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Tiger in the Tunnel

In: English and Literature

Submitted By Kavyagowda
Words 4628
Pages 19
The Tiger in the Tunnel

The Tiger in the Tunnel

13
THE TIGER IN THE TUNNEL

Notes

The night is dark and silent. A young boy and his father are alone in a hut in the middle of the jungle. Soon the father leaves his son alone and goes out into the jungle. Where does he go and why?

OBJECTIVES
At the end of this lesson, you will be able to: • • • • • read and understand a story in English; use homophones correctly; use the to-infinite, gerunds and participles appropriately; edit your writing; and give and take messages.

13.1 SECTION I
Tembu, the boy, opened his eyes in the dark and wondered if his father was ready to leave the hut on his nightly errand. There was no moon that night, and the deathly stillness of the surrounding jungle was broken only occasionally by the shrill cry of a cicada. Sometimes from far off came the hollow hammering of a woodpecker, carried along on the faint breeze. Or the grunt of a wild boar could be heard as he dug up a favourite root. But these sounds were rare, and the silence of the forest always returned to swallow them up.
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The Tiger in the Tunnel

The Tiger in the Tunnel Baldeo, the watchman, was awake. He stretched himself slowly unwinding the heavy shawl that covered him. It was close on midnight and the chill air made him shiver. The station, a small shack backed by heavy jungle, was a station in name only; for trains only stopped there, if at all, for a few seconds before entering the deep cutting that led to the tunnel. Most trains merely slowed down before taking the sharp curve before cutting. Baldeo was responsible for signalling whether or not the tunnel was clear of obstruction, and his manual signal stood before the entrance. At night it was his duty to see that the lamp was burning, and that the overland mail passed through safely. ‘Shall I come too, Father?’ asked Tembu sleepily, still lying in a huddle in a corner of the hut. ‘No, it is cold tonight. Do not get up.’ Tembu, who was twelve, did not always sleep with his father at the station, for he had also to help in the home, where his mother and small sister were usually alone. They lived in a small tribal village on the outskirts of the forest, about three miles from the station. Their small rice fields did not provide them with more than a bare living and Baldeo considered himself lucky to have got the job of Khalasi at this small wayside signal stop. Still drowsy, Baldeo, groped for his lamp in darkness then fumbled about in search of matches. When he had produced a light he left the hut, closed the door behind him and set off along the permanent way. Tembu had fallen asleep again.

Notes

INTEXT QUESTIONS 13.1
I. a. What is the father’s name? b. What is his son’s name? c. How old is the son? II. a. Where did Baldeo spend the night? b. What was Baldeo responsible for? III. a. Where did Baldeo’s family live? b. Why did Baldeo have to take up the job of a Khalasi? IV. Pick out three phrases which describe the station from the list below. dark and cold; a small shack; surrounded by rice fields; in the middle of a thick forest; near a tunnel; in a tribal village.

