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Comparative Analysis on Gender difference of students on motivational factors to study Hospitality management in National University

Motivational Factors 1. Social Status 2. Job opportunities 3. Modern major 4. Special interest 5. Attractive major 6. Ease in studying 7. Fulfill dreams

Female

Male

First, this Conceptual Framework is made up the two journals I had: “Motivation of Students to study Tourism Hospitality programs.” By Bashar Aref Alhaj Mohammad and Hamam Talal Alsaleh and “Students Motivation and Preference of Studying Hospitality and Tourism Management Programmes in Polytechnics: A Case Study Ho Polytechnic” By Appaw-Agbola Esther Theresa. It explains the different motivational factors that the students may get if they took Hospitality as their preferred journey. These factors can provide students some motivations that will help them why they study Hospitality Management. This framework is also made because as a researcher, we want to see the difference between the motivational factors which are the following: Social status, Job opportunities, Modern major, Special interest, Attractive major, Ease in studying and Fulfillment of dreams, of both male and female students that are going to be in the hospitality management in National University. Significance of the study This study aims to motivate the incoming freshmen who will take Hospitality management at National University. It also helps the researcher to research about the different motivational factors that affects the students to take Hospitality. We’ll try to see the difference between their motivations as they take Hospitality Management. This will not be possible without the help of the faculty who really give their 100 % effort when it comes on delivering fresh ideas and knowledge that will help us in our not just in our daily lives but also on our future. On what to expect when you were already in the academe. It’s also a big help into the Hospitality Industry, not only here in the Philippines but also in the different parts of the world. Nowadays Jobs in the hospitality industry is in demand, there are so many job opportunities opened to the future hoteliers. There were so many employers who are waiting for these future hoteliers, you need to become more competitive because the challenge in the Hospitality industry is serious thing.

Objectives To compare the Gender difference of Students on Motivational factors to study Hospitality Management in National University.

Sub Objectives 1. To identify the demographic profile of students.

2. To identify the motivational factors of Male students to study Hospitality Management in NU.

3. To identify the motivational factors of Female students to study Hospitality Management in NU Hypothesis Ho1 There is a significant difference between male and female motivational factors to study Hospitality management in NU.

Ho2 There is no significant difference between male and female motivational factors to study Hospitality management in NU. The main objectives of the two journals are the ff. First, it investigates the motivations of students to major in hospitality and tourism. Second, this study attempts to examine statistically the differences between genders whose studying hospitality and tourism program.

Based on the first study, the motivations are measured according to the ff. 8. Social Status 9. Job opportunities 10. Modern major 11. Special interest 12. Attractive major 13. Ease in studying 14. Fulfill dreams These are some of the motivational factors that the incoming freshman sees as their motivation to study Hospitality management in NU.

Literature Map

Hospitality Industry

Motivational Factors to study Hospitality Management
Hospitality Management Students

Social
Status
Job Opportunities
Modern major
Fulfill dreams
Special interest
Ease in studying
Attractive major

Comparative Analysis

RELATED LITERATURE Hospitality Industry The hospitality industry is much broader than most other industries. The majority of business niches are composed of only a handful of different businesses, but this industry applies to nearly any company that is focused on customer satisfaction and meeting leisurely needs rather than basic ones. While this industry is very broad, there are some defining aspects that are important to understand. ( http://www.besthospitalitydegrees.com/faq/what-exactly-is-the-hospitality-industry/) The hospitality industry's backbone is comprised of customer service, a concept shared by all segments of the industry. Your small business may focus on one or all facets of hospitality. Howa accomplished you and your staff are at serving others will determine your business' level of success. You may find it easier to excel in just one category of the hospitality industry. However, though costs and challenges will increase, owning or managing several facets of hospitality can provide you with many more opportunities to generate success. (http://smallbusiness.chron.com/three-categories-hospitality-industry-58524.html)(2015) Hospitality Industry is divided into four different sectors: Lodging, food, entertainment and travel. However, usually the hospitality industry is viewed as encompassing mainly lodging and food service businesses. If we define the industry this way, we can include such as facilities as school dorm, nursing homes, and other institutions. (Hospitality today, An Introduction by Rocco M. Angelo; Andrew N. Vladimir)(2011)

