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Barbarians at the Gateway (and just about everywhere else):
A Brief Managerial Introduction to Information Security Issues1 a gallaugher.com case provided free to faculty & students for non-commercial use
© Copyright 1997-2009, John M. Gallaugher, Ph.D. – for more info see: http://www.gallaugher.com/chapters.html


Draft version last modified: Dec. 7 , 2009 – comments welcome john.gallaugher@bc.edu

Note: this is an earlier version of the chapter. All chapters updated Dec. 2009 are now hosted (and still free) at http://www.flatworldknowledge.com. For details see the ‘Courseware’ section of http://gallaugher.com

INTRODUCTION LEARNING
OBJECTIVES:

After
studying
this
section
you
should
be
able
to:


1. Recognize
that
information
security
breaches
are
on
the
rise.

2. Understand
the
potentially
damaging
impact
of
security
breaches.

3. Recognize
that
information
security
must
be
made
a
top
organizational
priority.
 Sitting
in
the
parking
lot
of
a
Minneapolis
Marshalls,
a
hacker
armed
with
a
laptop
and
a
 telescope‐shaped antenna
infiltrated
the
store’s
network
via
an
insecure
Wi‐Fi
base
station.


The
attack
launched
what
would
become
a
billion‐dollar
plus
nightmare
scenario
for
TJX,
 the parent
of
retail
chains
that
include
Marshalls,
Home
Goods,
and
T.J.
Maxx.
Over
a
period
 of several
months,
the
hacker
and
his
gang
stole
at
least
45.7
million
credit
and
debit
card
 numbers, and
pilfered
driver’s
license
and
other
private
information
from
an
additional

450,000
customers2.
 TJX,
at
the
time
a
$17.5
billion,
Fortune
500
firm,
was
left
reeling
from
the
incident.

The
 attack deeply
damaged
the
firm’s
reputation.

It
burdened
customers
and
banking
partners
 with the
time
and
cost
of
reissuing
credit
cards.
And
TJX
suffered
under
settlement
costs,
 payouts from
court‐imposed
restitution,
legal
fees,
and
more.
The
firm
estimated
that
it
 spent more
than
$150
million
to
correct
security
problems
and
settle
with
consumers
 affected by
the
breach,
and
that
was
just
the
tip
of
the
iceberg.

Estimates
peg
TJX’s
overall
 losses from
this
incident
at
between
$1.35
billion
and
$4.5
billion3.
 A
number
of
factors
led
to
and
amplified
the
severity
of
the
TJX
breach.

There
was
a
 personnel betrayal:
The
mastermind
was
an
alleged
FBI
informant
who
previously
helped
 bring down
a
massive
credit
card
theft
scheme,
but
then
double‐crossed
the
feds
and
used
 insider information
to
help
his
gang
outsmart
the
law
and
carry
out
subsequent
hacks4.


There
was
a
technology
lapse:
TJX
made
itself
an
easy
mark
by
using
WEP,
a
wireless
 security technology
less
secure
than
the
stuff
many
consumers
use
in
their
homes
–
one
 known for
years
to
be
trivially
compromised
by
the
kind
of
‘drive‐by’
hacking
initiated
by
 the perpetrators.

And
there
was
a
procedural
gaffe:
Retailers
were
in
the
process
of
rolling
 out a
security
rubric
known
as
The
Payment
Card
Industry
Data
Security
Standard,


1

Particular
thanks
goes
to
my
BC
colleague,
Prof.
Sam
Ransbotham,
whose
advice,
guidance,
and
suggestions


were
invaluable
in
creating
this
chapter.

Any
errors
or
omissions
are
entirely
my
own.

2
King,
2009

3
Matwyshyn
2009

4
Goldman,
2009

Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
1


however
despite
an
industry
deadline
TJX
had
requested
and
received
an
extension,
 delaying the
rollout
of
mechanisms
that
might
have
discovered
and
plugged
the
hole
before
 the hackers
got
in5.
 The
massive
impact
of
the
TJX
breach
should
make
it
clear
that
security
must
be
a
top
 organizational priority.

Attacks
are
on
the
rise.

In
2008,
more
electronic
records
were
 breached than
in
the
previous
four
years
combined6.
While
the
examples
and
scenarios
 presented here
are
shocking,
the
good
news
is
that
the
vast
majority
of
security
breaches
 can be
prevented.

Let’s
be
clear
from
the
start
‐
no
text
can
provide
an
approach
that
 would guarantee
that
you’ll
be
100
percent
secure.

And
that’s
not
the
goal
of
this
chapter.


The
issues
raised
in
this
brief
introduction
can,
however,
help
make
you
aware
of
 vulnerabilities, improve
your
critical
thinking
regarding
current
and
future
security
issues,
 and help
you
consider
whether
a
firm
has
technologies,
training,
policies,
and
procedures
in
 place to
assess
risks,
lessen
the
likelihood
of
damage,
and
respond
in
the
event
of
a
breach.


A
constant
vigilance
regarding
security
needs
to
be
part
of
your
individual
skill
set,
and
a
 key component
to
your
organization’s
culture,
and
an
awareness
of
the
threats
and
 approaches discussed
in
this
chapter
should
help
reduce
your
chance
of
becoming
a
victim.
 As
we
examine
security
issues
we’ll
first
understand
what’s
happening,
who’s
doing
it,
and
 what’s their
motivation.

We’ll
then
examine
how
these
breaches
are
happening
with
a
 focus on
technologies
and
procedures.

Finally
we’ll
sum
up
with
what
can
be
done
to
 minimize the
risks
of
being
victimized
and
quell
potential
damage
of
a
breach,
both
for
the
 individual and
the
organization.
 KEY
TAKEAWAYS:

• Information
security
is
everyone’s
business
and
needs
to
be
made
a
top
organizational
 priority. • Firms
suffering
a
security
breach
can
experience
direct
financial
loss,
exposed
 proprietary information,
fines,
legal
payouts,
court
cost,
damaged
reputations,
 plummeting stock
prices,
and
more.

• Information
security
isn’t
just
a
technology
problem,
a
host
of
personnel
and
procedural
 factors can
create
and
amplify
a
firm’s
vulnerability.
 QUESTIONS
&
EXERCISES:

1. As
individuals
or
in
groups
assigned
by
your
instructor,
search
online
for
recent
reports
 on information
security
breaches.

Come
to
class
prepared
to
discuss
the
breach,
its
 potential impact,
and
how
it
might
have
been
avoided.

What
should
the
key
takeaways
 be for
managers
studying
your
example?

2. Think
of
firms
that
you’ve
done
business
with
online.

Search
to
see
if
these
firms
have
 experienced security
breaches
in
the
past.

What
have
you
found
out?

Does
this
change
 your attitude
about
dealing
with
the
firm?

Why
or
why
not?

3. What
factors
were
responsible
for
the
TJX
breach?

Who
was
responsible
for
the
 breach? How
do
you
think
the
firm
should
have
responded?
 5
Winkler
2009

6
King
2009


Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
2


WHY IS THIS HAPPENING? WHO IS DOING IT? AND WHAT’S THEIR MOTIVATION? LEARNING
OBJECTIVES:

After
studying
this
section
you
should
be
able
to:


• Understand
the
source
and
motivation
of
those
initiating
information
security
attacks.

• Relate
examples
of
various
infiltration
in
a
way
that
helps
raise
organizational
 awareness of
threats.
 Thieves,
vandals,
and
other
bad
guys
have
always
existed,
but
the
environment
has
 changed. Today
nearly
every
organization
is
online,
making
any
Internet‐connected
 network a
potential
entry
point
for
the
growing,
worldwide
community
of
computer
 criminals. Software
and
hardware
solutions
are
also
more
complex
than
ever.

Technology
 components are
provided
by
different
vendors,
each
with
its
own
potential
weaknesses,
or
 which may
be
compromised
by
misuse,
misconfiguration,
or
mismanagement.


Corporations
have
become
data
packrats,
hording
information
in
hopes
of
turning
bits
into
 bucks by
licensing
databases,
targeting
advertisements,
or
cross‐selling
products.

And
 flatter organizations
also
mean
that
lower‐level
employees
may
be
able
to
use
technology
 to reach
deep
into
corporate
assets
–
amplifying
threats
from
operator
error,
a
renegade
 employee, or
one
compromised
by
external
forces.
 There
are
a
lot
of
bad
guys
out
there
and
motivation
varies
widely.

These
include:

• Account
theft
and
illegal
funds
transfer

• Cyberwarfare

• Stealing
personal
or
financial
data

• Terrorism

• Compromising
computing
assets
for
use
 • Pranksters
 in other
crimes

• Protest
hacking
(hacktivism)

• Extortion


• Revenge
(disgruntled
employees)

• Espionage


Criminals
have
stolen
more
than
$100
million
from
US
Banks
in
the
first
three
quarters
of

2009,
and
they
did
it
“without
drawing
a
gun
or
passing
a
note
to
a
teller”7.

While
some
 steal cash
for
their
own
use,
other
resell
their
hacking
take
to
others.

There
is
a
thriving
 cybercrime underworld
market,
where
‘data harvesters’
sell
to
‘cash­out fraudsters’,
 criminals who
might
purchase
data
from
the
harvesters,
in
order
to
buy
(then
resell)
goods
 using stolen
credit
cards,
or
create
false
accounts
via
identity
theft.

These
collection
and
 resale operations
are
efficient
and
sophisticated.

Law
enforcement
has
taken
down
sites
 like DarkMarket
and
ShadowCrew,
in
which
card
thieves
and
hacking
tool
peddlers
 received eBay‐style
seller
ratings
vouching
for
the
‘quality’
of
their
wares8.
 Hackers
might
also
infiltrate
computer
systems
to
enlist
hardware
for
subsequent
illegal
 acts. A
cybercrook
might
deliberately
hop
through
several
systems
to
make
their
path
 difficult to
follow,
slowing
cross‐border
legal
pursuit,
or
even
thwarting
prosecution
if
 launched from
nations
without
extradition
agreements.


 7
Kroft,
2009


8
Singel
2008


Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
3


In
fact,
your
computer
may
be
up
for
rent
by
cyber
thieves
right
now.

Botnets
of
zombie
 computers (networks
of
infiltrated
and
compromised
machines
controlled
by
a
central
 command) are
used
for
all
sorts
of
nefarious
activity.

This
includes
sending
spam
from
 thousands of
difficult‐to‐shut‐down
accounts,
launching
tough‐to‐track
click‐fraud
efforts,
 or staging
what’s
known
as
Distributed Denial of Service,
or
DDoS,
attacks
(effectively
 shutting down
websites
by
overwhelming
them
with
a
crushing
load
of
seemingly
 legitimate requests
sent
simultaneously
by
thousands
of
machines).
Botnets
have
been
 discovered that
are
capable
of
sending
out
100
billion
spam
messages
a
day9,
and
botnets
 as large
as
10
million
zombies
have
been
identified.

Such
systems
theoretically
control
 more computing
power
than
the
world’s
fastest
supercomputers10.
 Extortionists
might
leverage
botnets
or
hacked
data
to
demand
payment
to
avoid
 retribution. Three
Eastern
European
gangsters
used
a
botnet
and
threatened
DDoS
to
 extort $4
million
from
UK
sports
bookmakers11,
while
an
extortion
plot
against
the
state
of

Virginia
threatened
to
reveal
names,
social
security
numbers,
and
prescription
info
stolen
 from a
medical
records
database12.
Competition
has
also
lowered
the
price
to
inflict
such
 pain. BusinessWeek
reports
that
the
cost
of
renting
out
10,000
machines,
enough
to
cripple
 a site
like
Twitter,
has
tumbled
to
just
$200
a
day13.
 Corporate
espionage
might
be
performed
by
insiders,
rivals,
or
even
foreign
governments.


Gary
Min,
a
scientist
working
for
DuPont,
was
busted
when
he
tried
to
sell
information
 valued at
some
$400
million,
including
R&D
documents
and
secret
data
on
proprietary
 products14. Spies
also
breached
the
$300
billion
U.S.
Joint
Strike
Fighter
project,
siphoning
 off terabytes
of
data
on
navigation
and
other
electronics
systems15.
 Cyber
warfare
has
become
a
legitimate
threat,
with
several
attacks
demonstrating
how
 devastating technology
disruptions
by
terrorists
or
a
foreign
power
might
be.