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The Tiger in the Tunnel

The Tiger in the Tunnel

13.2 SECTION II
At midnight, Baldeo goes out of his hut, into the thick forest. The jungle is full of dangerous animals, but Baldeo has a job to do and it is important. Notes Baldeo wondered whether the lamp on the signal- post was still alight. Gathering his shawl closer about him, he stumbled on, sometimes along the rails, sometimes along the ballast. He longed to get back to his warm corner in the hut. The eeriness of the place was increased by the neighbouring hills which overhung the main line threateningly. On entering the cutting with its sheer rock walls towering high above the rails, Baldeo could not help thinking about the wild animals he might encounter. He had heard many tales of the famous tunnel tiger, a man-eater, which was supposed to frequent this spot; he hardly believed these stories for since his arrival at this place a month ago, he had not seen or even heard a tiger. There had, of course, been panthers, and only a few days ago the villagers had killed one with their spears and axes. Baldeo had occasionally heard the sawing of a panther calling to its mate, but they had not come near the tunnel or shed. Baldeo walked confidently for being a tribal himself, he was used to the jungle and its ways. Like his fore-fathers he carried a small axe; fragile to look at but deadly when in use. He prided himself in his skill in wielding it against wild animals. He had killed a young boar with it once and the family had feasted on the flesh for three days. The axehead of pure steel, thin but ringing true like a bell, had been made by his father over a charcoal fire. This axe was part of himself. And wherever he went, be it to the local market seven miles away, or to a tribal dance, the axe was always in his hand. Occasionally an official who had come to the station had offered him good money for the weapon, but Baldeo had no intention of parting with it. The cutting curved sharply, and in the darkness the black entrance to the tunnel looked up menacingly. The signal-light was out. Baldeo set to work to haul the lamp down by its chain. If the oil had finished, he would have to return to the hut for more. The mail train was due in five minutes. Once more he fumbled for his matches. Then suddenly he stood still and listened. The frightened cry of a barking deer followed by a crashing sound in the undergrowth, made Baldeo hurry. There was still a little oil in the lamp, and after an instant’s hesitation he lit the lamp again and hoisted it into position. Having done this, he walked quickly down the tunnel, swinging his own lamp, so that the shadows leapt up and down the soot-stained walls, and having made sure that the line was clear, he returned to the entrance and sat down to wait for the mail train.
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The Tiger in the Tunnel

The Tiger in the Tunnel The train was late. Sitting huddled up, almost dozing, he soon forgot his surroundings and began to nod. Back in the hut, the trembling of the ground told of the approach of the train, and a low, distant rumble woke the boy, who sat up rubbing the sleep from his eyes. ‘Father, it’s time to light the lamp,’ he mumbled and then, realizing that his father had been gone some time, he lay down again, but he was wide awake now, waiting for the train to pass, waiting for his father’s returning footsteps.

Notes

INTEXT QUESTIONS 13.2
1. Name the four wild animals which were to be found in the forest. 2. Was Baldeo afraid? Which sentence in the passage gives you the answer? 3. What weapon did he carry? Who had made it? 4. Did the barking deer call out because: a) it saw Baldeo? b) it saw a tiger? c) it was afraid of the dark? d) it was calling to its mate? 5. a) How did Tembu know that the train was coming. b) What is he waiting for?

13.3 SECTION III
Baldeo finds himself in a dangerous situation. How does he deal with it? A low grunt resounded from the top of the cutting. In a second Baldeo was awake, all his senses alert. Only a tiger could emit such a sound There was no shelter for Baldeo, but he grasped his axe firmly and tensed his body, trying to make out the direction from which the animal was approaching. For some time there was only silence. Even the usual jungle noises seemed to have ceased altogether. Then a thump and the rattle of small stones announced that the tiger had sprung into the cutting. Baldeo, listening as he had never listened before, wondered if it was making for the tunnel or the opposite direction the direction of the hut, in which Tembu would
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The Tiger in the Tunnel be lying unprotected. He did not have to wonder for long. Before a minute had passed he made out the huge body of the tiger trotting steadily towards him. Its eyes shone a brilliant green in the light from the signal lamp. Flight was useless, for in the dark the tiger would be more sure-footed than Baldeo and would soon be upon him from behind. Baldeo stood with his back to the signal –post, motionless staring at the great brute moving rapidly towards him. The tiger, used to the ways of men, for it had been preying on them for years, came on fearlessly, and with a quick run and a snarl struck out with its right paw, expecting to bowl over this puny man who dared stand in the way. Baldeo, however, was ready. With a marvellously agile leap he avoided the paw and brought his axe down on the animal’s shoulder. The tiger gave a roar and attempted to close in. Again Baldeo drove his axe which caught the tiger on the shoulder, almost severing the leg. To make matters worse, the axe remained stuck in the bone, and Baldeo was left without a weapon. The tiger, roaring with pain, now sprang upon Baldeo, bringing him down and then tearing at his broken body. It was all over in a sharp few minutes. Baldeo was conscious only of a searing pain down his back, and then there was blackness and the night closed in on him forever.