Hospitality Management Students The Hospitality Management program offers students the option to participate in various professional and extracurricular activities and provides many opportunities for work experience and job placement in the surrounding area. Various internships, students clubs, and guest speakers provide students with assistance in obtaining knowledge about the many varied careers in foodservice and hotel management. Activities include networking, guest lectures, attending professional meetings, and touring various industry sites, such as hotels, restaurants, catering operations, etc. (http://web.csulb.edu/colleges/chhs/departments/fcs/programs/hfhm/index.html) (2015) When one of the authors was as undergraduate student studying hospitality management at a large state university, he heard repeatedly from his professors how important it was that he became active with the student organizations on campus. There were quite a few student chapters of professional hospitality or organizations to choose from, including the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association International, the Travel and Tourism Research Association and various food service organizations, among others. Partially to satisfy his professors, and partially out of curiosity, he joined the student chapter of the Club Managers Association of America, which had a strong presence on campus. When he joined, he was quite confident that he would never have occasion to work in a private club, but he had to admit that it sounded like an interesting segment of the industry. He spent two years with the association and even took an elective course on club management to learn a little bit more about the field. He then promptly began his management career with a food service management company. Much to his surprise, he was offered a job a private club a few short years after graduating. His membership in the student chapter, and the connections that he made while a member, Went a long way in helping him secure the club position. He has since enjoyed a long association with the Club Managers Association of America as well as the private club industry. In fact, he was also the faculty advisor to a student of CMAA for ten years. Our own students now share similar stories with us. This just goes to further illustrate how careers can take strange twists and turns and how hospitality graduates can find themselves moving from sector to another in short order. (Hospitality today, An Introduction by Rocco M. Angelo; Andrew N. Vladimir)(2011)

Motivational Factors to study Hospitality Management Human behavior can be understood by determining the motives, drives, or concerns which are being satisfied by the action, and secondly by the attitudes and information that the person uses to decide what response he should make in a given situation. A motive can be defined as a person’s basic predisposition to reach far or strive towards a particular goal or combination of goals. Attitude, on the other hand, is a more restricted or a confined concept. It can generally be conceived of as an inner factor predisposing one to react positively or negatively towards particular objects, acts or institutions. A person’s disposition or attitude towards an object is likely to depend upon the basic motives with which the object is associated and the degree to which the object is perceived an instrumental in satisfying or blocking these motives. (International Tourism Management by: A.K Bhatia)(2006) We mentioned the many reasons for studying in a hospitality management or culinary management program, including past experiences working in the field, interests in the field and ambition in the field. We also discussed the meaning of work and how to get the most from a job, including weighing both retained earnings and the job benefit mix. We pointed out that in the hospitality industry, you can learn a lot from studying the physical plant and from how the front and the back of the house are managed. We then turned to ways to get a job including always having a resume ready and preparing for an interview and how to gain the most from whatever job you do find. We also talked about what you should consider in regard to a more permanent job: income, professional status, your employer, potential job satisfaction, and accepting an interim less skilled job. We noted as well that supply and demand work in the hospitality job market as they do elsewhere, suggesting that what is most popular in terms of employment may not necessarily translate into the best opportunity. Finally, we began our continuing discussion of the outlook for the hospitality industry, which we found to be bright but full of change and competition. (Introduction to the Hospitality Industry by Clayton W. Barrows; Tom Powers)(2008)

7 Motivational Factors
Social Status * When we think about a service context in a high-end hospitality industry such as a spa, a luxury hotel or a cruise, the image that comes to our mind is a serene, peaceful setting with numerous friendly, empathetic service providers working hard to take care of the customers. In this imagined world, satisfied, happy customers treat service providers with respect and reward them with generous tips. However, the reality behind that idyllic vision is quite different. These service interactions are a performance, much like a theatrical one where each party has its roles to play," the authors write. "But the scripts are not neutral; rather, they reflect the customers' desire to reenact their class-based dominance over their hairdressers. (Tuba Ustuner and Craig J. Thompson. How Marketplace Performances Produce Interdependent Status Games and Contested Forms of Symbolic Capital. Journal of Consumer Research, February 2012)
Job Opportunities * Hospitality management jobs include executive hospitality jobs in a variety of verticals within the hospitality industry. Because of this, hospitality management is an attractive career to professionals from many different backgrounds. Whether your background is in business, marketing, public relations or culinary arts, you will find many hospitality management jobs at Hospitality careers.