Brasil
has
 seen hacks
which
cut
off
power
to
millions.
 The
60
Minutes
news
program
showed
a
demonstration
by
‘white hat’
hackers
that
could
 compromise a
key
component
in
an
oil
refinery,
force
it
to
overheat,
and
cause
an
 explosion. Taking
out
key
components
of
the
vulnerable
U.S.
power
grid
may
be
 particularly devastating,
as
the
equipment
is
expensive,
much
of
it
is
no
longer
made
in
the

United
States,
and
some
components
may
take
three
to
four
months
to
replace16.
 ʻHackerʼ, Good or Bad?

9
Keizer
2008;
Higgins
2008

10
Krebs
2007

11
Trend
Micro
2008

12
Kroft
2009

13
Schectman
2009


14
Vijayvan
2007


15
Gorman
et
al.,
2009

16
Kroft
2009


Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
4


The terms hacker and hack are widely used, but their meaning is often based on context. When referring to security issues, the media widely refers to hackers as bad guys who try to break into (hack) computer systems. Some geezer geeks object to this use, as the term hack in computer circles originally referred to a clever (often technical) solution, and a hacker as a particularly skilled programmer. Expect to see the terms used both positively and negatively.
You might also encounter the terms ʻwhite hatʼ and ʻblack hatʼ hackers. The white hats are the good guys who probe for weaknesses, but donʼt exploit them. Instead, they share their knowledge in hopes that the holes theyʼve found will be plugged and security will be improved. Many firms hire consultants to conduct ʻwhite hatʼ hacking expeditions on their own assets as part of their auditing and security process. ʻBlack hatsʼ are the bad guys. Some call them ʻcrackersʼ. Thereʼs even a well-known series of hacker conventions known as the ʻBlack Hatʼ conference.

Other
threats
come
from
malicious
pranksters,
like
the
group
that
posted
seizure
inducing
 images on
websites
frequented
by
epilepsy
sufferers17.

Others
are
hacktivists,
targeting
 firms, websites,
or
even
users
as
a
protest
measure.
In
2009,
Twitter
was
brought
down
 and Facebook
and
LiveJournal
were
hobbled
as
Russian‐sympathizing
hacktivists
targeted
 the social
networking
and
blog
accounts
of
the
Georgian
blogger
known
as
Cyxymu.

The
 silencing of
millions
of
accounts
was
simply
collateral
damage
in
a
massive
DDoS
attack
 meant to
silence
this
single
critic
of
the
Russian
government18.
 And
as
power
and
responsibility
is
concentrated
in
the
hands
of
a
few,
revenge‐seeking
 employees can
do
great
damage.
The
San
Francisco
City
Government
lost
control
of
a
large
 portion of
its
own
computer
network
over
a
10
day
period
when
a
single
disgruntled
 employee refused
to
divulge
critical
passwords19.
 The
bad
guys
are
legion
and
the
good
guys
often
seem
outmatched
and
under‐resourced.

Law
enforcement
agencies
dealing
with
computer
crime
are
increasingly
outnumbered,
 outskilled, and
underfunded.

Many
agencies
are
staffed
with
technically
weak
personnel
 who were
trained
in
a
prior
era’s
crime
fighting
techniques.

Governments
can
rarely
match
 the pay
scale
and
stock
bonuses
offered
by
private
industry.

Organized
crime
networks
 now have
their
own
R&D
labs
and
are
engaged
in
sophisticated
development
efforts
to
 piece together
methods
to
thwart
current
security
measures.

 KEY
TAKEAWAYS:

• Computer
security
threats
have
moved
beyond
the
curious
teen
with
a
PC,
and
are
now
 sourced from
a
number
of
motivations,
including
theft,
leveraging
compromised
 computing assets,
extortion,
espionage,
warefare,
terrorism,
pranks,
protest,
and
 revenge. • Threats
can
come
from
both
within
the
firm
as
well
as
from
the
outside.

• Cybercriminals
operate
in
an
increasingly
sophisticated
ecosystem
where
data
 harvesters and
tool
peddlers
leverage
sophisticated
online
markets
to
sell
to
cash‐out
 fraudsters and
other
crooks.

• Technical
and
legal
complexity
make
pursuit
and
prosecution
difficult.
 17
Schwartz
2008

18
Schectman
2009

19
Vijayan
2009


Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
5




Many
law
enforcement
agencies
are
under‐funded,
under‐resourced,
and
under‐skilled
 to deal
with
the
growing
hacker
threat.


QUESTIONS
&
EXERCISES:

1. What’s
a
botnet?

What
sorts
of
exploits
would
use
a
botnet?

Why
would
a
botnet
be
 useful to
cybercriminals?

2. Why
are
threats
to
the
power
grid
potentially
so
concerning?

What
are
the
implications
 of power‐grid
failure?

Of
property
damage?

Who
might
execute
these
kinds
of
attacks?

What
are
the
implications
for
firms
and
governments
planning
for
the
possibility
of
 cyberwarefare and
cyberterror?

3. Scan
the
trade
press
for
examples
of
hacking
that
apply
to
the
various
motivations
 mentioned in
this
chapter.

What
happened
to
the
hacker?

Were
they
caught?

What
 penalties do
they
face?

4. Why
do
cybercriminals
execute
attacks
across
national
borders?

What
are
the
 implications for
pursuit,
prosecution,
and
law
enforcement?

5. Why
do
law
enforcement
agencies
struggle
to
cope
with
computer
crime?

6. A
single,
rouge
employee
effectively
held
the
City
of
San
Francisco’s
network
hostage
 for 10
days.

What
processes
or
controls
might
the
city
have
created
that
could
have
 prevented this
kind
of
situation
from
taking
place?


data
harvester
–
cybercriminals
who
infiltrate
systems
and
collect
data
for
illegal
resale.
 cash‐out
fraudster
–
firms
that
purchase
assets
from
data
harvesters.

Actions
may
include
 using stolen
credit
card
numbers
to
purchase
goods,
creating
fake
accounts
via
identity
 fraud, and
more.
 botnet
or
zombie
network
–
hordes
of
surreptitiously
infiltrated
computers,
linked
and
 controlled remotely.
 distributed
denial
of
service
attack
(DDoS)
–
an
attack
where
a
firm’s
computer
systems
are
 flooded with
thousands
of
seemingly
legitimate
requests,
the
sheer
volume
of
which
will
 slow or
shut
down
the
site’s
use.

DDoS
attacks
are
often
performed
via
botnets.
 hacktivist
–
a
protester
seeking
to
make
a
political
point
by
leveraging
technology
tools,
 often through
system
infiltration,
defacement,
or
damage.
 hacker
–
a
term
that,
depending
on
the
context,
may
be
applied
to
either
1)
someone
who
 breaks into
computer
systems,
or
2)
to
a
particularly
clever
programmer.
 hack
–
a
term
that
may,
depending
on
the
context,
refer
to
either
1)
breaking
into
a
 computer system,
or
2)
a
particularly
clever
solution.
 white
hat
hacker
–
someone
who
uncovers
computer
weaknesses
without
exploiting
them.


The
goal
of
the
white
hat
hacker
is
to
improve
system
security.
 Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
6


black
hat
hacker
–
a
computer
criminal.
 WHERE ARE VULNERABILITIES? UNDERSTANDING THE WEAKNESSES LEARNING
OBJECTIVES:

After
studying
this
section
you
should
be
able
to:


• Recognize
the
potential
entry
points
for
security
compromise.

• Understand
infiltration
techniques
such
as
social
engineering,
phishing,
malware,
 website compromises
(such
as
SQL
injection),
and
more.

• Identify
various
methods
and
techniques
to
thwart
infiltration.


Users / Administrators
•Bad apple
•Social engineering
•Phishing
•Weak / easily compromised passwords
•Careless / uninformed user (insecure !sharing" settings, no encryption, software updates turned off, poor configuration)

Client Software
•OS holes
•Application weaknesses
•Languages in applications •Applets in applications

Physical Threats
•Dumpster diving
•Eavesdropping (key loggers, cameras, mics, devices mailed/left on premises) •Destruction of property
(terror, disaster)
Network:
•Sniffers, compromised relays & equipment
•DNS redirects
•Weak user authentication / open hotspots Computing Hardware
•Removable media
(USB, DVD, etc.) insert malware or steal data
•PC / device theft
•Physical access (break into room)

Server Software
•OS holes
•Application weaknesses
•Languages in applications •Applets in applications
•Applications poorly coded (allow for SQL injection, cross-site scripting) •Unfederated systems
(enter one system allows access to others)

This diagram shows only some of the potential weaknesses that can compromise the security of an organization’s information systems. Every physical or network ‘touch point’ is a potential vulnerability.
Understanding where weaknesses may exist is a vital step toward improved security.20

Modern
information
systems
have
lots
of
interrelated
components
and
if
one
of
these
 components fails,
there
might
be
a
way
in
to
the
goodies.
This
creates
a
large
attack
surface
 20
Editorial
/
Layout
note:
clipart
sourced
from
http://office.microsoft.com/en‐us/clipart/default.aspx



Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
7


for
potential
infiltration
and
compromise,
as
well
as
one
that
is
simply
vulnerable
to
 unintentional damage
and
disruption.

 User / Administrator Threats Bad Apples
While
some
of
the
more
sensational
exploits
involve
criminal
gangs,
research
firm
Gartner
 estimates that
70
percent
of
loss‐causing
security
incidents
involve
insiders21.

Rogue
 employees can
steal
secrets,
install
malware,
or
hold
a
firm
hostage.

Check
processing
firm

Fidelity
National
Information
Services
was
betrayed
when
one
of
its
database
 administrators lifted
personal
records
on
2.3
million
of
the
firm’s
customers
and
illegally
 sold them
to
direct
marketers.
 And
it’s
not
just
firm
employees.

Many
firms
hire
temporary
staffers,
contract
employees,
 or outsource
key
components
of
their
infrastructure.

Other
firms
have
been
compromised
 by members
of
their
cleaning
or
security
staff.

A
contract
employee
working
at
Sentry

Insurance
stole
information
on
110,000
of
the
firm’s
clients22.
 Social Engineering
As
PT
Barnum
is
reported
to
have
said,
“There’s
a
sucker
born
every
minute”.

Con
games
 that trick
employees
into
revealing
information
or
performing
other
tasks
that
compromise
 a firm
are
known
as
social engineering
in
security
circles.

In
some
ways,
crooks
have
never
 had easier
access
to
background
information
that
might
be
used
to
craft
a
scam.

It’s
likely
 that a
directory
of
a
firm’s
employees,
their
titles,
and
other
personal
details
is
online
right
 now via
social
networks
like
LinkedIn
and
Facebook.

With
just
a
few
moments
of
 searching, a
skilled
con
artist
can
piece
together
a
convincing
and
compelling
story.
 A Sampling of Methods Employed in Social Engineering:
• Impersonating senior management, a current or new end-user needing help with access to systems, investigators, or staff (fake uniforms, badges).
• Identify a key individual by name/title as supposed friend or acquaintance.
• Making claims with confidence and authority (ʻof course I belong at this White House dinnerʼ).
• Baiting someone to add, deny, or clarify information that can help an attacker.
• Using harassment, guilt, or intimidation.
• Using an attractive individual to charm others into gaining information, favors, or access.
• Setting off a series of false alarms that cause the victim to disable alarm systems
• Bogus surveys (e.g. “win a free trip to Hawaii, just answer three questions about your network”)

Data
aggregator
ChoicePoint
sold
private
information
to
criminals
who
posed
as
legitimate
 clients, compromising
names,
addresses,
and
social
security
numbers
on
some
145,000
 individuals. In
this
breach,
not
a
single
computer
was
compromised.
Employees
were
 simply duped
into
turning
data
over
to
crooks.

Gaffes
like
that
can
be
painful.

ChoicePoint


21
Mardesich
2009

22
Vijayvan,
2007


Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
8


paid
$15
million
in
a
settlement
with
the
Federal
Trade
Commission,
suffered
customer
 loss, and
ended
up
abandoning
once
lucrative
businesses23.
 Phishing
Phishing
refers
to
cons
executed
through
technology.
The
goal
of
phishing
is
to
leverage
the
 reputation of
a
trusted
firm
or
friend
to
trick
the
victim
into
performing
an
action
or
 revealing information.
The
cons
are
crafty.

Many
have
masqueraded
as
security
alerts
from
 banks or
e‐commerce
sites
(‘Our
website
has
been
compromised,
click
to
login
and
reset
 your password’),
a
message
from
your
employer,
or
even
a
notice
from
the
government

(‘click
here
to
update
needed
information
to
receive
your
tax
refund
transfer’).