The Tiger in the Tunnel

Notes

INTEXT QUESTIONS 13.3
1. What made Baldeo’s job as a signal man dangerous? 2. Pick out words and phrases from the text that describe the tiger. 3. What was Baldeo more worried about: his own safety or his son’s? 4. Why did Baldeo decide to fight the tiger? 5. How did Baldeo die?

13.4 SECTION IV
Baldeo, the bread winner of the family was dead. Who took on his responsibilities and how did he tackle them. The tiger drew off and sat down licking his wounded leg, roaring every now and then with agony. He did not notice the faint rumble that shook the earth, followed by the distant puffing of an engine steadily climbing. The overland mail was approaching. Through the trees beyond the cutting as the train advanced, the glow of the furnace could be seen, and showers of sparks fell like Divali lights over the forest.
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The Tiger in the Tunnel

The Tiger in the Tunnel As the train entered the cutting, the engine whistled once, loud and piercingly. The tiger raised his head, then slowly got to his feet. He found himself trapped like the man. Flight along the cutting was impossible. He entered the tunnel, running as fast as his wounded leg would carry him. And then, with a roar and a shower of sparks, the train entered the yawning tunnel. The noise in the confined space was deafening but, when the train came out into the open, on the other side, silence returned once more to the forest and the tunnel. At the next station the driver slowed down and stopped his train to water the engine. He got down to stretch his legs and decided to examine the head-lamps. He received the surprise of his life; for, just above the cow-catcher lay the major portion of the tiger, cut in half by the engine. There was considerable excitement and conjecture at the station, but back at the cutting there was no sound except for the sobs of the boy as he sat beside the body of his father. He sat there a long time, unafraid of the darkness, guarding the body from jackals and hyenas, until the first faint light of dawn brought with it the arrival of the relief-watchman. Tembu and his sister and mother were plunged in grief for two whole days; but life had to go on, and a living had to be made, and all the responsibility now fell on Tembu. Three nights later, he was at the cutting, lighting the signal-lamp for the overland mail. He sat down in the darkness to wait for the train, and sang softly to himself. There was noting to be afraid of – his father had killed the tiger, the forest gods were pleased; and besides, he had the axe with him, his father’s axe, and he now knew to use it.

Notes

INTEXT QUESTIONS 13.4
1. Why did the tiger enter the tunnel? 2. What happened to the tiger? 3. Why was there excitement at the station? 4. What was happening at the cutting? 5. Why did Tembu sit by his father’s body? 6. Why did Tembu take up his father’s job soon after his death?
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The Tiger in the Tunnel

The Tiger in the Tunnel

OVERALL QUESTIONS
1. Write two incidents to show the quality of responsibility in Baldeo and Tembu. 2. Most wild animals avoid human beings. Why did this tiger come straight to Baldeo. 3. Give three reasons why Tembu was not afraid of anything. Notes

VOCABULARY ENRICHMENT
1. ‘Wood’ and ‘would’ are two words which sound the same, but have different meanings, and are spelt differently. Fill in the blanks in the sentences below, with the correct words from the pairs of words given. e.g. wood, would This table is made of wood of poor quality. It is so cold tonight that I would not like to go out. 1. Bore: boar a) The film that we went to last night was badly made. It was quite a _____________. b) A wild __________ is a very dangerous animal 2. herd: heard a) A large __________ of spotted deer came out of the forest onto the road last night. b) I __________ that the examinations are to be postponed again this year. 3. root: route a) Some _____________ (s) like that of the tapioca are good to eat. b) The _________ to Jaisalmer is long and complicated. 4. weather: whether a) The ________ has been cold and damp all month. b) Baldeo was responsible for signaling __________ the tunnel was free of obstruction or not. 5. male: mail a) The ______________ has been delayed due to the strike by postmen. b) The _________ birds are always more decorative than the females.
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The Tiger in the Tunnel 6. threw: through a) Amar __________ away all the fish curry thinking it had gone bad. b) The train to Mumbai goes __________ many tunnels.