In the hospitality industry, some professionals work with customers face-to-face, while others keep operations running smoothly behind the scenes. Regardless of your preference, consider the Hospitality careers job board an essential tool in your search for hospitality management jobs. Top employers in all vertical markets of the hospitality industry post their open management jobs in hospitality at Hospitality careers. You will find hospitality executive jobs in hotels and casinos, travel and tourism, on cruise ships, and in restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Available hospitality positions also include management roles within nursing homes and assisted living facilities as well as those within conference and event centers. (http://www.hcareers.com/hospitality-management-jobs)(2015)

Special Interest
Most of us can expect to spend many years of our lives working in organisations of various kinds, being managed or managing others. Employers have different approaches to managing their employees, but all organisations require people to make the goods or provide the services they are set up to make or provide, and therefore an understanding of how to effectively manage people in the workplace is of great importance and value. This not only applies to the increasing number of managers who are employed by organisations to provide specialist expertise in what is generally called Human Resource Management or Personnel, but any manager who has some responsibility for managing staff at whatever level.
The study of HRM at Strathclyde will further develop these themes by studying relevant theories, research and practices in managing people and the employment relationship. This is an area of study drawing on and using different approaches and disciplines to develop our understanding of people's behaviour at work and how this might be influenced- and the limits to influencing employee behaviour. These core disciplines include psychology, sociology and economics. How people are managed in the workplace influences what they think about their work and their employer and therefore their behaviours and actions in the workplace.
(https://www.strath.ac.uk/hrm/about/whystudyhrm/) (2012)

Modern Major * The highly competitive environment in which businesses operate today requires a skilful workforce in every organisation in order to remain a successful player in the competitive game of the industry. One of the main problems which occur in the workplace is the lack of training.
(http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:651957/fulltext01.pdf)(2013)
* Now days in every hospitality business, it is all about competence in employee, and especially the employee’s qualities. Quality of service depends on the qualities of employees. The qualities are about knowledge, skills and thoughts which lead to a hotel’s survival and development. Therefore staff Stage 4 Application of training in the court environment Stage 3 Delivery of training solutions 5 training is essential in many ways which increases productivity while employees are armed with professional knowledge, experienced skills and valid thoughts; staff training also motivates and inspires workers by providing employees all needed information in work as well as help them to recognize how important their jobs are. Training and development can be seen as a key instrument in the implementation of HRM practices and policies. (Nickson, 2007) “Successful hotels always include staff training as their important development strategy”. * The title “Hospitality and Tourism Industry: Modernization, Innovations and Opportunities” is an attempt to bring tourism and hospitality on a common platform. It is designed to serve as a meeting point for academia and industry too. The title is an edited one with contributions from known names on topics relevant to recent times. The research themes picked up are diverse keeping in mind the variety of research interest that people have interest in. The book will provide food for thought to planners, govern-ments, stakeholders, entrepreneurs, business people and the students alike.
The book also discusses some often repeated topics but it is an effort to see old concepts in a fresh light and prove their utility in the current times. * (Hospitality And Tourism Industry Modernization, Innovations and Opportunities Kindle Edition by R.K. Gupta (Author, Editor), Abhishek Ghai (Editor), Anish Slath (Editor)) (April 17, 2015)