Sophisticated
con
artists
will
lift
logos,
mimic
standard
layouts,
and
copy
official
language
 from legitimate
websites
or
prior
e‐mails.

Gartner
estimates
that
these
sorts
phishing
 attacks cost
consumers
$3.2
billion
in
200724.
 Other
phishing
attempts
might
dupe
a
user
into
unwittingly
downloading
dangerous
 software (malware)
that
can
do
things
like
record
passwords
and
keystrokes,
provide
 hackers with
deeper
access
to
your
corporate
network,
or
enlist
your
PC
as
part
of
a
botnet.


One
attempt
masqueraded
as
a
message
from
a
Facebook
friend,
inviting
the
recipient
to
 view a
video.
Victims
clicking
the
link
were
then
told
they
need
to
install
an
updated
 version of
the
Adobe
Flash
plug‐in
to
view
the
clip.
The
plug
in
was
really
a
malware
 program that
gave
phishers
control
of
the
infected
user’s
computer25.

Other
attempts
have
 populated P2P
networks
with
malware‐installing
files
masquerading
as
video
games
or
 other software,
movies,
songs,
and
pornography.
 So‐called
spear phishing
attacks
specifically
target
a
given
organization
or
group
of
users.


In
one
incident,
employees
of
a
medical
center
received
e‐mails
purportedly
from
the
 center itself,
indicating
that
the
recipient
was
being
laid
off,
and
offering
a
link
to
job
 counseling resources.

The
link
really
offered
a
software
payload
that
recorded
and
 forwarded any
keystrokes
on
the
victim’s
PC26.

And
with
this
type
of
phishing,
the
more
 you know
about
a
user,
the
more
convincing
it
is
to
con
them.

Phishers
using
pilfered
 resume information
from
Monster.com
crafted
targeted
and
personalized
e‐mails.

The
 request, seemingly
from
the
job
site,
advised
users
to
download
the
“Monster
Job
Seeker

Tool”;
this
‘tool’
installed
malware
that
encrypted
files
on
the
victim’s
PC,
leaving
a
ransom
 note demanding
payment
to
liberate
a
victim’s
hard
disk27.
 Donʼt Take the Bait – Recognizing the ʻPhish Hooksʼ
Web browser developers, e-mail providers, search engines, and other firms are actively working to curtail phishing attempts. Many firms create blacklists that block access to harmful websites, and increasingly robust tools screen for common phishing tactics. But itʼs still important to have your guard

23
Winkler
2009

24
Avivah
2007

25
Krebs,
March
2,
2009

26
Garretson
2006

27
Wilson
2007


Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
9


up. Some exploits may be so new that they havenʼt made it into screening systems (so-called ʻzero dayʼ exploits).
Never click on a link or download a suspicious, unexpected enclosure without verifying the authenticity of the sender. If something looks suspicious, donʼt implicitly trust the ʻfromʼ link in an e-mail. Itʼs possible that the e-mail address has been spoofed (faked), or that it was sent via a colleagueʼs compromised account. If unsure, contact the sender or your security staff.
Also know how to read the complete URL to look for tricks. Some firms misspell web address names
(ʻhttp://wwwyourbank.comʼ – note the missing period), setup subdomains to trick the eye
(ʻhttp://yourbank.com.sneakysite.comʼ – which is hosted at sneakysite.com even though a quick glance looks like yourbank.com), or hijack brands by registering a legitimate firmʼs name via foreign top-level domains (http://yourbank.cn).
A legitimate URL might also appear in a phishing message, but an HTML coding trick might make something that looks like ʻhttp://yourbank.com/loginʼ actually link to ʻhttp://sneakysite.comʼ). Hovering your cursor over the URL or an image connected to a link should reveal the actual URL as a tool tip
(just donʼt click it, or youʼll go to that site).

This e-mail message looks like itʼs from Bank of America. However, hovering the cursor above the ʻContinue to Loginʼ button reveals the URL without clicking through to the site. Note how the actual URL associated with the link is not associated with Bank of America

The image is from a phishing scheme masquerading as an eBay message. The real destination is a compromised .org domain unassociated with eBay, but the phishers have created a directory at this domain named ʻsignin.ebay.comʼ in hopes that users will focus on that part of the URL and not recognize theyʼre really headed to a non-eBay site

Web 2.0 – The Rising Security Threat

Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
10


Social networks and other Web 2.0 tools are a potential gold mine for crooks seeking to pull off phishing scams. Malware can send messages that seem to come from trusted ʻfriendsʼ. Messages such as status updates and tweets are short, and with limited background info thereʼs less context to question a postʼs validity. Many users leverage bit.ly or other URL shortening services that donʼt reveal the website they link to in their URL, making it easier to hide a malicious link. While the most popular URLshortening services maintain a blacklist, early victims are threatened by zero-day exploits. Criminals have also been using a variety of techniques to spread malware across sites or otherwise make them difficult to track and catch.
Some botnets have even used Twitter to communicate by sending out coded tweets to instruct
28
compromised machines . Social media can also be a megaphone for loose lips, enabling a careless user to squirt proprietary information into the public domain. A 2009 Congressional delegation to Iraq led by House Minority Leader John Boehner was supposed to have been secret. But Rep. Peter
Hoekstra tweeted his final arrival into Baghdad from BlackBerry. “Just landed in Baghdad. I believe it th may be first time Iʼve had bb service in Iraq. 11 trip here.” Youʼd think he would have known better. At the time, Hoekstra was a ranking member of… the House Intelligence Committee!

Passwords
Many
valuable
assets
are
kept
secure
via
just
one
thin
layer
of
protection
–
the
password.


And
if
you’re
like
most
users,
your
password
system
is
a
mess29.

With
so
many
destinations
 asking for
passwords,
chances
are
you’re
using
the
same
password
(or
easily
guessed
 variants) in
a
way
that
means
getting
just
one
‘key’
would
open
many
‘doors’.

The
typical
 web user
has
6.5
passwords,
each
of
which
is
used
at
four
sites,
on
average30.

Some
sites
 force users
to
change
passwords
regularly,
but
this
often
results
in
insecure
compromises.


Users
make
only
minor
tweaks
(e.g.
appending
the
month/year);
they
write
passwords
 down (in
an
unlocked
drawer
or
Post‐it
note
attached
to
the
monitor);
or
they
save
 passwords in
personal
e‐mail
accounts
or
on
unencrypted
hard
drives.

 The
challenge
questions
offered
by
many
sites
to
automate
password
distribution
and
 resets are
a
joke.
What’s
your
mother’s
maiden
name?

What
elementary
school
did
you
 attend? Where
were
you
born?

All
pretty
easy
to
guess.
One
IEEE
study
found
 acquaintances could
correctly
answer
colleagues’
secret
questions
28
percent
of
the
time,
 and those
who
did
not
know
the
person
still
guessed
right
at
a
rate
of
17
percent.

Plus
 within three
to
six
months
16
percent
of
study
participants
forgot
answers
to
their own
 security questions31.

In
many
cases,
answers
to
these
questions
can
be
easily
uncovered
 online. Chances
are
if
you’ve
got
an
account
at
a
site
like
Ancestry.com,
classmates.com,
or

Facebook,
then
some
of
your
secret
answers
have
already
been
exposed
–
by
you!

A

Tennessee
teen
hacked
into
Sarah
Palin’s
personal
Yahoo
account
(gov.palin@yahoo.com)
 28
UnsafeBits,
2009

29
Manjoo
2009

30
Summers
2009

31
Lemos
2009


Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
11


in
part
by
correctly
guessing
where
she
met
her
husband.

A
similar
attack
hit
staffers
at

Twitter,
resulting
in
the
theft
of
hundreds
of
internal
documents,
including
strategy
 memos, e‐mails
and
financial
forecasts,
many
of
which
ended
up
embarrassingly
posted
 online32. Related
to
the
password
problem
are
issues
with
system
setup
and
configuration.

Many
 vendors sell
software
with
a
common
default
password.

For
example,
for
years,
leading
 database products
came
with
the
default
account/password
combination
‘scott/tiger’.

Any
 firm not
changing
default
accounts
and
passwords
risks
having
an
open
door.

Other
firms
 are left
vulnerable
if
users
set
systems
for
open
access
–
say
turning
on
file
sharing
 permission for
their
PC.

Programmers
take
note
‐
well‐designed
products
come
with
 secure default
settings,
require
users
to
reset
passwords
at
setup,
and
also
offer
strong
 warnings when
security
settings
are
made
weaker.

But
unfortunately,
there
are
a
lot
of
 legacy products
out
there,
and
not
all
vendors
have
the
insight
to
design
for
out‐of‐the‐box
 security. Building a better password
Thereʼs no simple answer for the password problem. Biometrics are often thought of as a solution, but technologies that replace conventionally typed passwords with things like fingerprint readers, facial recognition, or iris scans are still rarely used, and PCs that include such technologies are widely viewed as novelties. Says Carnegie Mellon University CyLab fellow Richard Power “Biometrics never caught on and it never will”.33
Other approaches leverage technology that distribute single use passwords. These might arrive via external devices like an electronic wallet card, key chain fob, or cell phone. Security firm RSA has even built the technology into BlackBerrys. Enter a user name and receive a phone message with a temporary password. Even if a system was compromised by keystroke capture malware, the password is only good for only one session. Lost device? A central command can disable it. This may be a good solution for situations that demand a high level of security, and Wells Fargo and PayPal are among the firms offering these types of services as an option. However for most consumer applications, slowing down users with a two-tier authentication system would be an impractical mandate.
While you await technical fixes, you can at least work to be part of the solution rather than part of the problem. Itʼs unlikely youʼve got the memory or discipline to create separate unique passwords for all of your sites, but at least make it a priority to create separate, hard-to-guess passwords for each of your highest priority accounts (e.g. e-mail, financial websites, corporate network and PC). Remember, the integrity of a password shared across websites isnʼt just up to you. That hot startup web service may not have the security resources or experience to protect your special code, and if that websiteʼs account is hacked, your user name and password is now in the hands of hackers that can try out those ʻkeysʼ across the webʼs most popular destinations.
Websites are increasingly demanding more ʻsecureʼ passwords, requiring users to create passwords at least eight characters in length and that include at least one number and other non-alphabet character.
Beware of using seemingly clever techniques to disguise common words. Many commonly available brute-force password cracking tools run through dictionary guesses of common words or phrases, substituting symbols or numbers for common characters (e.g. ʻ@ʼ for a, ʻ+ʼ for ʻtʼ). For stronger security,

32
Summers
2009

33
Summers
2009


Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
12


experts often advise basing passwords on a phrase, where each letter makes up a letter in an acronym.
For example, the phrase “My first Cadillac was a real lemon so I bought a Toyota” becomes
“M1stCwarlsIbaT”34. Be careful to choose an original phrase known only by you, and thatʼs easy for you to remember. Studies have shown that acronym-based passwords using song lyrics, common quotes, or movie lines, are still susceptible to dictionary-style hacks that build passwords from pop-culture references (in one test, two of 144 participants made password phrases from an acronym of the Oscar
35
Meyer Weiner jingle) . Finding that balance between tough for others to guess, yet easy for you to remember will require some thought – but itʼll make you more secure. Do it now!

Technology Threats (client and server software, hardware, and networking) Malware
Any
accessible
computing
device
is
a
potential
target
for
infiltration
by
malware.

Malware

(for
malicious
software)
seeks
to
compromise
a
computing
system
without
permission.


Client
PCs
and
a
firm’s
servers
are
primary
targets,
but
as
computing
has
spread,
malware
 now threatens
nearly
any
connected
system
running
software,
including
mobile
phones,
 embedded devices,
and
a
firm’s
networking
equipment.

 Some
hackers
will
try
to
sneak
malware
onto
a
system
via
techniques
like
phishing.

In
 another high‐profile
hacking
example,
infected
USB
drives
were
purposely
left
lying
around
 government offices.

Those
seemingly
abandoned
office
supplies
really
contained
code
that
 attempted to
infiltrate
government
PCs
when
inserted
by
unwitting
employees.
 Machines
are
constantly
under
attack.
Microsoft’s
Internet
Safety
Enforcement
Team
 claims that
the
mean
time
to
infection
for
an
unprotected
PC
is
less
than
five
minutes36.