Notes

7. bare : bear a) The black Himalayan ________ is very dangerous. b) People have been cutting trees so carelessly that many beautiful forests have become __________ of vegetation. 8. steel : steal a) ___________ utensils are easy to keep clean. b) Ravi knew that there was Rs. 10 in his father’s almirah, and he needed some money. But he did not take it because it is wrong to __________. 9. their : there a) __________ is no time to go shopping before we leave for the station. b) Ravi and Neha are friends. I have forgotten ________ phone numbers. 2. Pick out the odd words from each set of words below:Example : watchman, engine, driver, fireman, boy, cook (boy) 1. tiger, deer, panther, hyena, jackal ________ 2. father, brother, neighbour, son, aunt __________ 3. bullock cart, train, car, aeroplane, scooter. 4. axe, gun, spear, knife, blade 5. grunt, roar, cry, shout, men 6. hut, house, cave, station, garage 7. see, hear, read, taste, feel 8. leap, run, jump, walk, sleep 9. cow, dog, hen, crow, pig GRAMMAR: Non- Finites I. To-Infinitives Look at the following sentences. Study the underlined words.

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The Tiger in the Tunnel a. Tembu wondered if his father was ready to leave the hut b. At night it was his duty to see the lamp was burning. The underlined words are called Infinitives. They are formed by writing to + verb – e.g. 1. He had also to help at home. 2. It’s time to light the lamp i.e. to + help, to + light Note: ‘to’ is followed by the first form of the verb i.e. the original form of a verb without any change. Exercise I Underline the Infinitives in the following sentences. 1. He agreed to postpone the meeting. 2. It is dangerous to play with a gun. 3. We tried to open the door, but it had jammed. 4. We have to learn more about Infinitives. 5. Bank is a place to deposit money. 6. Children go to play in a park. Exercise II Fill in the blanks using the infinitive form of the verb in the box. post help go sleep accompany report park live sit waste 1. I forgot ________ you letter. 2. He wants ________ to the station. 3. She pretended __________. 4. Would you like __________us? 5. He asked her _________ the progress of the project. 6. Is it safe __________ the car here? 7. _________ without air is impossible. 8. __________ in the sun in winter is pleasant. 9. __________ water is foolish. 10. I shall be glad ___________ you.

The Tiger in the Tunnel

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The Tiger in the Tunnel II. Gerunds Observe the following sentences and see how the underlined words function. a) Swimming is good for health

Notes

b) Sita loves dancing. Swimming and dancing are used as Nouns although they are derived from verbs. A word which was a verb does the work of a Noun by adding ‘ing’. It is used in the same way as a noun. Hence we say – He likes driving. Writing poems is his hobby. Exercise I Underline the gerunds in the following sentences. 1. Anju likes reading novels by Thomas Hardy. 2. Boys like playing cricket. 3. Riding is an interesting hobby. 4. Giving is better than receiving. 5. Singing gives us joy. Exercise II Use the gerundial form of the verb in the brackets and fill in the blanks: 1. __________ (bath) is necessary for good health. 2. _______ (see) is _________(believe). 3. We go to school for __________ (study). 4. He dislikes _______ (wear) a green shirt. 5. Baldeo was responsible for _________ (signal). 6. He heard the __________ (hammer) of a woodpecker. 7. He stopped __________ (tremble) when he was that the tiger was dead. 8. The leopard waited at the _______________ (cut). 9. __________ (shop) had made her tired. 10. _________ (study) grammar is fun. III. The Present Participle You saw/that by adding ‘ing,’ we can use the verbs as Nouns also. Now look at