Attractive Major
There has been extraordinary growth of hospitality and tourism management (hereafter HTM) programs in the last two decades in the United States. With the arrival of new subjects such as convention and exhibition management, special events, cruises, aviation, theme parks, private clubs, and casinos, the spectrum of hospitality and tourism has become wider. Students now have many options to choose from, in addition to the traditional HTM subject areas such as hotels and resorts, restaurants, institution management, leisure studies and tourism. The number of postsecondary institutions offering hospitality and tourism programs has more than quadrupled during the last two decades (Riegel & Dallas, 2004). According to the report of the International Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education (CHRIE, 2004), in 2004 there were 167 institutions offering HTM degrees (Baccalaureate and Graduate), certificates, or diplomas to 44,088 students in the United States. In comparison with 1991 data, these numbers show a mean 43% and 48% increase in number of institutions and students respectively over a 13 year time period. Considering that the given CHRIE data includes member institutions only, the actual number of HTM institutions and students can be substantially increased. Such fast growth of HTM programs has inevitably generated intense competition among HTM programs for both better quality and increased quantity of students. (http://www.researchgate.net/publication/232045462_Why_Students_Choose_a_Hospitality_and_Tourism_Program_A_pilot_study_of_U.S._undergraduate_students) (2010) Ease in Studying * "Hospitality" is a relatively new term. It includes all kinds of food service, hotel, tour, and travel businesses. Most schools in the U. S. call themselves either Hospitality Schools, or Schools of Hotel and Restaurant Administration. The emphasis in the United States is on training students to become managers in either the lodging industry (another term for hotels, motels, resorts, and the like) or manager / owners in the food service industry (which includes restaurants, bars and nightclubs, as well as food service activities on cruise ships, in hotels, and elsewhere.)
Many programs also offer degrees in travel and tourism, two fields of study that are more widely taught in Europe and South America. In the United States, the terms usually refer to actual businesses such as airlines, cruise lines, as well as those companies that offer tours (such as a tour of the Grand Canyon.) * As mentioned before, the United States is the major location of innovation in the hospitality industry. Numerous restaurant and hotel chains originated in the U. S. and have expanded worldwide. Additionally, the U. S. hospitality schools are the best in the world. Only a very few of the top ten hospitality programs are located elsewhere. For the best educational experience as well as being in the place where most of the new development in the industry is taking place, the United States is the only country to consider.
(http://www.internationalstudentguidetotheusa.com/articles/why-study-hospitality-management-in-the-united-states.htm) (2015)
Fulfill dreams
Folks, we've got it, and others want it. The term, hospitality, evokes certain emotions and expectations, and we are the practitioners who make it work. We fulfill the dreams and deliver the goods. Hospitality represents a most worthy cachet, and we cannot afford to lose that edge.
Cachet, you say. What does that actually mean? By definition, a cachet is a sign showing something which is genuine, authentic or of superior quality – a mark of distinction and prestige. In this age of experience, that is exactly what we are relaying to our audience.
Sometimes, all you have to do is mention a name. Vermont, as a destination, appeals to your senses – bucolic, tidy, clapboard villages, green mountains and verdant valleys – how life should be, whereas Maine presents itself as a state of mind – independent, varied landscape, hardy souls, tasty crustaceans. In the Caribbean, Anguilla, BWI stands for white sand beaches, - pure, natural, a paradise. Las Vegas, on the other hand, speaks to the naughty side – bright lights, gaudy tableau, flaunting some skin and some luck. All four destination markets are highly evocative, appealing to our emotions, senses and desire for adventure. Images planted, dreams launched! What does your brand look like?
Naturally, big business has clamored for the same type of cachet. For Ford Motor Company, Quality is Job One. Coke is the Real Thing. Bernie & Phyl's Furniture – "quality, comfort and price – that's nice". Tiffany is the gold standard, you simply are not chic without a Prada product, and Campbells Soup is "umh, good"! Cachets can run amok, as well, with Starbucks an example. As soon as major expansion began a few years back, the company, which was selling the experience more than the coffee, began an erosion of its brand. There is no cachet located in a hotel lobby or distinction with expansion plans for a world-wide presence of 40,000 stores. You just become another cup of coffee. Even the CEO, Howard Schultz, knew he had to recapture the "soul" of the brand and return the "romance and theater" to Starbucks. That is why he came back. (http://m.hospitalitynet.org/news/4070963.html) (2015)

