 12 years to pay with cash. Let assume that I have found an investment that that promises an average return of 10% per year. The desired item is a new Audi A4 The cost in 12 years will be about $33,395 The average interest rate of the investment is 10%.  The Present Value Formula is P = A(1+r)-n where P is the present value that will amount to A dollars in n years at interest rate r compounded annually. The numbers are plugged into the formula P = A(1+r)-n and the quantity raised to a power and has a negative exponent of –n. It will look like: P = 33395(1 + .10)-12  Next I will add inside the parentheses. P = 33395(1.10)-12  Now by using the rules of exponents the negative exponent will change position and convert to a positive by finding the reciprocal and I will calculate 1.1012. P = 33395(1.10)12  P = 33395/(1.10)12 P = 33395/3.138428… Finally I will show the value of P using the formula. P = 10640.67  Looking at the results of the formula, if I invest let’s say $11000.00 today I will have the $33395 and some change in 12 years to purchase my...

Words: 293 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

This Is It

...CONTENTS |Topic |Page | |Newton's 1st Law: the Law of Inertia |2 | |Newton's 2nd Law: the Law of Proportionality |3 | |Newton's 3rd Law: the Law of Interaction |4-5 | |STUDENT WORKSHEET: Conversion…Force |6 | |STUDENT WORKSHEET: Conversion…Weight |7 | |STUDENT WORKSHEET: Conversion…Length |8 | |STUDENT WORKSHEET: Acceleration |9 | |STUDENT WORKSHEET: Force and Acceleration |10 | |STUDENT WORKSHEET: Force and Acceleration Exercises |11 | |STUDENT WORKSHEET: Fighting Gravity! |12 | National Science Standards: Science as Inquiry Physical......

Words: 1785 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

This

...Contents * 1 Background * 2 File structure * 3 Extensions * 3.1 Draft extensions * 3.1.1 Distributed hash tables * 3.1.2 Multiple trackers * 3.1.3 HTTP seeds * 3.1.4 Private torrents * 3.1.5 Merkle trees * 4 Examples * 4.1 Single file * 4.2 Multiple files * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links Background Typically, internet access is asymmetrical, supporting greater download speeds than upload speeds, limiting the bandwidth of each download, and sometimes enforcing bandwidth caps and periods where systems are not accessible. This creates inefficiency when many people want to obtain the same set of files from a single source; the source must always be online and must have massive outbound bandwidth. The BitTorrent protocol addresses this by decentralizing the distribution, leveraging the ability of people to network "peer-to-peer", among themselves. Each file to be distributed is divided into small information chunks called pieces. Downloading peers achieve rapid download speeds by requesting multiple pieces from different computers simultaneously...

Words: 757 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

This Is It

...1. (20 pt) Go to http://www.stat.tamu.edu/~west/ph/sampledist.html. Use a skewed distribution. Take 1000 samples of sizes 2, 10 and 100. Construct a mean for each sample and look at the distribution of the sample means (third row). Record the mean and SD in the population for the original random variable. Make a table and record the mean of the means, and the standard deviation of the mean for each sample size (2, 10 and 100). For a bell-shaped distribution we showed that the mean of the sample means is very similar to the mean in the population for all population sizes. This is the property of unbiasedness. From your results, does the mean appear to be unbiased when the original distribution of the data is skewed? For a bell-shaped distribution we showed that the standard deviation of the mean, or the standard error of the mean, decreases with sample size. Is this true for skewed distributions? Calculate the standard error of the mean that is expected for each sample size and record in the table. How did the observed result compared to your calculation? * * Mean of the Population: 15.5297 * Median of the Population: 12.2861 * Standard Deviation of the Population: 12.5078 * * Sample Size | * Mean of the means | * Standard Deviation | * Standard Error of the Mean | * 2 | * 15.7741 | * 8.8115 | * 6.23067 | * 10 | * 15.4568 | * 3.847 | * 1.21653 | * 100 | * 15.5223 | * 1.2636 | * 0.12636 | * ...