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The Tiger in the Tunnel the underlined words in the following sentences. The ‘ing’ words function like adjectives or adverbs. They are present participles. a) He heard a barking deer. b) The toy was a dancing girl in a glass case. Exercise I Pick out the present participles in the following sentences. 1. The boy sitting in the corner is my friend. 2. He jumped into a moving bus. 3. The frightening cry was followed by a crashing sound in the under growth. 4. They disapproved of playing cards. Exercise II Fill in the blanks with the present participle of the words in the box speak menace excite learn yawn write 1. We got some _________ news last evening. 2. We had a ________ activity in class today. 3. The black entrance to the tunnel looked _______. 4. The train entered the ___________ tunnel. 5. She was busy __________ letters. 6. It was a _________ experience for us. V. The Past Participle Observe the following sentences a) They found hidden treasure under the stone. b) They ate cooked food. c) They cut a fallen tree. d) These are burnt sticks. The past participle (hidden, cooked, fallen) use – ed, en or – t (hide+en, cook+ed, fall+en, burn+t) to express a completed action as an adjective to qualify- treasure, food, tree, sticks.

The Tiger in the Tunnel

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The Tiger in the Tunnel A. Pick out the past participles in the following sentences and underline them. a. A frightened child ran to his mother. b. He is a changed man now.

Notes

c. Don’t use a broken scale. B. Fill in the blanks with the past participle form of the verbs in the box. write, complete, paint steal break a) Submit a _________ report. b) The police found the ________ goods. c) Please submit your _________ assignment. d) Don’t play with ________ toys. e) It is a _________ picture not a photograph. LET’S WRITE Editing Spelling Compare the sentences given in the boxes below: I. The cuting curved sharpli, and in the darknes the black entrence to the tunel looked up menacingly II The cutting curved sharply, and in the darkness the black entrance to the tunnel looked up menacingly. Do you notice that the sentence in box I had a lot of spelling mistakes. But in box II the same sentence has seen corrected and all the spelling are corrected. That is, the sentence have been edited. a) Now edit the following sentences by correcting the spelling. It swa about 10 o’clock on Hali day and the gaty had began. The grounds of the twonshipe were filing up with people splashing colurs at each other. Forteen year old Minal Pawar, who lives in one of the ground –floor flats was hanging out the whashed cloths in the courtyard. She planed to join the fun as soon as she finished.

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The Tiger in the Tunnel Now you have edited the spelling mistakes . You can also edit the punctuation marks like capital letters, commas, full stops, question marks, use of ‘I’, like the one give below. e.g. Box I ‘shall i come too father asked tembu sleeply still lying hunddled in a corner of the hut. Box II ‘Shall I come too, Father?’ asked Tembu sleepily, still lying huddled in a a corner of the hut. The sentences in Box I have been edited by putting the punctuation marks. They have been underlined in Box II. Now edit the following passage by correcting the punctuation. Exercise I are you going far asked the doctor i’m going all the way to Detroit said the man a rather thin man with small black eyes filled with tears from the wind.

The Tiger in the Tunnel

Notes

LET’S TALK
Worksheet Listen to conversation number on giving and taking messages on tape. Then fill in the blanks below Ravi wanted to speak to _____. ________ offered to pass on Ravi’s message to _______. Ravi said that Ajit should contact __________ regarding a trip to __________. Ravi also said that Suresh will give Abhay all details including how much __________ will be needed for the trip.

CHECK YOUR ANSWERS
Intext Questions 13.1 I. a) Baldeo b) Tembu c) Twelve

II. a) In a railway station/small station/ signal stop

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The Tiger in the Tunnel

The Tiger in the Tunnel b) Signalling whether or not the tunnel was clear of obstruction (to see the signal lamp was burning) III. a) In a small village three miles from the station.