Review of Related Studies The journal entitled “MOTIVATION OF STUDENTS TO STUDY TOURISM HOSPITALITY PROGRAMS by: Bashar Aref Alhaj Mohammad (Assistant professor, Institute of Public Administration, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) and Hamam Talal Alsaleh (Programs Design and Development Department, Institute of Public Administration, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) told us that Studies related to the field of hospitality and tourism and student’s motivation to specialize in it are very limited in Jordan such studied have been very scanty. Furthermore, this study investigates the most important reason that drives students to study hospitality and tourism. The objectives of this study were as follows: First, it investigates the motivations of students to major in hospitality and tourism. Second, this study attempts to examine statistically the differences between genders who are studying hospitality and tourism program.

In order to accomplish research objectives, a research instrument was developed to be more suitable and accurate for data collection. 25 motivational items were selected to identify the main motive that drives students to study tourism hospitality program. The motivation items which were selected are related to job opportunities and other benefits which are expected from studying tourism hospitality program. These items are selected from previous studies. The respondents of this research consisted of undergraduate students in Hospitality Tourism Program (HTP) because there are no postgraduate programs offered currently. Data were collected from the Jordan Applied University College of Hospitality and Tourism in Jordan (Ammon College). It has a high reputation in the country for the Hospitality Tourism Program (HTP) which helps to attract a magnificent number of students every year. The University has also a secondary school specialized in tourism and hotel education and it possesses a 4-star hotel for practical training for its students during the study period. In the data collection process, the University has two academic programs which are Bachelor and Diploma in Tourism Management, Hotel Management. The respondents are randomly selected from each education level (Bachelor and Diploma). Out of 235 questionnaires distributed, a total of 175 usable questionnaires for analysis. A survey form was administrated and collected by HTP members in the university.

The results of student's characteristics revealed that 81.7% of students were male and the remainders were female. The highest percentage of educational level was for Bachelor 58.7%. The majority of students were from Jordan studying Hospitality Tourism Program (HTP), and the majority of them have fellowship 24.4%, while the remainder were self supporting. The results also indicated that 68.6% of the students will advise their friends and relatives to study Hospitality Tourism Program (HTP). This study has been conducted in Jordan, a small country in the Middle East. It is considered one of the richest countries in touristic sites (MOTA, 2013). The current study investigated the students' motivation to study Hospitality Tourism Program (HTP) in Jordan. The purpose of this study was to identify the man motivational factors that drive students to study Hospitality Tourism Program, and to examine statistically the differences between genders studying (HTP).

The results of this study provide vital information to promote Hospitality Tourism Program and support education policy in the country. Based on this study, the results, it summarized as follows: First, this study provides a necessary information for understanding Jordan students motivations in studying Tourism Hospitality Program (HTP). Second, the results of this study will be helpful for colleges and universities in Jordan to offer and facilitate essential elements for better understanding students' motivation in future. Finally, the results of this study will help Ministry of Higher Education to attract foreign students to study HTP in Jordan. Based on the literature review, a future research is needed to identify perception and expectation of student majoring in HTP. A comparison should be made between national and foreign students majoring in HTP.