Oftentimes
malware
attempts
to
compromise
weaknesses
in
software
–
either
bugs,
poor
 design, or
poor
configuration.

 Years
ago
most
attacks
centered
on
weaknesses
in
the
operating
system,
but
now
malware
 exploits have
expanded
to
other
targets,
including
browsers,
plug
ins,
and
scripting
 languages used
by
software.

BusinessWeek
reports
that
Adobe
has
replaced
Microsoft
as
 the primary
means
by
which
hackers
try
to
infect
or
take
control
of
PCs.

Even
trusted
 websites have
become
a
conduit
to
deliver
malware
payloads.

More
than
a
dozen
sites,
 including those
of
The
New
York
Times,
USA
Today,
and
Nature,
were
compromised
when
 seemingly honest
advertising
clients
switched
on
fake
ads
that
exploit
Adobe
software37.


Some
attacks
were
delivered
through
Flash
animations
that
direct
computers
to
sites
that
 scan PCs,
installing
malware
payloads
through
whatever
vulnerabilities
are
discovered.


Others
circulated
via
e‐mail
through
PDF
triggered
payloads
deployed
when
a
file
was
 loaded via
Acrobat
Reader.
Adobe
is
a
particularly
tempting
target,
as
Flash
and
Acrobat

Reader
are
now
installed
on
nearly
every
PC,
including
Mac
and
Linux
machines.


34
Manjoo
2009


35
Summers
2009

36
Markoff,
Oct.
20,
2008

37
Ricadela
2009


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13


Malware
goes
by
many
names.

Here
are
a
few
of
the
more
common
terms
you’re
likely
to
 encounter38. Methods
of
Infection:

• Virus:
infect
other
software
or
files.
Requires
an
executable
(a
running
program)
so
that
 it can
spread
itself,
attaching
to
other
executables.

Can
spread
via
operating
systems,
 programs, or
via
the
boot
sector
or
auto‐run
feature
of
media
such
as
DVDs
or
USB
 drives. Some
applications
have
executable
languages
(macros)
that
can
also
host
 viruses that
run
and
spread
when
a
file
is
open.

• Worms:
take
advantage
of
security
vulnerability
to
automatically
spread,
but
unlike
 viruses, worms
do
not
require
an
executable.
Some
worms
scan
for
and
install
 themselves on
vulnerable
systems
with
stunning
speed
(in
an
extreme
example,
the
SQL

Slammer
worm
infected
90
percent
of
vulnerable
software
worldwide
within
just
10
 minutes)39. • Trojans:
like
the
mythical
Trojan
Horse,
these
exploits
try
to
sneak
in
by
masquerading
 as something
they’re
not.
The
payload
is
released
when
the
user
is
duped
into
 downloading and
installing
the
malware
cargo,
oftentimes
via
phishing
exploits.
 While
the
terms
above
cover
methods
for
infection,
the
terms
below
address
the
goal
of
the
 malware: • Botnets
or
zombie networks:
hordes
of
surreptitiously
infected
computers,
linked
and
 controlled remotely
by
a
central
command.
Botnets
are
used
in
crimes
where
 controlling many
difficult‐to‐identify
PCs
is
useful,
such
as
when
perpetrating
click‐ fraud, sending
spam,
registering
accounts
that
use
CAPTCHAs40
(those
scrambled
 character images
meant
to
thwart
things
like
automated
account
setup
or
ticket
 buying), executing
‘dictionary’
password
cracking
attempts,
or
launching
denial‐of‐ service attacks.

• Malicious Adware:
programs
installed
without
full
user
consent
or
knowledge
and
 which later
serve
unwanted
advertisements.

• Spyware:
software
that
surreptitiously
monitors
user
actions,
network
traffic,
or
scans
 for files.

• Keylogger:
a
type
of
spyware
that
records
user
keystrokes.

Keyloggers
can
be
either
 software‐based or
hardware,
such
as
a
recording
‘dongle’
that
is
plugged
in
between
a
 keyboard and
a
PC.

• Screen­capture:
a
variant
of
the
keylogger
approach
–
this
category
of
software
records
 the pixels
that
appear
on
a
user’s
screen
for
later
playback
in
hopes
of
identifying
 proprietary information.

• Blended Threats:

Attacks
combining
multiple
malware
or
hacking
exploits.
 All The News Fit to Print (Brought to you by Scam Artists)

38
Portions
adapted
from
Perera,
2009

39
Broersma
2003

40
Keizer
Feb.
2009


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In Fall 2009, bad guys posing as the telecom firm Vonage signed up to distribute ads through the New
York Times website. Many firms that display online ads on their websites simply create placeholders on their web pages, with the actual ad content served by the advertisers themselves (see the Google chapter for details). In this particular case, the scam artists posing as Vonage switched off the legitimate-looking ads and switched on code that, according to the NY Times, “took over the browsers of many people visiting the site, as their screens filled with an image that seemed to show a scan for computer viruses. The visitors were then told that they needed to buy antivirus software to fix a
41
problem, but the software was more snake oil than a useful program.” Sites ranging from Fox News, the San Francisco Chronicle, and British tech site The Register, have also been hit with ad-scams in the past. In the Times case, malware wasnʼt distributed directly to user PCs, but by passing through ads from third parties to consumers, the Times became a conduit for a scam. In the same way that manufacturers need to audit their supply chain to ensure that partners arenʼt engaged in sweatshop labor or disgraceful pollution, sites that host ads need to audit their partners to ensure they are legitimate and behaving with integrity.

The Virus In Your Pocket
Most mobile phones are really pocket computers, so itʼs not surprising that these devices have become malware targets. And there are a lot of pathways to exploit. Malware might infiltrate a smart phone via e-mail, Internet surfing, MMS attachments, or even Bluetooth. The commwarrior mobile virus spread to at least eight countries, propagating from a combination of MMS messages and Bluetooth42.
Most smartphones have layers of security to block the spread of malware, so hackers typically hunt for the weakest victims. Easy marks include ʻjail-brokenʼ iPhones, devices with warrantee-voiding mods in which security restrictions are overridden to allow phones to be used off-network, and for the installation of unsanctioned apps. Estimates suggest some 10% of iPhones are jail-broken, and early viruses exploiting the compromised devices ranged from a ʻRick rollʼ that replaced the home screen image with a photo of 80s crooner Rick Astley43, to the more nefarious Ikee.B, which scanned text messages and hunted out banking codes, forwarding the nabbed data to a server in Lithuania44.
The upside? Those smart devices are sometimes crime fighters themselves. A Pittsburgh mugging victim turned on Appleʼs ʻFind My iPhoneʼ feature within itʼs MobileMe service, mapping the perpʼs path then sending the law to bust the bad guys while they ate at a local restaurant45.

41
Vance
2009


42
Charney
2005

43
Stead
2009

44
Lemos
Nov.
29,
2009

45
Murrell
2009


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A ʻjail brokenʼ iPhone gets ʻRick Rolledʼ by malware

Compromising Websites
Some
exploits
directly
target
poorly
designed
and
programmed
websites.

Consider
the
SQL
 injection technique.

It
zeros
in
on
a
sloppy
programming
practice
where
software
 developers don’t
validate
user
input.
 It
works
like
this.

Imagine
that
you
visit
a
website
and
are
asked
to
enter
your
userID
in
a
 field on
a
web
page
(say
your
userID
is
smith).

A
website
may
be
programmed
to
take
the
 data you
enter
from
the
web
page’s
userID
field
(smith),
then
add
it
to
a
database
 command (creating
the
equivalent
of
a
command
that
says
“find
the
account
for
‘smith’”).


The
database
then
executes
that
command.
 But
websites
that
don’t
verify
user
entries
and
instead
just
blindly
pass
along
entered
data
 are vulnerable
to
attack.

Hackers
with
just
a
rudimentary
knowledge
of
SQL
could
type
 actual code
fragments
into
the
userID
field,
appending
this
code
to
statements
executed
by
 the site
(see
sidebar
for
a
more
detailed
description).

Such
modified
instructions
could
 instruct the
website’s
database
software
to
drop
(delete)
tables,
insert
additional
data,
 return all
records
in
a
database,
or
even
redirect
users
to
another
website
which
will
scan
 clients for
weaknesses,
then
launch
further
attacks.

Security
expert
Ben
Schneier
noted
a
 particularly ghastly
SQL
injection
vulnerability
in
the
publicly‐facing
database
for
the

Oklahoma
Department
of
Corrections,
where
“[a]nyone
with
basic
SQL
knowledge
could
 have registered
anyone
he
wanted
as
a
sex
offender.”46
 Not
trusting
user
input
is
a
cardinal
rule
of
programming,
and
most
well‐trained
 programmers know
to
validate
user
input.

But
there’s
a
lot
of
sloppy
code
out
there,
which
 hackers are
all
too
eager
to
exploit.

IBM
identifies
SQL
injection
as
the
fastest
growing
 security threat,
with
over
half
a
million
attack
attempts
recorded
each
day47.

Some
 vulnerable systems
started
life
as
quickly
developed
proof‐of‐concepts
where
 programmers never
went
back
to
add
the
needed
code
to
validate
input
and
block
these
 46
Schneier
2008


47
Wittmann
2009


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16


exploits.
Other
websites
may
have
been
designed
by
poorly
trained
developers
who
have
 moved on
to
other
projects,
by
staff
that
have
since
left
the
firm,
or
where
development
 was outsourced
to
another
firm.

As
such,
many
firms
don’t
even
know
if
they
suffer
from
 this vulnerability.

 SQL
injection
and
other
application
weaknesses
are
particularly
problematic
because
 there’s not
a
commercial
software
patch
or
easily
deployed
piece
of
security
software
that
 can protect
a
firm.
Instead,
firms
have
to
meticulously
examine
the
integrity
of
their
 websites to
see
if
they
are
vulnerable48.
 How SQL Injection Works For
those
that
want
to
get
into
some
of
the
geekier
details
of
a
SQL
injection
attack,
 consider a
website
that
executes
the
code
below
to
verify
that
an
entered
userID
is
in
a
 database table
of
usernames.

The
code
executed
by
the
website
might
look
something
like
 this: "SELECT * FROM users WHERE userName = '" + userID + "';"

The
statement
above
tells
the
database
to
SELECT (find
&
return)
all
columns
(that’s
what
 the ‘*’
means)
from
a
table
named
users where
the
database’s
userName field
equals
the
 text you
just
entered
in
the
userID
field.

If
the
website’s
visitor
entered
smith,
that
text
is
 added to
the
statement
above,
and
it’s
executed
as:

 "SELECT * FROM users WHERE userName = 'smith';"

No
problem.

But
now
imagine
a
hacker
gets
sneaky
and
instead
of
just
typing
smith,
into
 the website’s
userID
field,
they
also
add
some
additional
SQL
code
like
this:
 smith'; DROP TABLE users; DELETE * FROM users WHERE 't' = 't

If
the
programming
statement
above
is
entered
into
the
userID,
the
website
adds
this
code
 to its
own
programming
to
create
a
statement
that
is
executed
as:
 SELECT * FROM users WHERE userName = 'smith'; DELETE * FROM users WHERE 't' =
't';

The
semicolons
separate
SQL
statements.

That
second
statement
says
delete
all
data
in
the
 users table
for
records
where
‘t’ = ‘t’
(this
last
part,

‘t’ = ‘t’, is
always
true,
so
all
 records will
be
deleted).
Yikes!

In
this
case,
someone
entering
the
kind
of
code
you’d
learn
 in the
first
chapter
of
SQL for Dummies
could
annihilate
a
site’s
entire
userID
file
using
one
 of the
site’s
own
web
pages
as
the
attack
vehicle49!


48
While
some
tools
exist
to
automate
testing,
this
is
by
no
means
as
easy
a
fix
as
installing
a
commercial


software
patch
or
virus
protection
software.

49
Schneier
2008

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Related
programming
exploits
go
by
names
such
as
cross‐site
scripting
attacks
and
HTTP
 header injection.

We’ll
spare
you
the
technical
details,
but
what
this
means
for
both
the
 manager and
the
programmer
is
that
all
systems
must
be
designed
and
tested
with
security
 in mind.

This
includes
testing
new
applications,
existing
/
legacy
applications,
partner
 offerings, and
SaaS
applications
–
everything.

Visa
and
Mastercard
are
among
the
firms
 requiring partners
to
rigorously
apply
testing
standards.