Notes

b) Their rice fields did not provide the family with a living. IV. A small shack; in the middle of a thick forest; near a tunnel Intext Questions 13.2 1. tiger, panther, bear, barking deer. 2. No; Baldeo walked confidently, for being a tribal himself he was used to the jungle and its ways. 3. A small axe; his father 4. (b) 5. a) by the trembling of the ground b) for the train to pass and his father’s returning foot steps/his father to return. Intext Question 13.3 1. He had to face the tiger any time. 2. It was a man eater. 3. Tembu’s/his son’s 4. He had an axe to kill it; he didn’t think the tiger was dangerous. 5. The axe got stuck in the tiger’s shoulder so he couldn’t fight it. Intext Question 13.4 1. He was trapped when the train came, flight along the cutting was impossible. 2. It got caught in the cow-catcher of the engine. 3. The driver found a tiger cut in half just above the cow-catcher of the engine 4. There was no sound, the boy sat beside the body of his father. 5. To guard the body from jackals and hyenas. 6. All the responsibility fell on Tembu. OVERALL QUESTIONS 1. Baldeo – 1) took up his job inspite of the dangers. 2) tried to kill the tiger. Tembu – 1) took up his father’s job 2) looked after the family in place of his father.

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The Tiger in the Tunnel 2. It was used to the ways of men and expected to bowl over Baldeo who stood in the way. 3. 1. his father had killed the tiger. 2. the forest gods were pleased. 3. he had his father’s axe. VOCABULARY ENRICHMENT 1. (a) bore, (b) boar 3. (a) root, 5. (a) mail, 7. (a) beer, (b) route (b) male (b) bare 2. (a) herd, (b) heard

The Tiger in the Tunnel

Notes

4. (a) weather, (b) whether 6. (a) threw, 8. (a) steel, (b) through (b) steal

9. (a) there, (b) their 2. (1) deer, (5) men, (2) neighbour, (3) bullock cart, (4) gun, (6) cave, (7) read, (8) sleep (9) crow

CHECK YOUR ANSWERS Grammar To-Infinitives Exercise I 1. to postpone 4. to tearn Exercise II 1. to post 5. to report 9. to waste Gerunds Exercise I 1. reading 4. giving, receiving
ENGLISH

2. to play 5. to deposit

3. to open 6. to play

2. to go 6. to park 10. to help

3. to sleep 7. to live

4. to accompany 8. to sit

2. playing 5. singing

3. riding

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The Tiger in the Tunnel Exercise II 1. Bating 5. wearing 2. seeing 6. signaling 10. shopping 3. believing 4. studying,

7. hammering 8. trembling 11. studying

Notes

9. cutting

The present Participle Exercise I 1. sitting 4. playing. Exercise II 1. exciting 4. yawning The Past Participle A. (a) frightened B. a) written d) broken (b) changed b) stolen e) painted. (c) broken c) completed 2. speaking 5. writing 3. menacing 6. learning 2. moving 3. frightening, crashing

CHECK YOUR ANSWER Let’s write a) It was about 10 o’clock on Holi day and the gaiety had begun. The grounds of the township were filling up with people splashing colours at each other. Fourteen year old Minal Pawar, who lives in one of the ground-floor flats was hanging out the washed clothes in the courtyard. She planned to join the fun as soon as she finished. Exercise I “Are you going far?” asked the doctor. “I’m going all the way to Detroit,” said the man, a rather thin man with small black eyes filled with tears from the wind.

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...A perfect example would be the Tiger. By destroying their habitat and food source, we are causing them to come after our livestock for food, and then we turn around and hunt them because of it. We are creating their hardship and then punishing them for something we created. Tigers have been on the endangered list for about 25years. Their population has gone significantly down with about 12,000 being kept in zoos and private ownership and only 3,200 living in their natural habitat. The tiger is one of the most powerful animals at the top of the trophic levels. There are nine different subspecies of the tiger with three of them already extinct. The tiger is the largest cat species in the world with its male weighing in at about 500 pounds and its female at 300 pounds. Unlike other cat species the tiger rarely climbs trees but instead loves water. This brings a big advantage to the tiger because they can attack pray many larger animals cannot. Tigers prefer their environment to be more dense because unlike their prey then can move quickly and quietly which gives them the advantage when hunting. Tigers hunt a variety of animals from small ones (rabbits, birds) to large ones (moose, baby elephants) with their only defenses being their speed, claws, and teeth. With the tiger being one of the biggest predators, the question you may ask yourself is who is their predator? The only predator the tiger has is the human being. The hunting of tigers goes back all the way to......