The Journal entitled “Students Motivation and Preference of Studying Hospitality and Tourism Management Programmes in Polytechnics: A Case Study Ho Polytechnic” by: Appaw-Agbola Esther Theresa Ho Polytechnic,Box 217,HoV/R, W/A,Ghana. The main purpose of the study was to find out the motives and preference of students studying Hospitality and Tourism Management programmes in Ho Polytechnic.
In order to achieve the objectives of the studies, the researcher used second year students who are currently enrolled on Higher National Diploma programmes (HND) in HTM in Ho Polytechnic and investigated their motives and preference for studying these programmes. The researcher selected these group of students because it was convenient and second year students studying HTM programme best represents the large number of students in the department of Hospitality and Tourism Management in Ho Polytechnic with a class size of (150) students.
The studies investigate student‟s motivation and preference of studying hospitality and tourism management programmes in Ho Polytechnic. Five motivational factors were identified with 22 motivational statements. One hundred thirteen (113) respondents were selected for the study in the age group of 20 – 29 years being females with the modal class of 79.65% whilst 30 years and above recorded the least number of respondents who participated in the research. The qualification of respondents who participated in the study ranges from Senior Secondary and West Africa Senior High Certificate in home economics and cookery Part one and two representing 53 (46.9%) and 48 (42.5%) respectively. This shows that, most of the respondents have relevance background and therefore has provided reliable information on the topic under discussion. In examining student‟s motivation and preference using descriptive statistics, theresults revealed that (V22, V20 and V19) thus ( excellent scholar , job opportunities, expert in both practical and theory) recorded high mean values for some indicator variables. A standard deviations of around 0.5 shows that there are no wide variations between the original factors. Another set of variables in the outputs are V16 and V17. They are very conspicuous and have the lowest mean values and approximately the same standard deviations. Their mean value around 2 implies that these factors might have recorded a lot of „neutral‟ responses by the students.
The results of the study will provide constructive information for policy makers of hospitality and tourism education in Ghana. Secondly, course units should be strengthened in Senior High schools and Polytechnics. Finally, the measurement items used for this study could be adopted to examine a study motivation and preference in other major disciplines in Polytechnics in Ghana. It may be useful to replicate the study in other Polytechnics or tourism related institutions in Ghana. The implication is that if these students are not educated on the choice of selecting programmes in tertiary institution before completing Senior High Schools, parental influences and other factors may enable them to opt for programmes that they may not be interested in, hence ending up not being in the right profession. Considering the rate at which the tourism industry is advancing there will a possibility of shortfall of skills in the tourism industry in the near future.

The Journal entitled “Studying the Factors Affecting Students’ Motivation as an HRM Strategy for HEIs: A Case Study of COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Vehari Campus” by: Romaisa Abbas* 1, Dr Asad Afzal Humayon2 , Muhammad Imran Rasheed3 1-Student MBA; 2-HoD, 3- Lecturer COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Vehari Campus. The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors that can motivate students in their studies. This study will strive at finding out factors of students „motivation and the impact of these factors on students‟ performance. This study will help out the management of Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) in dealing better with these factors to achieve their prime objective, which is none other than but producing high performer students. Some of the objectives are To explore the factors that motivates students in Educational Institutes. To investigate the association among Motivational Factors and Students‟ Motivation. To recommend solutions that can enhance the effectiveness of efforts in order to improve student‟s performance.
This causal study based on exploratory research methodology has been conducted to identify the factors of students‟ motivation. The COMSATS Institute of information Technology Vehari Campus, Vehari Pakistan (CIIT) has been taken as case study. The survey was conducted in the 04 departments of CIIT Vehari. The sampling method used in this research was Stratified sampling. Four stratums were selected as Management Sciences Department (MS), Computer Sciences Department (CS), Humanities Department (Hum) and Environmental Sciences Department (ES).
The present research examines the role of challenging assignments, students‟ curiosity, performance feedback and teachers‟ behavior on students‟ motivation in HEIs. The results of the study confirm the significant positive influence of these variables students‟ motivation. All the hypothesized variables were found significant and contributing towards students‟ motivation in studied organizations. Among these variables, challenging assignments is the most effective variable due to its high beta value; hence researchers suggest that challenging assignments need to be systematically designed in the HEIs of Pakistan to enhance students‟ motivation. A structured questionnaire consisting 18 items belonging to 04 independent variables and 01 dependent variable has been developed by the researchers. The reliability of the questionnaire has also been checked by using Cronebach alpha test. This questionnaire has helped researchers in collection of primary data. The data then was analyzed by using SPSS 18.0. Findings of the study have shown that challenging assignments, students internal curiosity, performance feedback and teachers‟ behavior are crucial in motivating students at HE level.
According to the Results of the study the variable performance feedback has shown significant relationship with students‟ motivation. The performance feedback variable has shown significant positive relationship with Beta=0.193 and p=0.014. This means that performance feedback contributes more than 19% towards students‟ motivation. Teacher‟s behavior is another factor of students‟ motivation studied in current research. According to the Results of the study the variable teacher‟s behavior has significant relationship with students‟ motivation. The teacher‟s behavior variable has shown significant positive relationship with Beta=0.143 and p=0.009. This means that teacher‟s behavior contributes more than 14% towards students‟ motivation.