Firms
that
aren’t
testing
their
 applications will
find
they’re
locked
out
of
business;
and
if
caught
with
unacceptable
 breaches, such
firms
may
be
forced
to
pay
big
fines
and
absorb
any
costs
associated
with
 their weak
practices50.
 Push-Button Hacking
Not only are the list of technical vulnerabilities well known, hackers have created tools to make it easy for the criminally-inclined to automate attacks. The Google chapter outlined how web sites can interrogate a system to find out more about the software and hardware used by visitors. Hacking toolkits can do the same thing. While you wonʼt find this sort of software for sale on Amazon, a casual surfing of the online underworld (not recommended or advocated) will surface scores of tools that probe systems for the latest vulnerabilities, then launch appropriate attacks. In one example, a $700 toolkit
(MPack v. 86) was used to infiltrate a host of Italian websites, launching Trojans that infested 15,000 users in just a 6 day period51. As an industry executive in BusinessWeek has stated “The barrier of entry is becoming so low that literally anyone can carry out these attacks”52.

Network Threats
The
network
itself
may
also
be
a
source
of
compromise.

Recall
that
the
TJX
hack
happened
 when a
Wi‐Fi
access
point
was
left
open
and
undetected.

A
hacker
just
drove
up
and
 performed the
digital
equivalent
of
crawling
through
an
open
window.

The
problem
is
 made more
challenging
since
wireless
access
points
are
so
inexpensive
and
easy
to
install.


For
less
than
$100,
a
user
(well
intentioned
or
not)
could
plug
in
an
access
point
that
could
 provide entry
for
anyone.

If
a
firm
doesn’t
regularly
monitor
its
premises,
its
network,
and
 its network
traffic,
it
may
fall
victim.
 Other
troubling
exploits
have
targeted
the
very
underpinning
of
the
Internet
itself.

This
is
 the case
with
so‐called
DNS
cache
poisoning.

The
DNS,
or
domain
name
service,
is
a
 collection of
software
that
maps
an
Internet
address
(www.bc.edu)
to
an
IP
address

(136.167.2.220).

While
there
are
a
collection
of
authoritative
servers
that
manage
the
 master lists
of
where
to
find
Internet
domains,
most
Internet
service
providers
run
 software that
helps
support
the
DNS,
working
to
quickly
point
users
to
the
right
addresses.



DNS
cache
poisoning
exploits
can
redirect
this
mapping
and
the
consequence
are
huge.


Imagine
thinking
that
you’re
visiting
your
bank’s
website,
but
instead
your
network’s
DNS
 server has
been
poisoned
so
that
you
really
visit
a
carefully
crafted
replica
that
hackers
use
 to snarf
your
login
credentials
and
drain
your
bank
account.

A
DNS
cache
poisoning
attack
 launched against
one
of
China’s
largest
ISPs
redirected
users
to
sites
that
launched
 50
Knowledge@Wharton,
2009

51
Trend
Micro
2008

52
Schectman
2009


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malware
exploits,
targeting
weaknesses
in
RealPlayer,
Adobe
Flash,
and
Microsoft’s
ActiveX
 technology, commonly
used
in
browsers53.
 Physical Threats A
firm
doesn’t
just
have
to
watch
out
for
insiders,
or
compromised
software
and
hardware,
 a host
of
other
physical
threats
can
grease
the
skids
to
fraud,
theft,
and
damage.
Most
large
 firms have
disaster‐recovery
plans
in
place.

These
often
include
provisions
to
backup
 systems and
data
to
offsite
locales,
to
protect
operations
and
provide
a
fall
back
in
the
case
 of disaster.

Such
plans
increasingly
take
into
account
the
potential
impact
of
physical
 security threats
such
as
terrorism,
or
vandalism,
as
well.
 Anything
valuable
that
reaches
the
trash
in
a
recoverable
state
is
also
a
potential
security
 breach. Hackers
and
spies
sometimes
practice
dumpster diving,
sifting
through
trash
in
an
 effort to
uncover
valuable
data
or
insights
that
can
be
stolen
or
used
to
launch
a
security
 attack. This
might
include
hunting
for
discarded
passwords
written
on
Post‐it
notes,
 recovering unshreaded
printed
user
account
listings,
scanning
e‐mails
or
program
 printouts for
system
clues,
recovering
tape
backups,
resurrecting
files
from
discarded
hard
 drives, and
more.
 Other
compromises
might
take
place
via
shoulder­surfing,
simply
looking
over
someone’s
 shoulder to
glean
a
password
or
see
other
proprietary
information
that
might
be
displayed
 on a
worker’s
screen.
 Firms
might
also
fall
victim
to
various
forms
of
eavesdropping;
efforts
to
listen
in
or
 recording conversations,
transmissions,
or
keystrokes.
A
device
hidden
inside
a
package
 might sit
inside
a
mailroom
or
a
worker’s
physical
inbox,
scanning
for
open
wireless
 connections, or
recording
and
forwarding
conversations54.
Other
eavesdropping
can
be
 accomplished via
compromised
wireless
or
other
network
connections,
malware
keylogger
 or screen
capture
programs,
as
well
as
hardware
devices
such
as
replacement
keyboards
 with keyloggers
embedded
inside,
microphones
to
capture
the
slightly
unique
and
 identifiable sound
of
each
key
being
pressed,
programs
that
turn
on
built
in
microphone
or
 cameras that
are
now
standard
on
many
PCs,
or
even
James
Bond‐style
devices
using
Van

Eck
techniques
that
attempt
to
read
monitors
from
afar
by
detecting
their
electromagnetic
 emissions. The Encryption Prescription
During a routine physical transfer of backup media, Bank of America lost tapes containing the private information - including Social Security and credit card numbers - of hundreds of thousands of customers55. Potentially devastating fodder for identity thieves. But who cares if someone steals your files if they still canʼt read the data? Thatʼs the goal of encryption!

53
London
2008

54
Robertson
2008

55
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2009


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Encryption scrambles data, making it essentially unreadable to any program that doesnʼt have the descrambling password, known as a key. Simply put, the larger the key, the more difficult it is for a brute-force attack to exhaust all available combinations and crack the code. When well implemented, encryption can be the equivalent of a rock solid vault. To date, the largest known brute force attacks, demonstration hacks launched by grids of simultaneous code-cracking computers working in unison, havenʼt come close to breaking the type of encryption used to scramble transmissions that most browsers use when communicating with banks and shopping sites. The problem occurs when data is nabbed before encryption or after decrypting, or in rare cases, if the encrypting key itself is compromised. Extremely sensitive data – trade secrets, passwords, credit card numbers, and employee and customer
56
information - should be encrypted before being sent or stored. Deploying encryption dramatically lowers the potential damage from lost or stolen laptops, or from hardware recovered from dumpster diving. It is vital for any laptops carrying sensitive information.
Encryption is also employed in virtual private network (VPN) technology, which scrambles data passed across a network. Public wireless connections pose significant security threats – they may be set up by hackers that pose as service providers, while really launching attacks on or monitoring the transmissions of unwitting users. The use of VPN software can make any passed-through packets unreadable. Contact your firm or school to find out how to set up VPN software.
In the Bank of America example above, the bank was burned. It couldnʼt verify that the lost tapes were encrypted, so it had to notify customers and incur the cost associated with assuming data had been breached57. Encryption is not without its downsides. Key management is a potentially costly procedural challenge for most firms. If your keys arenʼt secure, itʼs the equivalent of leaving the keys to a safe out in public.
Encryption also requires additional processing to scramble and descramble data – drawing more power and slowing computing tasks. Mooreʼs Law will speed things along, but it also puts more computing power in the hands of attackers. With hacking threats on the rise, expect to see laws and compliance requirements that mandate encrypted data, standardize encryption regimes, and simplify management.

How do websites encrypt transmissions?
Most websites that deal with financial transactions (e.g. banks, online stores) secure transmissions using a method called public key encryption. The system works with two keys – a public key and a private key. The public key can ʻlockʼ or encrypt data, but it canʼt unlock it. That can only be performed by the private key. So a website that wants you to transmit secure information will send you a public key – you use this to lock the data, and no one that intercepts that transmission can break in unless theyʼve got the private key. If the website does its job – itʼll keep the private key out of reach of all potentially prying eyes.
Wondering if a websiteʼs transmissions are encrypted? Look at the web address. If it begins https instead of http, it should be secure. Also look for the padlock icon in the corner of your web browser to be closed (locked). Finally, you can double click the padlock to bring up a verification of the websiteʼs identity (verified by a trusted third party firm, known as a certificate authority). If this matches your URL and indicates the firm youʼre doing business with, then you can be pretty sure verified encryption is being used by the firm that you intend to do business with.

56
Mardesich
2009

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p.
20


In this screenshot, a Firefox browser is visiting Bank of America. The padlock icon was clicked to bring up digital certificate information. Note how the websiteʼs name matches the URL. The verifying certificate authority is the firm VeriSign.

KEY
TAKEAWAYS:

• An
organization’s
information
assets
are
vulnerable
to
attack
from
several
points
of
 weakness, including
users/administrators,
its
hardware
and
software,
its
networking
 systems, and
various
physical
threats.

• Social
engineering
attempts
to
trick
or
con
individuals
into
providing
information,
while
 phishing techniques
are
cons
conducted
through
technology.

• While
dangerous,
a
number
of
tools
and
techniques
can
be
used
to
identify
phishing
 scams, limiting
their
likelihood
of
success.

• Social
media
sites
may
assist
hackers
in
crafting
phishing
or
social
engineering
threats,
 provide information
to
password
crackers,
and
act
as
conduits
for
unwanted
 dissemination of
proprietary
information.

• Most
users
employ
inefficient
and
insecure
password
systems,
however
techniques
 were offered
to
improve
your
individual
password
regime.

• Viruses,
worms,
and
Trojans
are
types
of
infecting
malware.

Other
types
of
malware
 might spy
on
users,
enlist
the
use
of
computing
assets
for
committing
crimes,
steal
 assets, destroy
property,
serve
unwanted
ads,
and
more.

• Examples
of
attacks
and
scams
launched
through
advertising
on
legitimate
web
pages
 highlights the
need
for
end‐user
caution,
as
well
as
for
firms
to
ensure
the
integrity
of
 their participating
online
partners.

• SQL
injection
and
related
techniques
show
the
perils
of
poor
programming.

Software
 developers must
design
for
security
from
the
start
–
considering
potential
security
 weaknesses, and
methods
that
improve
end‐user
security
(e.g.
in
areas
such
as
 installation and
configuration).

• Encryption
can
render
a
firm’s
data
assets
unreadable,
even
if
copied
or
stolen.

While
 potentially complex
to
administer
and
resource
intensive,
encryption
is
a
critical
tool
 for securing
an
organization’s
electronic
assets.
 QUESTIONS
&
EXERCISES:

1. Consider
your
own
personal
password
regime
and
correct
any
weaknesses.

Share
any
 additional password
management
tips
and
techniques
with
your
class.

2. Why
is
it
a
bad
idea
to
use
variants
of
existing
passwords
when
registering
for
new
 websites? 3. Relate
an
example
of
social
engineering
that
you’ve
experienced
or
heard
of.

How
 might the
victim
have
avoided
being
compromised?

Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
21


4. Have
you
ever
seen
phishing
exploits?

Have
you
fallen
for
one?

Why
did
you
take
the
 bait, or
what
alerted
you
to
the
scam?

How
can
you
identify
phishing
scams?

5. Have
you
or
has
anyone
you
know
fallen
victim
to
malware?

Relate
the
experience
–
 how do
you
suppose
it
happened?

What
damage
was
done?

What,
if
anything,
could
be
 done to
recover
from
the
situation?

6. Why
are
social
media
sites
such
a
threat
to
information
security?

Give
various
potential
 scenarios where
social
media
use
might
create
personal
or
organizational
security
 compromises. 7. Some
users
regularly
update
their
passwords
by
adding
a
number
(say
month/year)
to
 their code.

Why
is
this
bad
practice?

8. What
kind
of
features
should
a
programmer
build
into
systems
in
order
to
design
for
 security? Think
about
the
products
that
you
use.

Are
there
products
that
you
feel
did
a
 good job
of
ensuring
security
during
setup?

Are
there
products
you
use
that
have
 demonstrated bad
security
design?

How?

9. Why
are
SQL
injection
attacks
more
difficult
to
address
than
the
latest
virus
threat?

10. How
should
individuals
and
firms
leverage
encryption?

11. Investigate
how
you
might
use
a
VPN
if
traveling
with
your
laptop.

Be
prepared
to
 share your
findings
with
your
class
and
your
instructor.


