Premium Essay

To What Extent Are Domestic Energy Resources Important in Determining the Energy Security of Countries?

In: Other Topics

Submitted By harryquinn
Words 683
Pages 3
(b) To what extent are domestic energy resources important in determining the energy security of countries? (15)

To have energy security means to have access to reliable and affordable energy sources. E.g. Russia and their natural gas reserves. Countries/regions/localities that do not haver this are said to be energy insecure. E.g. Rural communities in Zimbabwe or the UK winter fuel allowance for the elderly is a recognition of fuel poverty. Domestic energy resources refers to the energy produced from a primary product, within the country.

It may be seen that domestic energy resources are important in determining the energy security of the country. This may be because countries that rely on exported energy from other countries are more vulnerable to political issues. An example of this is the Russia-Ukraine dispute over prices of gas. On 31st December 2008, Russia and Ukraine hadn't come to an agreement on the price Russia would pay for transit through Ukraine, and the price Russia would charge Ukraine for the gas. This led to a halt in gas transit, when Russia decided to cut supplies off on New Year's Day, 2009. EU depends on Russia for a quarter of its gas supplies, in which 80% is pumped through Ukraine. When supplies were cut off, many countries down the line were affected. A country particularly affected was Bulgaria, who relies on some 80% of their gas imports. Bulgaria said, at the time of the incident, that they only had sufficient supplies ‘for a few days’. It said there was no more gas flowing through a pipeline that also supplies Turkey, Macedonia and Greece. This shows that one dispute between two countries, can have a massive knock-on effect down the line. It demonstrates that, if you rely on foreign exports, you are more likely to be greatly affected. Countries that rely on export are considered less energy secure, as at any time their supples can...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Impact of Rural Banking

...Regional Food Security Experience: Lessons Learnt from India and Timor Leste Food Security in Bangladesh 2 Food Security Status and Challenges Food security situation in Bangladesh has improved, especially on the availability side4, and further improvements on access and utilisation, to be sustainable and large-scale, needs renewed efforts from the government, civil society (including media) and the development partners. Records say in 70s’, 70% people were under the food consumption poverty line. Today this is down to under half of the population. Today, though people are not dying, they are going hungry and becoming stunted with reduced mental and physical capacity. They are suffering. The hungry population of over 60 million people is larger than most other global cases- the third largest poor population in any country after China and India5. Nearly half of Bangladesh’s children are underweight, making it one of the most severe cases of malnutrition in the world. While Bangladesh has definitely got more food than it had thirty years back, yet almost half of Bangladesh is still far from being food secure. The World Bank and GoB-UN in their respective reports on MDGs, put the target of 34% children being underweight as non-attainable at present rates of progress. Much will need to be done to achieve the 2015 MDG target of halving the proportion of people who suffer from hunger and malnutrition. Demographic changes in upcoming years are likely to affect poverty......

Words: 11324 - Pages: 46

Free Essay

Implications of the Turkmenistan-China Gas Pipeline

...Graham 4/26/2012 Abstract The struggle over energy export routes in Central Asia has taken the form of a new Great Game, one in which Western energy companies (encouraged and assisted by their governments) compete with state owned Russian and Chinese firms for the right to exploit Central Asian resources. The implementation of the Turkmenistan-China Gas Pipeline, which began to pump gas to China in 2010, has been the most significant development of the past five years and signals, more than any other event, the primacy of Chinese influence in the region. Turkmenistan now possesses the proven reserves and a partnership with China that could help it achieve sustainable development, although there are many domestic factors impeding this. As China increases its presence in the region, it seems that Russia and the West are being left behind in the race for Central Asian hydrocarbons. Executive Summary In the complex geopolitical environment of the Caspian region, all the players involved must carefully balance political and economic objectives. Each actor brings its own set of goals for the region, and in the case of the external actors these interests are generally in conflict. While Russia seeks to preserve its hegemony over export routes of Caspian hydrocarbons, Western governments overtly seek to undermine precisely this element of Russian influence. To the East, China has been continuing its resource-based form of checkbook diplomacy in Central Asia in......

Words: 11797 - Pages: 48

Premium Essay

Globalization & Bangladesh

...be engaged with all its development partners in a healthy and constructive process of interaction on stabilization, reform programme and other critical issues like national capacity building, competitiveness, political stability, cross border terrorism, arms and drug trafficking, climate change and environmental degradation. The policy implication is that various economic policy orientation and utilization of resources should be as such that they can supplement economic growth in a sustainable manner and create avenues for employment. KEY WORDS: Benefit, Environment, Globalization, Governance, Infrastructure, Poverty, Population, Policy, Political stability, Resource 1.0 INTRODUCTION Globalization is a process of expanding trade and commerce creating borderless market all over the world. Some view it to be the conquest of one by other increasing inequality between nations. Others view it to be benefiting for world economic development and – also inevitable and irreversible. Bangladesh is exposed to pressure from two major sources in order to bring about changes in domestic governance in the direction of...