Hospitality Industry The hospitality industry is much broader than most other industries. The majority of business niches are composed of only a handful of different businesses, but this industry applies to nearly any company that is focused on customer satisfaction and meeting leisurely needs rather than basic ones. While this industry is very broad, there are some defining aspects that are important to understand. ( http://www.besthospitalitydegrees.com/faq/what-exactly-is-the-hospitality-industry/) The hospitality industry's backbone is comprised of customer service, a concept shared by all segments of the industry. Your small business may focus on one or all facets of hospitality. Howa accomplished you and your staff are at serving others will determine your business' level of success. You may find it easier to excel in just one category of the hospitality industry. However, though costs and challenges will increase, owning or managing several facets of hospitality can provide you with many more opportunities to generate success. (http://smallbusiness.chron.com/three-categories-hospitality-industry-58524.html)(2015) Hospitality Industry is divided into four different sectors: Lodging, food, entertainment and travel. However, usually the hospitality industry is viewed as encompassing mainly lodging and food service businesses. If we define the industry this way, we can include such as facilities as school dorm, nursing homes, and other institutions. (Hospitality today, An Introduction by Rocco M. Angelo; Andrew N. Vladimir)(2011)

Categories:
Event management
Is the application of project management to the creation and development of large scale events such as festivals, conferences, ceremonies, formal parties, concerts, or conventions. It involves studying the brand, identifying the target audience, devising the event concept, planning the logistics and coordinating the technical aspects before actually launching the event. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Event_management) (2015)
Food and Beverage Services

Places to eat and drink range from fast food to full-service fine dining. Institutional operations include meals for schools and hospitals prepared and served under the direction of a dietary services manager. Pubs, taverns, bars and nightclubs provide an upbeat atmosphere as well as alcohol to patrons of legal drinking age. Catered meals and live entertainment for special events are examples of the crossover commerce so essential to the overall hospitality network. Staffing requirements in this category may include managers, cooks, food prep personnel, servers, hosts and hostesses, busboys and dishwashers. (http://smallbusiness.chron.com/three-categories-hospitality-industry-58524.html) (Economy Watch: Hospitality Industry by: Michelle Reynolds) (2015)

Accommodations and Lodging
From full-service hotels to rustic rental cabins, providing guests with a comfortable night’s stay is the focus. Success is based on using demographics and location to identify customers and meet their needs. Aside from conventional independent or franchise hotels and motels, this category includes dormitories, hostels, campgrounds, marinas and more. Beyond beds, many lodging establishments include onsite restaurants. This combination is so common that the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics groups accommodations, food and beverages into the same sector for forecasts and other national reports.
Staff positions include managers, front-desk clerks, maintenance, housekeeping and concierge services. (http://smallbusiness.chron.com/three-categories-hospitality-industry-58524.html) (U.S. Department of Commerce: The travel, tourism and hospitality industry in the United States by: Cyndi Perkins) (2015)

Recreation and Leisure

Everything from art galleries to zip-lining -- an endless array of tourism, travel and entertainment services -- are included in what the U.S. Department of Commerce breaks down into more than 20 hospitality sub-sectors. Outdoor activities, guided tours, spectator sports, gaming, concerts, special events and conventions are just a few of the possibilities.
Interdependency is a necessity. Guests enjoying your bowling lanes or bike rentals, for example, will require food, drink and a place to stay if they are traveling.
Staffing needs in this category include managers and administrators, event planners, retail associates, guides, tourism information specialists, maintenance/groundskeepers and many other seasonal or full-time positions, some of which require highly specialized knowledge.( http://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/three-categories-hospitality-industry-24003.html)
(U.S. Department of Commerce: The travel, tourism and hospitality industry in the United States by: Cyndi Perkins) (2015)
Travel and Tourism