Zero­day exploit
–
attacks
that
are
so
new
that
they
haven’t
been
clearly
identified,
and
so
 they haven’t
made
it
into
security
screening
systems.
 Biometrics
‐
technologies
that
measure
and
analyze
human
body
characteristics
for
 identification or
authentication.

These
might
include
fingerprint
readers,
retina
scanners,
 voice and
face
recognition,
and
more.
 Encryption
–
scrambling
data
using
a
code
or
formula,
known
as
a
cipher,
such
that
it
is
 hidden from
those
who
do
not
have
the
unlocking
key.
 Key
–
code
that
unlocks
encryption.
 Public Key Encryption
–
a
two
key
system
used
for
securing
electronic
transmissions.

One
 key distributed
publicly
is
used
to
encrypt
(lock)
data,
but
it
cannot
unlock
data.

Unlocking
 can only
be
performed
with
the
private
key.

The
private
key
also
cannot
be
reverse
 engineered from
the
public
key.

By
distributing
public
keys,
but
keeping
the
private
key,

Internet
services
can
ensure
transmissions
to
their
site
are
secure.
 Brute force attack
–
attacks
that
exhaust
all
possible
password
combinations
in
order
to
 break into
an
account.

The
larger
and
more
complicated
a
password
or
key,
the
longer
a
 brute force
attack
will
take.
 Certificate authority
–
a
trusted
third
party
that
provides
authentication
services
in
public
 key encryption
schemes.
 Dumpster diving
–
combing
through
trash
to
identify
valuable
assets.

Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
22


Shoulder surfing
–
gaining
compromising
information
through
observation
(as
in
looking
 over someone’s
shoulder).
 CAPTCHA –
an
acronym
for
Completely
Automated
Public
Turing
Test
to
Tell
Computers
 and Humans
Apart.

CAPTCHAs
are
those
scrambled
character
images
that
many
sites
 require to
submit
some
sort
of
entry
(account
setup,
ticket
buying).

CAPTCHAs
were
 developed because
computers
have
difficulty
discerning
letters
that
are
distorted
or
mixed
 inside a
jumbled
graphic.

CAPTCHAs
are
meant
to
be
a
Turing Test
–
a
test
to
distinguish
if
 a task
is
being
performed
by
a
computer
or
a
human.
 TAKING ACTION: LEARNING
OBJECTIVES:

After
studying
this
section
you
should
be
able
to:


• Identify
critical
steps
to
improve
your
individual
and
organizational
information
 security. • Be
a
tips,
tricks,
and
techniques
advocate,
helping
make
your
friends,
family,
colleagues,
 and organization
more
secure.

• Recognize
the
major
information
security
issues
that
organizations
face,
as
well
as
the
 resources, methods,
and
approaches
that
can
help
make
firms
more
secure.
 Taking Action as a User: The
weakest
link
in
security
is
often
a
careless
user,
so
don’t
make
yourself
an
easy
mark.


Once
you
get
a
sense
of
threats,
you
understand
the
kinds
of
precautions
you
need
to
take.


Security
considerations
then
become
more
common
sense
than
high‐tech.

Here’s
a
brief
 list of
major
issues
to
consider:
 • Surf
Smart.
Think
before
you
click
‐
question
links,
enclosures,
download
request,
and
 the integrity
of
websites
that
you
visit.

Avoid
suspicious
e‐mail
attachments
and

Internet
downloads.

Be
on
guard
for
phishing,
and
other
attempts
to
con
you
into
 letting in
malware.

Verify
anything
that
looks
suspicious
before
acting.

Avoid
using
 public machines
(libraries,
coffee
shops)
when
accessing
sites
that
contain
your
 financial data
or
other
confidential
info.
• Stay
Vigilant.

Social
engineering
con‐artists
and
rogue
insiders
are
out
there.

An
 appropriate level
of
questioning
applies
not
only
to
computer
use,
but
also
to
personal
 interactions, be
it
in
person,
on
the
phone,
or
electronically.
• Stay
Updated.
Turn
on
software
update
features
for
your
operating
system
and
any
 application you
use
(browsers,
applications,
plug‐ins,
and
applets),
and
manually
check
 for updates
when
needed.

Malware
toolkits
specifically
scan
for
older,
vulnerable
 systems, so
working
with
updated
programs
that
address
prior
concerns
lowers
your
 vulnerable attack
surface.
• Stay
Armed.
Install
a
full
suite
of
security
software.
Many
vendors
offer
a
combination
 of products
that
provide
anti‐virus
software
that
blocks
infection,
personal
firewalls
 that repel
unwanted
intrusion,
malware
scanners
that
seek
out
bad
code
that
might

Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
23












already
be
nesting
on
your
PC,
anti‐phishing
software
that
identifies
if
you’re
visiting
 questionable websites,
and
more.

Such
tools
are
increasingly
being
built
into
operating
 systems, browsers,
and
are
deployed
at
the
ISP
or
service
provider
(e‐mail
firm,
social
 network) level.
But
every
consumer
should
make
it
a
priority
to
understand
the
state
of
 the art
for
personal
protection.

In
the
way
that
you
regularly
balance
your
investment
 portfolio to
account
for
economic
shifts,
or
take
your
car
in
for
an
oil
change
to
keep
it
 in top
running
condition,
make
it
a
priority
to
periodically
scan
the
major
trade
press
or
 end‐user computing
sites
for
reviews
and
commentary
on
the
latest
tools
and
 techniques for
protecting
yourself
(and
your
firm).

Be
Settings
Smart.

Don’t
turn
on
risky
settings
like
unrestricted
folder
sharing,
that
 may act
as
an
invitation
for
hackers
to
drop
off
malware
payloads.

Secure
home
 networks with
password
protection
and
a
firewall.

Encrypt
hard
drives
–
especially
on
 laptops or
other
devices
that
might
be
lost
or
stolen.

Register
mobile
devices
for
 location identification
or
remote
wiping.
Don’t
click
the
‘remember
me’
or
‘save
 password’ settings
on
public
machines,
or
any
device
that
might
be
shared
or
accessed
 by others.

Similarly,
if
your
machine
might
be
used
by
others,
turn
off
browser
settings
 that auto‐fill
fields
with
prior
entries
–
otherwise
you
make
it
easy
for
someone
to
use
 that machine
to
track
your
entries
and
impersonate
you.

And
when
using
public
 hotspots, be
sure
to
turn
on
your
VPN
software
to
encrypt
transmission
and
hide
from
 network eavesdroppers.
Be
Password
Savvy.
Change
the
default
password
on
any
new
products
that
you
install.


Update
your
passwords
regularly.

Using
guidelines
outlined
earlier,
choose
passwords
 that are
tough
to
guess,
but
easy
for
you
(and
only
you)
to
remember.

Federate
your
 passwords so
that
you’re
not
using
the
same
access
codes
for
your
most
secure
sites.

Never
save
passwords
in
unsecure
files,
e‐mail,
or
written
down
in
easily
accessed
 locations. Be
Disposal
Smart.

Shred
personal
documents.

Wipe
hard
drives
with
an
industrial
 strength software
tool
before
recycling,
donating,
or
throwing
away
–
remember
in
 many cases
‘deleted’
files
can
still
be
recovered.

Destroy
media
such
as
CDs/DVDs
that
 may contain
sensitive
information.

Erase
USB
drives
when
they
are
no
longer
needed.
Back
up.

The
most
likely
threat
to
your
data
doesn’t
come
from
hackers,
it
comes
from
 hardware failure58.

Yet
most
users
still
don’t
regularly
back
up
their
systems.

This
is
 another do‐it‐now
priority.
Cheap,
plug‐in
hard
drives
work
with
most
modern
 operating systems
to
provide
continual
backups,
allowing
for
quick
roll‐back
to
earlier
 versions if
you’ve
accidentally
ruined
some
vital
work.

And
services
like
EMC’s
Mozy
 provide monthly,
unlimited
backup
over
the
Internet
for
less
than
what
you
probably
 spent on
your
last
lunch
(a
fire,
theft,
or
similar
event
could
also
result
in
the
loss
of
any
 backups stored
on
site,
but
Internet
backup
services
can
provide
offsite
storage
and
 access if
disaster
strikes).

Check
with
your
Administrator.

All
organizations
that
help
you
connect
to
the
Internet

–
your
ISP,
firm,
or
school
‐

should
have
security
pages.

Many
provide
free
security
 software tools.

Use
them
as
resources.

Remember
–
it’s
in
their
interest
to
keep
you
 safe, too!


58
Tyler,
2009


Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
24


Taking Action as an Organization: Frameworks, Standards, and Compliance:
Developing
organizational
security
is
a
daunting
task.

You’re
in
an
arms
race
with
 adversaries that
are
tenacious
and
constantly
on
the
lookout
for
new
exploits.

Fortunately
 no firm
is
starting
from
scratch
–
others
have
gone
before
you
and
many
have
worked
 together to
create
published
best
practices.
 There
are
several
frameworks,
but
perhaps
the
best
known
of
these
efforts
comes
from
the

International
Organization
for
Standards
(ISO),
and
is
broadly
referred
to
as
ISO‐27k
or
the

ISO
27000
series.

According
to
ISO.org,
this
evolving
set
of
standards
provides
“a
model
for
 establishing, implementing,
operating,
monitoring,
reviewing,
maintaining,
and
improving
 an Information
Security
Management
System."


 Firms
may
also
face
compliance
requirements
–
legal
or
professionally
binding
steps
that
 must be
taken.

Failure
to
do
so
could
result
in
fine,
sanction,
and
other
punitive
measures.


At
the
federal
level,
examples
include
HIPAA
(the
Health
Insurance
Portability
and

Accountability
Act),
which
regulates
health
data;
the
Graham‐Leach‐Bliley
Act,
which
 regulates financial
data;
and
the
Children’s
Online
Privacy
Protection
Act,
which
regulates
 data collection
on
minors.
U.S.
government
agencies
must
also
comply
with
FISMA
(the

Federal
Information
Security
Management
Act),
and
there
are
several
initiatives
at
the
 other government
levels.

By
2009,
some
level
of
state
data
breach
laws
had
been
passed
by
 over 30
states;
while
multinationals
face
a
growing
number
of
statues
throughout
the
 world. Your
legal
team
and
trade
associations
can
help
you
understand
your
domestic
and
 international obligations.

Fortunately
there
are
also
often
frameworks
and
guidelines
to
 assist in
compliance.

For
example,
the
ISO
standards
include
subsets
targeted
at
the
 telecommunications and
healthcare
industries,
and
major
credit
card
firms
have
created
 the PCI
(payment
card
industry)
standards.

And
there
are
skilled
consulting
professionals
 who can
help
bring
firms
up
to
speed
in
these
areas,
and
help
expand
their
organizational
 radar as
new
issues
develop.
 A
word
of
warning
on
frameworks
and
standards.
Compliance
does
not
equal
security.

Outsourcing
portions
security
effort
without
a
complete,
organizational
commitment
to
 being secure
can
also
be
dangerous.
Some
organizations
simply
approach
compliance
as
a
 necessary evil;
a
sort
of
checklist
that
can
reduce
the
likelihood
of
a
lawsuit
or
other
 punitive measure59.

While
you
want
to
make
sure
you’re
doing
everything
in
your
power
 not to
get
sued,
this isn’t the goal.

The
goal
is
taking
all
appropriate
measures
to
ensure
 that your
firm
is
secure
for
your
customers,
employees,
shareholders,
and
others.


Frameworks
help
shape
your
thinking
and
expose
things
you
should
do,
but
security
 doesn’t stop
there
–
this
is
a
constant,
evolving
process
that
needs
to
pervade
the
 organization from
the
CEO
suite
and
board
down
to
front
line
workers
and
potentially
out
 to customers
and
partners.

And
be
aware
of
the
security
issues
associated
with
any
 mergers and
acquisitions.