Words: 1354 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

This

...Same sex marriage issue paves way for anti-discrimination bill By Artemio Dumlao (The Philippine Star) Updated July 05, 2011 12:00 AM BAGUIO CITY ,Philippines – Christian groups led by the Catholic Charismatic Christian Movement believes that the same sex marriage controversy is a “grand design” by some sectors to push House Bill 1483 (Anti-Discrimination bill) filed by Bayan Muna party-list Rep. Teodoro Casiño. According to the group, the same sex unions officiated by the Metropolitan Community Church (MCC) here on June 29 have been pitting family members against each other, the opposing Catholic Church and other Christian groups versus the proponents and even government officials caught in the controversy. Alexander Bangsoy, a member of the charismatic movement in the city and nearby Benguet, said the diverse reactions to the same sex marriages were part of a plot to stir debate and evoke discriminatory attitude against the third sex to gather sympathy for HB 1483. “It set the stage for them to say they are being discriminated, though (they) are not,” Bangsoy said. The group vowed to oppose HB 1483 by urging Baguio Rep. Bernardo Vergara, Benguet Rep. Ronald Cosalan, and all other congressmen to drop the measure. They have also taken their cause to social networking sites like Facebook (No To Same Sex Marriage in the Philippines group) and have initiated a signature campaign to counter the growing popularity of the “unions.” “We should oppose HB 1483...

Words: 1760 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

This

...Instructor Information Name: John E. Simms, Ph.D. E-mail: jacks@uh.edu Ph.: 713-775-3023 Office hours are MW 4-6pm, and by appointment in 360MH. Course Description - An examination of cost accounting principles and practices such as job order costs, process costs and standard cost controls as well as specific managerial problem areas such as budgeting pricing policies and inventory control. In addition to the acquisition of the common body of knowledge and discipline-specific mastery, we address three goals: * Critical Thinking – the ability to identify a problem, ascertain what information is relevant, and arrive at conclusions based on the evidence. * Decision Making – The identification and evaluation of different alternatives. * Ethics – the role of ethics in managerial accounting (using the Institute of Management Accountants’ Standards of Ethical Practice) Course Learning Objectives: Managerial accounting has three foci: * The role of the managerial accountant; * The product costing function; and * Cost management, decision making, and performance evaluation. The first two are the subject of the first section of the course. The role of the managerial accountant includes not only functions and positions within an organization, but also ethical standards and obligations. The product costing function is primarily quantitative. The third focus is the subject of the second and third sections of the course. The study of......

Words: 539 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

This Is It

...of epic proportion would be the socialism system. With the socialism system, the government plays a major role, as the government would be the ones to dispense the proper resources that the residents need, “ from food to health care”, to assure everyone gets the assistance. If we look back at the 2010 earthquake that took place in Haiti, the socialist system would be the best by using the socialist system, responding to the needs of the residents who were struck by this devastating earthquake, no matter what, everyone would get the proper aid and support that is needed. Fortunately, for the residents struck by the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, a socialist system was used. This was an immense help for the residents and also the country of Haiti. By using the socialist system, the residents of Haiti were able to receive the proper supplies equally; no one person got more than the next. By doing this, it ensured that all residents of Haiti were treated equally and no one person was more important than another. As this would of probably have caused more issues then the ones that were already upon the residents. It also allowed the government to do its job effectively and efficiently. By letting each individual or family get the resources it needed as quickly as possible. Some of the treatments the Haitians received were; food, clothing, shelter, and for those who needed it, financial help. The Law of supply and demand is as follows: “ If there is a low supply and a high demand...

Words: 691 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

This Is It

...CheckPoint: Drug Use and Delinquency Response What are the main reasons of youth drug use? One of the main reasons that a youth chooses to use drugs in this article states that they are trying to gain social recognition. They want approval from there peers and could even be trying to cover or numb there own hurt or feelings by taking there own bodies to another world. This is most common to a teen that lives in areas of poverty apposed to ones that live in upper class areas and go to upper class schools. Seems like this is the in thing to do when it comes to there friends, they may have issues fitting in at home so they use this way to fit in somewhere. Unaware that it is easy to get into drugs but hard to get out. How does drug use relate to delinquency? Once a teen has formed a relationship with drugs then they have to find ways to support that habit that they have obtained, This is where the delinquency starts they sometimes don’t have to money or access to money to buy there drugs so they steal or rob maybe even prosecute in order to get the drugs they want, The further they get into drugs the less interested they become in school or social events so they start to fade out of these areas as well. Only leaving time to get into trouble or find more ways to get the high that they want out of the drugs. They stop thinking about what kind of trouble they can get into and start and I don’t care mode of thinking, Reference: LAURITSEN, J. L.,......