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Tunnels

...The Channel Tunnel (French: le tunnel sous la Manche), widely recognized as one of the world’s greatest civil engineering projects, is a 50.5km underwater rail tunnel connecting Folkestone, Kent in the UK with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais in France under the English Channel. Even though it began construction in 1988 and was opened in 1994, the idea to have a cross-channel tunnel was first mooted more than 200 years ago but did not materialize due to political, national security and cost considerations. However, with the tremendous increase in traffic growth, better and alternative means of communication, convenience and speed was necessary and hence the need for an alternative transport route was clearly evident. The need for such tunnel was further compounded with Britain joining the European Community and the cross-channel traffic doubling in the last 20 years (leading to the project), reflecting improved trading between the Britain and rest of Europe. The Channel Tunnel would also be able to provide an alternative competitive link between the transportation systems of the UK and France, providing both speed and reliability to freight deliveries. With the strong endorsement from the governments of both sovereigns, the decision to build the Channel Tunnel was thus made. In April 1985, the British and French governments issued a formal invitation to potential tenderers for the fixed Channel link and eventually the contract was awarded to the consortium Channel Tunnel Group......

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Tigers

...TIGERS The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, reaching a total body length of up to 3.38 m (11.1 ft) over curves and weighing up to 388.7 kg (857 lb) in the wild. Its most recognisable feature is a pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside. The species is classified in the genus Panthera with the lion, leopard, jaguar and snow leopard. Tigers are apex predators, primarily preying on ungulates such as deer and bovids. They are territorial and generally solitary but social animals, often requiring large contiguous areas of habitat that support their prey requirements. This, coupled with the fact that they are indigenous to some of the more densely populated places on Earth, has caused significant conflicts with humans. Tigers once ranged widely across Asia, from Turkey in the west to the eastern coast of Russia. Over the past 100 years, they have lost 93% of their historic range, and have been extirpated from southwest and central Asia, from the islands of Java and Bali, and from large areas of Southeast and Eastern Asia. Today, they range from the Siberian taiga to open grasslands and tropical mangrove swamps. The remaining six tiger subspecies have been classified as endangered by IUCN. The global population in the wild is estimated to number between 3,062 and 3,948 individuals, down from around 100,000 at the start of the 20th century, with most remaining populations occurring in small pockets isolated from......

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Tiger

...Tiger, tiger, burning bright In the forests of the night,  What immortal hand or eye  Could frame thy fearful symmetry?  Stanza 1 Summary What immortal being created this terrifying creature which, with its perfect proportions (symmetry), is an awesome killing machine?  [pic] 2 In what distant deeps or skies  Burnt the fire of thine eyes?  On what wings dare he aspire?  What the hand dare seize the fire? Stanza 2 Summary Was it created in hell (distant deeps) or in heaven (skies)? If the creator had wings, how could he get so close to the fire in which the tiger was created? How could he work with so blazing a fire? [pic] 3 And what shoulder and what art  Could twist the sinews of thy heart?  And when thy heart began to beat,  What dread hand and what dread feet?  Stanza 3 Summary What strength (shoulder) and craftsmanship (art) could make the tiger's heart? What being could then stand before it (feet) and shape it further (hand)? [pic] 4 What the hammer? what the chain?  In what furnace was thy brain?  What the anvil? What dread grasp  Dare its deadly terrors clasp?  Stanza 4 Summary What kind of tool (hammer) did he use to fashion the tiger in the forge fire? What about the chain connected to the pedal which the maker used to pump the bellows? What of the heat in the furnace and the anvil on which the maker hammered out his creation? How did the maker muster the courage to grasp the tiger?  [pic] 5 When the stars threw down their......