Bringing
in
new
firms,
employees,
technologies,
and
procedures
 means reassessing
the
security
environment
for
all
players
involved.
 59
Davis
2009


Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
25


The Heartland Breach
On inauguration day 2009, credit card processor Heartland announced that it had experienced what was one of the largest security breaches in history. The Princeton, NJ-based firm was, at the time, the nationʼs 5th largest payments processor. Its business was responsible for handling the transfer of funds and information between retailers and cardholdersʼ financial institutions. That means infiltrating
Heartland was like breaking into Fort Knox.
Itʼs been estimated that as many as 100 million cards issued by more than 650 financial services companies may have been compromised during the Heartland breach. Said the firmʼs CEO, this was
60
“the worst thing that can happen to a payments company and it happened to us” . Wall Street noticed.
The firmʼs stock tanked - within a month itʼs market capitalization had plummeted over 75% - dropping
61
over half a billion dollars in value .
The Heartland case provides a cautionary warning against thinking that security ends with compliance.
Heartland had in fact passed multiple audits, including one conducted the month before the infiltration began. Still, at least 13 pieces of malware were uncovered on the firmʼs servers. Compliance does not equal security. Heartland was complaint, but a firm can be compliant and not be secure. Compliance is not the goal, security is.
Since the breach, the firmʼs executives have championed industry efforts to expand security practices, including encrypting card information at the point it is swiped and keeping it secure through settlement.
Such ʻcradle-to-graveʼ encryption can help create an environment where even compromised networking equipment or intercepting relay systems wouldnʼt be able to grab codes62. Recognize that security is a continual process, it is never done, and firms need to pursue security with tenacity and commitment.

Education, Audit, and Enforcement
Security
is
as
much
about
people,
process,
and
policy,
as
it
is
about
technology.


 From
a
people
perspective,
the
security
function
requires
multiple
levels
of
expertise.


Operations
employees
are
involved
in
the
day‐to‐day
monitoring
of
existing
systems.

A
 group’s R&D
function
is
involved
in
understanding
emerging
threats
and
reviewing,
 selecting, and
implementing
updated
security
techniques.

A
team
must
also
work
on
 broader governance
issues.
These
efforts
should
include
representatives
from
specialized
 security and
broader
technology
and
infrastructure
functions.

It
should
also
include
 representatives from
general
counsel,
audit,
public
relations,
and
human
resources.

What
 this means
is
that
even
if
you’re
a
non‐technical
staffer,
you
may
be
brought
in
to
help
a
 firm deal
with
security
issues.


 Processes
and
policies
will
include
education
and
awareness
‐
this
is
also
everyone’s
 business. As
the
Vice
President
of
Product
Development
at
security
firm
Symantec
puts
it

“We
do
products
really
well,
but
the
next
step
is
education.
We
can't
keep
the
Internet
safe
 with antivirus
software
alone.”63
Companies
should
approach
information
security
as
a
 60
King
2009


61
Claburn
2009

62
Claburn
2009,
King
2009

63
Goldman
2009


Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
26


part
of
their
“collective
corporate
responsibility…
regardless
of
whether
regulation
 requires them
to
do
so.”64
 For
a
lesson
at
how
important
education
is,
look
no
further
than
the
head
of
the
CIA.

The
 former U.S.
Director
of
Intelligence,
John
Deutch,
engaged
in
shockingly
loose
behavior
with
 digital secrets,
including
keeping
a
daily
journal
of
classified
information
–
some
1,000+
 pages –
on
memory
cards
he’d
transport
in
his
shirt
pocket.

He
also
downloaded
and
 stored Pentagon
information,
including
details
of
covert
operations,
at
home
on
computers
 that his
family
used
for
routine
Internet
access65.


 Employees
need
to
know
a
firm’s
policies,
be
regularly
trained,
and
understand
that
they
 will face
strict
penalties
if
they
fail
to
meet
their
obligations.

Policies
without
eyes
(audit)
 and teeth
(enforcement)
won’t
be
taken
seriously.

Audits
include
real‐time
monitoring
of
 usage (e.g.
who’s
accessing
what,
from
where,
how,
and
why;
sound
the
alarm
if
an
anomaly
 is detected),
announced
audits,
and
surprise
spot
checks.

This
function
might
also
stage
 white hat
demonstration
attacks
–
attempts
to
hunt
for
and
expose
weaknesses,
hopefully
 before hackers
find
them.

Frameworks
offer
guidelines
on
auditing,
but
a
recent
survey
 found most
organizations
don’t
document
enforcement
procedures
in
their
information
 security policies;
that
more
than
1/3
do
not
audit
or
monitor
user
compliance
with
security
 policies; and
that
only
48
percent
annually
measure
and
reviewe
the
effectiveness
of
 security policies.66
 A
firm’s
technology
development
and
deployment
processes
must
also
integrate
with
the
 security team
to
ensure
that
from
the
start,
applications,
databases,
and
other
systems
are
 implemented with
security
in
mind.

The
team
will
have
specialized
skills
and
monitor
the
 latest threats
and
are
able
to
advise
on
precautions
necessary
to
be
sure
systems
aren’t
 compromised during
installation,
development,
testing,
and
deployment.
 What Needs to Be Protected and How Much is Enough?
A
worldwide
study
by
PwC
and
CSO
magazine
revealed
that
most
firms
don’t
even
know
 what they
need
to
protect.

Only
33
percent
of
executives
responded
that
their
 organizations kept
accurate
inventory
of
the
locations
and
jurisdictions
where
data
was
 stored, and
only
24
percent
kept
inventory
of
all
third
parties
using
their
customer
data67.


What
this
means
is
that
most
firms
don’t
even
have
an
accurate
read
on
where
their
 valuables are
kept,
let
alone
how
to
protect
them.
 So
information
security
should
start
with
an
inventory‐style
auditing
and
risk
assessment.

Technologies
map
back
to
specific
business
risks.

What
do
we
need
to
protect?

What
are
 we afraid
might
happen?

And
how
do
we
protect
it?

Security
is
an
economic
problem,
 involving attack
likelihood,
costs,
and
prevention
benefits.

These
are
complex
tradeoffs
 that must
consider
losses
from
theft
or
resources,
systems
damage,
data
loss,
disclosure
of
 64
Knowledge@Wharton
2009

65
Lewis,
2000

66
Matwyshyn
2009

67
Matwyshyn
2009


Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
27


proprietary
information,
recovery,
downtime,
stock
price
declines,
legal
fees,
government
 and compliance
penalties,
and
intangibles
such
as
damaged
firm
reputation,
loss
of
 customer and
partner
confidence,
industry
damage,
promotion
of
adversary
and
 encouragement of
future
attacks.
 While
many
firms
skimp
on
security,
firm’s
also
don’t
want
to
mis‐spend,
targeting
exploits
 that aren’t
likely,
while
under‐investing
in
easily
prevented
methods
to
thwart
common
 infiltration techniques.

Hacker
conventions
like
DefCon
can
show
some
really
wild
 exploits. But
it’s
up
to
the
firm
to
assess
how
vulnerable
it
is
to
these
various
risks.
The
 local donut
shop
has
far
different
needs
than
a
military
installation,
law
enforcement
 agency, financial
institution,
or
firm
housing
other
high‐value
electronic
assets.

A
skilled
 risk assessment
team
will
consider
these
vulnerabilities
and
what
sort
of
countermeasure
 investments should
take
place.
 Economic
decisions
usually
drive
hacker
behavior,
too.

While
in
some
cases
attacks
are
 based on
vendetta
or
personal
reasons,
in
most
cases
exploit
economics
largely
boils
down
 to: Adversary
ROI
=
Asset
value
to
adversary
–
Adversary
cost
 An
adversary’s
costs
include
not
only
the
resources,
knowledge,
and
technology
required
 for the
exploit,
but
also
the
risk
of
getting
caught.

Make
things
tough
to
get
at,
and
lobbying
 for legislation
that
imposes
severe
penalties
on
crooks,
can
help
raise
adversary
costs
and
 lower your
likelihood
of
becoming
a
victim.

 Technology’s Role
Technical
solutions
often
involve
industrial
strength
variants
of
the
previously
discussed
 issues individuals
can
employ,
so
your
awareness
is
already
high.

Additionally
an
 organization’s approach
will
often
leverage
multiple
layers
of
protection
and
incorporate
a
 wide variety
of
protective
measures.
 Patch
–
firms
must
be
especially
vigilant
to
pay
attention
to
security
bulletins
and
install
 software updates
that
plug
existing
holes,
(often
referred
to
as
patches).

Firms
that
don’t
 plug known
problems
will
be
vulnerable
to
trivial
and
automated
attacks.

Unfortunately,
 many firms
aren’t
updating
all
components
of
their
systems
with
consistent
attention.


With
operating
systems
automating
security
update
installations,
hackers
have
moved
on
 to application
targets.
But
a
major
study
recently
found
that
organizations
took
at
least
 twice as
long
to
patch
application
vulnerabilities
as
they
take
to
patch
operating
system
 holes68. And
remember,
software
isn’t
limited
to
conventional
PCs
and
servers.
Embedded
 systems abound,
and
connected,
yet
unpatched
devices
are
vulnerable.
Malware
has
 infected everything
from
unprotected
ATM
machines69
to
restaurant
point‐of‐sale
 systems70, to
fighter
plane
navigation
systems71.
 68
Wildstrom
2009

69
Lilly,
2009)

70
McMillan

71
Matyszczyk,
2009


Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
28


As
an
example
of
unpatched
vulnerabilities,
consider
the
DNS
cache
poisoning
exploit
 described earlier
in
this
chapter.

The
discovery
of
this
weakness
was
one
of
the
biggest
 security stories
the
year
it
was
discovered,
and
security
experts
saw
this
as
a
major
threat.


Teams
of
programmers
worldwide
raced
to
provide
fixes
for
the
most
widely
used
versions
 of DNS
software.

Yet
several
months
after
patches
were
available,
roughly
one
quarter
of
 all DNS
servers
were
still
unpatched
and
exposed72.

 To
be
fair,
not
all
firms
delay
patches
out
of
negligence.

Some
organizations
have
legitimate
 concerns about
testing
whether
the
patch
will
break
their
system
or
whether
the
new
 technology contains
a
change
that
will
cause
problems
down
the
road73.

And
there
have
 been cases
where
patches
themselves
have
caused
problems.

Finally,
many
software
 updates require
that
systems
be
taken
down.

Firms
may
have
uptime
requirements
that
 make immediate
patching
difficult.

But
ultimately,
unpatched
systems
are
an
open
door
for
 infiltration. Lock
Down
Hardware
–
firms
range
widely
in
the
security
regimes
used
to
govern
purchase
 through disposal
system
use.
While
some
large
firms
such
as
Kraft
are
allowing
employees
 to select
their
own
hardware
(Mac
or
PC,
desktop
or
notebook,
iPhone
or
BlackBerry)74,
 others issue
standard
systems
that
prevent
all
unapproved
software
installation
and
force
 file saving
to
hardened,
backed‐up,
scanned,
and
monitored
servers.

Firms
in
especially
 sensitive industries
such
as
financial
services
may
regularly
re‐image
the
hard
drive
of
end‐ user PCs,
completely
replacing
all
of
the
bits
on
a
user’s
hard
drive
with
a
pristine,
current
 version –
effectively
wiping
out
malware
that
might
have
previously
snuck
on
to
a
user’s

PC.

Other
lock‐down
methods
might
disable
the
boot
capability
of
removable
media
(a
 common method
for
spreading
viruses
via
inserted
discs
or
USBs),
prevent
Wi‐Fi
use
or
 require VPN
encryption
before
allowing
any
network
transmissions,
and
more.
The
cloud
 helps here,
too
(see
“Software
in
Flux”).
Employers
can
also
require
workers
to
run
all
of
 their corporate
applications
inside
a
remote
desktop
where
the
actual
executing
hardware
 and software
is
elsewhere
(likely
hosted
as
a
virtual
machine
session
on
the
organization’s
 servers), and
the
user
is
simply
served
an
image
of
what’s
executing
remotely.

This
seals
 the virtual
PC
off
in
a
way
that
can
be
thoroughly
monitored,
updated,
backed
up,
and
 locked down
by
the
firm.

 In
the
case
of
Kraft,
executives
worried
that
the
firm’s
previously
restrictive
technology
 policies prevented
employees
from
staying
in
step
with
trends.

Employees
opting
into
the
 system must
sign
an
agreement
promising
they'll
follow
mandated
security
procedures.


Still,
financial‐services
firms,
law
offices,
health
care
providers,
and
others
may
need
to
 maintain stricter
control,
for
legal
and
industry
compliance
reasons.


72
X‐Force
report,
Jan.
2009


73
For
example,
the
DNS
security
patch
mentioned
above
was
incompatible
with
the
firewall
software


deployed
at
some
firms.