Words: 320 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

This Is It

...beginning to the end of the universe - and understanding it is all cycle that is endlessly repeating. When you start to come back to 'your' body you are not even sure it the right one, it very well may not be. This physical realm now seems unfamiliar, foreign and long forgotten, far less real than where you were moments before. This physical body and it's senses are so cumbersome and distorted in comparison to the Truth. When you 'break through' your perception of this physical reality will be permanently changed, as you now realize it is a mere illusion, a facade. You have experienced things far more 'real' than anything your physical senses could ever provide. This is the ultimate worry that I have, that people potentially continue to treat their sensory perception as the total and true reality, never considering what lies beyond those senses. Imagine being every atom, existing everywhere simultaneously - perceiving all of existence properly, seeing the true beauty of the Universe without the constraints time, space or our fickle human sensory organs. I pretty much came to the conclusion that the thought processes that everyone has are extraordinary, but our language limits us to the point where we can only talk to each other about trivial things. I promise this is getting somewhere - sorry for the wall of...

Words: 1198 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

This Is It

...Roberta’s array of choices illustrates the ever-evolving dynamics of the grocery industry. In this extremely competitive environment, all major players must continuously strategize to maintain a strong presence. A look at Whole Foods Market reveals how this increased competition can leave a company at a strategic crossroads. Since its beginnings in 1980, Whole Foods has been a leader in supplying organic and natural foods, and for years enjoyed its role as the only store catering to this niche market. However, since then other major players have identified this growing segment and now also carry lines of organic and natural foods. Shoppers like Mand can now buy most specialty items almost anywhere. Competitors, such as Safeway and Kroger, bring with them vast experience in supply chain and vendor development, which allows them to optimize more effectively, use economies of scale, and reduce costs. Despite a public perception that Whole Foods competes against the Sunflower Markets and Trader Joe’s of the world, neither the company itself nor analysts consider this to be Whole Foods’ true competitive arena. As a Fortune 500 company, it plays with the big boys. According to Nick Ford, a Thunderbird MBA student and former employee of Whole Foods, the company positions itself as a large retailer and grocer and does not consider other natural food stores to be threats. An informal survey confirmed this – Paradise Valley, AZ Whole Foods shoppers...

Words: 2448 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

This

...premises. Alternative 1: Accrual Method Since there is a contractual liability for the lessee to perform general repair and maintenance, the maintenance requirement provision may be assumed as a present economic obligation, not just a future commitment. If the fair value estimate of future maintenance expense can be measured with sufficient reliability, the provision may lead to recognition of an accrued liability for the repair and maintenance performance obligation at the inception of the lease. The accrued liability for the repair and maintenance can be reversed when payment is made or liability is created through the performance of the required repair and maintenance. Alternative 2: Direct expense method Another way to treat this provision would be not to recognize at the inception of the lease but directly expense the costs when the required maintenance is performed. Regarding the accrual method in Alternative 1, ASC...

Words: 312 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

This and That

...Putting your machine at risk The Beckman Centrifuge is designed to work at high performance. Its general purposes are to be able to work in high volume labs. As you may know that with the machine spinning round for up to 12 hours there can be many complications and potential risks if a part is changed incorrectly. If any of the parts end up damaged in your machine after 3 months of you owning it, call our helpline and we will send out one of our professionals to fix your machine within 5 hours for free. If we fail to so you will be granted with a brand new machine on us. However, if you make any attempt to replace damage items or open up the machine and potentially cause more damage, then the 5 hour fixing will not apply to you. After the 3 months we can supply the parts that are needed on our website, but be warned there are many other items on the internet that may fit the machine but will not withstand the high performance needs that our machine needs. If a part is broken in the machine and you buy an uncertified part for a lot cheaper than you would normally pay the likelihood is that you are putting lives, jobs and a lot of money at stake. Our number to call if your machine is faulty is 07453872532. We are open 24 hours 7 days a week. By putting cheap parts into your machine which are not registered as we said they may not be able to keep up with the machines high performance. Adding parts that are not registered can lead to the machine exploding, causing fires and......

Words: 333 - Pages: 2