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Through the Tunnel

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Wind Tunnel

...~~~Concept of Wind-tunnel~~~ Wind tunnels date back to the 1870’s. Scientists realized it didn’t matter if an object was stationary and air was blown was over the object or if the object was moving through the air. The resultant forces over the object would be the same. The idea of blowing air over an object and determining the forces lead to the invention of wind tunnel. As the name suggests, a wind-tunnel is a cylindrical tunnel in which air is blown from one side by a huge fan at high speeds. The middle part of the tunnel is called as throat. It is the place where the test model is placed. Various sensors are attached to the test model and the data is collected in the room near it. The data collected issued to reduce the aerodynamic drag and minimize fuel consumption and also increase the speed of the cars, trucks, planes, etc. also aerodynamic properties like lift, drag, forces, moments are measured with the use of wind-tunnel. In wind-tunnel air is blown over the test model which is kept stationary at the throat. This will produce the same effect as it would be produced if the vehicle is moving at high speeds on a road. For more accurate results the tunnel is sometimes equipped with rolling road to prevent the boundary layer forming on the floor which may affect the test results. * What are wind tunnels? Just as its name suggests, a wind tunnel is a tube or tunnel that has man-made windblown through it at a certain speed. Scientists and engineers put...

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Tigers

...glimmer of hope for some of these species, especially tigers. In the past four years, India’s wild tiger population has risen 30%. Successes like these are key. It just shows that these endangered species can be saved. “India’s Environmental Minister Prakash Javadekar said the tiger population has risen from 1,706 in 2001 to 2,226 in 2014” (BBC). Overall, world tiger populations are falling, but just that tiger populations are rising in India is big news. Other countries throughout the world can put India’s proven conservation methods to use to increase tiger populations. The World Wildlife Fund and countless other organizations took part in the protection of Indian tigers these last four years and has definitely helped the increase in wild tigers. India protected more land land for wild tigers to live. A key factor to the growth of the population was state sponsored wildlife corridors that connected large protected wildlife areas. The most immediate threat to wild tigers is poaching. “In relentless demand, their parts are used for traditional medicine, folk remedies, and increasingly as a status symbol among some Asian cultures” (WWF). Limited resources leave protected areas had to guard especially due to the vastness of many protected areas. Thirteen countries plan on meeting for a symposium to help stop poaching of wild tigers in their respective countries. India has also offered to donate tiger cubs to countries whose tiger populations continue to plummet. Several......

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Tigers

...Orlando Pagan Dr. Ilyse Kusnetz Eng. 102 19 Jun. 2015 Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers The poem was written in 1951 by Adrienne Rich. "Aunt Jennifer's Tigers" theme paint a portrait of a married woman trapped within a timid and suppressed life. We are introduced to the sympathetic character of the poem, Aunt Jennifer. Instead of describing her, however, the author chooses to convey Aunt Jennifer's art, and the ownership of Tigers tied to her craft. The tigers are vivaciously portrayed. _______________________________________ Aunt Jennifer’s tigers prance across a screen, Bright topaz denizens of a world of green.  ________________________________________ These lines have been quoted from the poem. Here the poet expresses her unconscious desire for freedom through her needlework. Aunt Jennifer is a married woman who does a lot of needlework, like most traditional married women. Instead of flowers and leaves, she is making a pattern of prancing tigers. The poet calls them ‘bright topaz denizens’.  Aunt Jennifer’s needlework is an expression of her fiery nature that is restrained in her because of the restrictions of society that she was living in. ‘A world of green’ represents freedom and youth that the married woman craves for. Therefore, the poet expresses the married woman’s unconscious desire to be free. However, the restrictions of the culture she is living in restricts her from being free ______________________________________ The massive weight of Uncle’s wedding...

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Carpal Tunnel

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Tigers

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