74
Wingfield,
2009

Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
29


Lock
Down
Network
–
network
monitoring
is
a
critical
part
of
security,
and
a
host
of
 technical tools
can
help.


 Firms
employ
firewalls
to
examine
traffic
as
it
enters
and
leaves
the
network,
potentially
 blocking certain
types
of
access,
while
permitting
approved
communication.

Intrusion detection systems
specifically
look
for
unauthorized
behavior,
sounding
the
alarm
and
 potentially taking
action
if
something
seems
amiss.

Some
firms
deploy
honeypots
–
bogus
 offerings meant
to
distract
attackers.

If
attackers
take
honeypot
bait,
firms
may
gain
an
 opportunity to
recognize
the
hacker’s
exploits,
identify
the
IP
address
of
intrusion,
and
take
 action to
block
further
attacks
and
alert
authorities.
 Many
firms
also
deploy
blacklists
–
denying
the
entry
or
exit
of
specific
IP
addresses,
 products, Internet
domains,
and
other
communication
restrictions.

While
blacklists
block
 known bad
guys,
whitelists
are
even
more
restrictive
–
permitting
communication
only
with
 approved entities
and/or
in
an
approved
manner.
 These
technologies
can
be
applied
to
network
technology,
specific
applications,
screening
 for certain
kinds
of
apps,
malware
signatures,
and
hunting
for
anomalous
patterns.

The
 latter is
important,
as
recent
malware
has
become
polymorphic,
meaning
different
versions
 are created
and
deployed
in
a
way
that
their
signature,
a
sort
of
electronic
fingerprint
often
 used to
recognize
malicious
code,
is
slightly
altered.

This
also
helps
with
zero‐day
exploits,
 and in
situations
where
whitelisted
websites
themselves
become
compromised.
 Many
technical
solutions,
ranging
from
network
monitoring
and
response
to
e‐mail
 screening, are
migrating
to
‘the
cloud’.

This
can
be
a
good
thing
–
if
network
monitoring
 software immediately
shares
news
of
a
certain
type
of
attack,
defenses
might
be
pushed
out
 to all
clients
of
a
firm
(the
more
users,
the
‘smarter’
the
system
can
potentially
become
–
 again we
see
the
power
of
network
effects
in
action!).




 Lock
Down
Partners:
Insist
partner
firms
are
compliant,
and
audit
them
to
ensure
this
is
 the case.

This
includes
technology
providers,
contract
firms,
as
well
as
value‐chain
 participants such
as
suppliers
and
distributors.

Anyone
who
touches
your
network
is
a
 potential point
of
weakness.

Many
firms
will
build
security
expectations
and
commitments
 into performance
guarantees
known
as
service level agreements (SLAs).
 Lock
Down
Systems:
Audit
for
SQL
injection
and
other
application
exploits.

The
security
 team must
constantly
scan
exploits
and
then
probe
its
systems
to
see
if
it’s
susceptible,
 advising and
enforcing
action
if
problems
are
uncovered.

This
kind
of
auditing
should
 occur with
all
of
a
firm’s
partners.


 Access
controls
can
also
compartmentalize
data
access
on
a
need‐to‐know
basis.

Such
tools
 can not
only
enforce
access
privileges,
they
can
help
create
and
monitor
audit
trails,
to
help
 verify that
systems
are
not
being
accessed
by
the
unauthorized,
or
in
suspicious
ways.


 Audit
trails
are
used
for
deterring,
identifying,
and
investigating
these
cases.
Recording,
 monitoring, and
auditing
access
allows
firms
to
hunt
for
patterns
of
abuse.

Logs
can
detail

Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
30


who,
when,
and
from
where
assets
are
accessed.

Giveaways
of
nefarious
activity
may
 include access
from
unfamiliar
IP
addresses,
from
non‐standard
times,
accesses
that
occur
 at higher
than
usual
volumes,
etc.
Automated
alerts
can
put
an
account
on
hold
or
call
in
a
 response team
for
further
observation
of
the
anomaly.
 Single‐sign
on
tools
can
help
firms
offer
employees
one
very‐strong
password
that
works
 across applications,
is
changed
frequently
(or
managed
via
hardware
cards
or
mobile
 phone login),
and
that
can
be
altered
by
password
management
staff.
 Multiple
administrators
should
jointly
control
key
systems.
Major
configuration
changes
 might require
approval
of
multiple
staffers,
as
well
as
the
automatic
notification
of
 concerned personnel.

And
firms
should
employ
a
recovery
mechanism
to
regain
control
in
 the event
that
key
administrators
are
incapacitated
or
uncooperative.

This
balances
 security needs
with
an
ability
to
respond
in
the
event
of
a
crisis.

Such
a
system
was
not
in
 place to
in
the
earlier
described
case
of
the
rogue
IT
staffer
who
held
the
City
of
San

Francisco’s
networks
hostage
by
refusing
to
give
up
vital
passwords.
 Failure
and
Recovery
Plans
–
while
firms
work
to
prevent
infiltration
attempts,
they
should
 also have
provisions
in
place
that
plan
for
the
worst.
If
a
compromise
has
taken
place,
what
 needs to
be
done?

Do
stolen
assets
need
to
be
devalued
(e.g.
accounts
terminated,
new
 accounts issued)?

What
should
be
done
to
notify
customers
and
partners,
educate
them,
 and advise
them
through
any
necessary
responses?

Who
should
work
with
law
 enforcement? With
the
media?

Do
off‐site
backups
or
redundant
systems
need
to
be
 activated? Can
systems
be
reliably
restored
without
risking
further
damage?
 Best
practices
are
beginning
to
emerge.

While
post‐event
triage
is
beyond
the
scope
of
our
 introduction, the
good
news
is
that
firms
are
now
sharing
data
on
breaches.

Given
the
 potential negative
consequences
of
a
breach,
organizations
once
rarely
admitted
they’d
 been compromised.

But
now
many
are
obligated
to
do
so.

And
the
broad
awareness
of
 infiltration both
reduces
organizational
stigma
in
coming
forward,
and
allows
firms
and
 technology providers
to
share
knowledge
on
the
techniques
used
by
cybercrooks.
 •




•



•




•




•
 Information
security
is
complex,
continually
changing,
and
vitally
important
domain.

The
 exploits covered
in
this
chapter
seem
daunting,
and
new
exploits
constantly
emerge.

But
 your thinking
on
key
issues
should
now
be
broader.

Hopefully
you’ve
now
embedded
 security thinking
in
your
managerial
DNA,
and
you
are
better
prepared
to
be
a
savvy
 system user
and
a
proactive
participant
working
for
your
firm’s
security.

Stay
safe!
 KEY
TAKEAWAYS:

• End
users
can
engage
in
several
steps
to
improve
their
own,
and
their
organization’s
 information security.

These
include:
surfing
smart,
staying
vigilant,
updating
software
 and products,
using
a
comprehensive
security
suite,
managing
settings
and
passwords
 responsibly, backing
up,
properly
disposing
of
sensitive
assets,
and
seeking
education.


Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
31









Frameworks
such
as
IS0
27k
can
provide
a
road
map
to
help
organizations
plan
and
 implement an
effective
security
regime.

Many
organizations
are
bound
by
security
compliance
commitments
and
will
face
fines
 and retribution
if
they
fail
to
meet
these
commitments.

The
use
of
frameworks
and
being
compliant
is
not
equal
to
security.

Security
is
a
 continued process
that
must
be
constantly
addressed
and
deeply
ingrained
in
an
 organization’s culture.

Security
is
about
tradeoffs
–
economic
and
intangible.

Firms
need
to
understand
their
 assets and
risks
in
order
to
best
allocate
resources
and
address
needs.

Information
security
is
not
simply
a
technical
fix.

Education,
audit,
and
enforcement
 regarding firm
policies
is
critical.

The
security
team
is
broadly
skilled
and
constantly
 working to
identify
and
incorporate
new
technologies
and
methods
into
their
 organizations. Involvement
and
commitment
is
essential
from
the
board
room
to
front‐ line workers,
and
out
to
customers
and
partners.


QUESTIONS
&
EXERCISES:

1. Visit
the
security
page
for
your
ISP,
school,
or
employer.

What
techniques
do
they
 advocate that
we’ve
discussed
here?

Are
there
any
additional
techniques
mentioned
 and discussed?

What
additional
provisions
do
they
offer
(tools,
services)
to
help
keep
 you informed
and
secure?

2. What
sorts
of
security
regimes
are
in
use
at
your
university,
and
at
firms
you’ve
worked
 or interned
for?

If
you
don’t
have
experience
with
this,
ask
a
friend
or
relative
for
their
 professional experiences.

Do
you
consider
these
measures
to
be
too
restrictive,
too
lax,
 or about
right?


3. While
we’ve
discussed
the
risks
in
having
security
that
is
too
lax,
what
risk
does
a
firm
 run if
its
security
mechanisms
are
especially
strict?

What
might
a
firm
give
up?

What
 are the
consequences
of
strict
end‐user
security
provisions?

4. What
risks
does
a
firm
face
by
leaving
software
unpatched?

What
risks
does
it
face
if
it
 deploys patches
as
soon
as
they
emerge?

How
should
a
firm
reconcile
these
risks?

5. What
methods
do
firms
use
to
ensure
the
integrity
of
their
software?

Their
hardware?


Their
networks?

Their
partners?

6. An
organization’s
password
management
system
represents
‘the
keys
to
the
city’.


Describe
personnel
issues
that
a
firm
should
be
concerned
regarding
password
 administration. How
might
it
address
these
concerns?


Firewall
–
a
system
that
acts
as
a
control
for
network
traffic,
blocking
unauthorized
traffic
 while permitting
acceptable
use.
 Intrusion detection system
–
systems
that
monitor
network
use
for
potential
hacking
 attempts. Such
systems
may
take
preventative
action
to
block,
isolate,
or
identify
 attempted infiltration,
and
raise
further
alarms
to
warn
security
personnel.
 Honeypot
–
a
seemingly
tempting,
but
bogus
target
meant
to
draw
hacking
attempts.

By
 monitoring infiltration
attempts
against
a
honeypot,
organizations
may
gain
insight
into
the


Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
32


identity
of
hackers,
their
techniques,
and
they
can
share
this
with
partners
and
law
 enforcement. •




•




•




•




•

About This Work The
goal
of
this
project
is
to
have
an
impact.

At
my
university,
we’ve
bucked
the
national
 trend, tripling
our
Information
Systems
majors
in
the
three
years
since
we’ve
adopted
a
 business‐focused IS
teaching
approach,
and
I’m
delighted
to
share
this
content
with
you.

I
 hope that
Flatworld’s
free
online
copies
and
low‐cost
print
versions
encourage
wide
 adoption of
this
material,
and
I
hope
that
you
and
your
students
enjoy
it.

Please
tell
others,
 and thanks!
 Comments
&
feedback
are
most
welcome!

Contact
Info:

• E‐Mail:
john.gallaugher@bc.edu


• Draft
Chapters,
Cases,
Slides,
and
Podcasts:
http://gallaugher.com/chapters

• For
updates,
supporting
articles,
and
commentary,
sign
up
for
the
Week
in
Geek
at:
 http://www.gallaugher.com • And
follow
on
Twitter
at
http://twitter.com/gallaugher
 About the Author John
Gallaugher
is
a
member
of
the
Dept.
of
Information
Systems
in
Boston
College's
Carroll

School
of
Management.
Prof.
Gallaugher
teaches
courses
and
conducts
research
at
the
 intersection of
technology
and
strategy.
An
award‐winning
teacher,
he
leads
the
School's

TechTrek
programs,
has
co‐led
the
School’s
European
and
Asian
field
study
program,
and
 has consulted
to
and
taught
executive
seminars
for
several
organizations
including

Accenture,
Alcoa,
Brattle
Group,
ING
Group,
Patni
Computer
Systems,
Partners
Healthcare,

Staples,
State
Street,
and
the
U.S.
Information
Agency.

 This
reading
is
available
to
faculty
for
non‐commercial
use.
Enjoy!
Edited
versions
of
this
 chapter, plus
additional
chapters
and
cases,
are
available
in
Professor
Gallaugher’s
book

“Information
Systems:
A
Manager’s
Guide
to
Harnessing
Technology”,
published
both
free
 online and
low‐cost
(less
than
$30)
print
version,
by
Flat
World
Knowledge

(http://FlatWorldKnowledge.com).




Gallaugher
–
Information
Security
–
http://gallaugher.com/chapters


p.
33


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