Another chief segment of the hospitality business encompasses transportation. This includes airlines, trains, cruise ships and the staff for each. Flight attendants and cruise staff function as food servers and hoteliers in their efforts to provide food or drink and a comfortable experience. Business travelers and vacationers alike form the basis for this area of hospitality. Travel and tourism requires knowledgeable employees in information technology, and they are also considered a part of hospitality. Destinations such as amusement parks draw thousands of people, all of whom want to benefit from great customer service while enjoying a memorable adventure.
( http://smallbusiness.chron.com/three-categories-hospitality-industry-58524.html)
(Economy Watch: Hospitality Industry by: Michelle Reynolds) (2015)

Economics

The three foremost categories of the hospitality industry are driven by, and dependent on, a strong economy. Your small hospitality business will thrive when people are able to go out to eat or enjoy traveling. Conversely, when economic times are challenging, you may decide to bolster the basics of your business. For example, food and beverage businesses might offer special activities, such as a fundraiser, or meal discounts on certain days of the week. As a hotel owner, you might branch out and provide conference or special event facilities, or transportation options such as specials on limousine services. (http://smallbusiness.chron.com/three-categories-hospitality-industry-58524.html)
(Economy Watch: Hospitality Industry by: Michelle Reynolds) (2015)

Method
The main purpose of the research is to evaluate or create exiting understanding, review and investigate existing situation or problems, find out the appropriate solutions to the problems as well explain new idea and generate scope of further research. Research on the issues on tourism sector is to focus on problems of the specified sector and find out appropriate solution of research. The content of this study includes research design, data gathering procedure, sampling design, respondents of the study, research instrument, and statistical treatment.
Research Design
In this section, we will talk about the methods, which will be used for this study. Research issues such as research design, sample, population, procedure of sampling, questionnaires and numerical examination are presented. The process by which a research is written or carried out is very important because it has a huge impact on the conclusions reached at the end of the research.
In this research, the researcher are using the combination of quantitative and qualitative data methods. Appropriate data collection for this research would be using a questionnaire which well structured open ended questions. Data related to the previous exiting literature review of the research area were gathered from different secondary sources.

Respondents
The respondents of the study were the Students of National U who are currently taking Hospitality Management. A total number of 51 regular employees were collected by the researcher, last November 18-19, 2010 at Taal Vista Hotel.
Company Profile
National University was established on August 1, 1900 as the Colegio Filipino, an education institution founded by Mariano Fortunato Jhocson on the vision of inculcating among the youth the qualities of competence and leadership, high moral and spiritual values and development of each individual into a total person through an educational process guided by the philosophy of "Dynamic Filipinism." According to Jhocson, this philosophy has as its guiding tenets "the internalizing all that is good in the Filipino people: warmth, hospitality , innovativeness, and a high emotional quotient that has made Filipinos renowned in service oriented industries.”[2]
The school began offering elementary and secondary education, with business courses (i.e. bookkeeping and accounting) were offered thereafter during its first five years. This prompted a name change as it became known as Colegio Mercantil. In 1916, liberal arts courses were now offered and the school became known as the National Academy.
On January 17, 1921, after being granted permission from the Department of Public Instruction, the school became officially known as National University with Senator Camilo Osias installed to become the university's first president. The Colleges of Education and Commerce were opened in the same year. During the following years, the Colleges of Pharmacy and Dentistry were opened in 1922, the College of Engineering in 1925, and the Normal School in 1930,
On January 01, 1998, a disastrous fire razed four buildings of the University – the Main Building, Law and Commerce Building, Elementary Building and the Graduate School Building. The University was able to re-open its doors after three weeks of unrelenting restoration work.[2]
In 2008, the SM Group of Companies acquired majority ownership of the National University.[3] This paved way to the university's modernization efforts, which included the construction of a new campus building, one of the first school buildings in the City of Manila to have escalators.

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