Words: 6281 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Blah

...UNIVERSITY WITH AL TRONER ASIA PACIFIC ENERGY CONSULTING PREPARED IN CONJUNCTION WITH AN ENERGY STUDY SPONSORED BY THE JAMES A. BAKER III INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY AND JAPAN PETROLEUM ENERGY CENTER RICE UNIVERSITY – MARCH 2007 THIS PAPER WAS WRITTEN BY A RESEARCHER (OR RESEARCHERS) WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE JOINT BAKER INSTITUTE/JAPAN PETROLEUM ENERGY CENTER POLICY REPORT, THE CHANGING ROLE OF NATIONAL OIL COMPANIES IN INTERNATIONAL ENERGY MARKETS. WHEREVER FEASIBLE, THIS PAPER HAS BEEN REVIEWED BY OUTSIDE EXPERTS BEFORE RELEASE. HOWEVER, THE RESEARCH AND THE VIEWS EXPRESSED WITHIN ARE THOSE OF THE INDIVIDUAL RESEARCHER(S) AND DO NOT NECESSARILY REPRESENT THE VIEWS OF THE JAMES A. BAKER III INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY NOR THOSE OF THE JAPAN PETROLEUM ENERGY CENTER. © 2007 BY THE JAMES A. BAKER III INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY OF RICE UNIVERSITY THIS MATERIAL MAY BE QUOTED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT PRIOR PERMISSION, PROVIDED APPROPRIATE CREDIT IS GIVEN TO THE AUTHOR AND THE JAMES A. BAKER III INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY ABOUT THE POLICY REPORT THE CHANGING ROLE OF NATIONAL OIL COMPANIES IN INTERNATIONAL ENERGY MARKETS Of world proven oil reserves of 1,148 billion barrels, approximately 77% of these resources are under the control of national oil companies (NOCs) with no equity participation by foreign, international oil companies. The Western international oil companies now control less than 10% of the world’s oil and gas resource base. In terms of current world oil......

Words: 12179 - Pages: 49

Premium Essay

Deprication of Indian Rupee

...The Indian Rupee Crisis Economics Essay-1 In this paper we are going to examine the cause and the impact of rupee depreciation on the Indian economy. Since last few months Indian rupee came under great stress as overseas investors are paring their exposure to Asia’s third-largest economy amid international uncertainty and mounting worries over the domestic economy. In 2009 – 2010 the exchange rate was hovering around the 43 – 45 rupees per US Dollar level. And now it is around 55 – 56 levels, the main reasons to examine are increase in import bill, higher inflation, fiscal mismanagement and all resulting in higher cost of borrowing. The rupee has lost more than 15% of its value this year, making it one of the worst performing currencies in Asia. This paper reviews the probable reasons for this depreciation of the rupee and the outlook for the same. It also reflects on the policy options to help prevent the depreciation of the Rupee. This paper will firstly discuss about the economy of currency to give an overview of the problem and the factors related to it. Afterwards it will be examining the causes of the Indian rupee depreciation with respect to the Indian economy and the global economy. And after that it will analyse the impact of the same on trade and business. Finally, recommending the policy actions in response of the falling currency. II. LITERATURE REVIEW: These papers include the work which have been used as a basis or reference for formulating the policies......

Words: 3340 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Global Oil Industry

...WALLACE S. WILSON FELLOW IN ENERGY STUDIES JAMES A. BAKER III INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY RONALD SOLIGO, PH.D. PROFESSOR OF ECONOMICS, RICE UNIVERSITY RICE SCHOLAR, JAMES A. BAKER III INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY PREPARED IN CONJUNCTION WITH AN ENERGY STUDY SPONSORED BY JAPAN PETROLEUM ENERGY CENTER AND THE JAMES A. BAKER III INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY NOVEMBER 2007 International Oil Companies THIS PAPER WAS WRITTEN BY A RESEARCHER (OR RESEARCHERS) WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE JOINT BAKER INSTITUTE/JAPAN PETROLEUM ENERGY CENTER POLICY REPORT, THE CHANGING ROLE OF NATIONAL OIL COMPANIES IN INTERNATIONAL ENERGY MARKETS. WHEREVER FEASIBLE, THIS PAPER WAS REVIEWED BY OUTSIDE EXPERTS BEFORE RELEASE. HOWEVER, THE RESEARCH AND THE VIEWS EXPRESSED WITHIN THIS PAPER ARE THOSE OF THE INDIVIDUAL RESEARCHER(S) AND DO NOT NECESSARILY REPRESENT THE VIEWS OF THE JAMES A. BAKER III INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY NOR THOSE OF THE JAPAN PETROLEUM ENERGY CENTER. © 2007 BY THE JAMES A. BAKER III INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY OF RICE UNIVERSITY THIS MATERIAL MAY BE QUOTED OR REPRODUCED WITHOUT PRIOR PERMISSION, PROVIDED APPROPRIATE CREDIT IS GIVEN TO THE AUTHOR AND THE JAMES A. BAKER III INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC POLICY. 2 International Oil Companies ABOUT THE POLICY REPORT THE CHANGING ROLE OF NATIONAL OIL COMPANIES IN INTERNATIONAL ENERGY MARKETS Of world proven oil reserves of 1,148 billion barrels, approximately 77% of these resources are under the control......

Words: 13040 - Pages: 53

Premium Essay

Onesdfdssd

...SCOPE OF COMPETITION IN RENEWABLE ENERGY SECTOR IN INDIA ___________________________ INTERNSHIP PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED BY: PRIYANKA VARMA BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY VARANASI UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF: MR. VIJAY KUMAR SINGH DEPUTY DIRECTOR (LAW) ____________________________ COMPETITION COMMISSION OF INDIA NEW DELHI JANUARY 2012 i DISCLAIMER This project report has been prepared by the author as an intern under the Internship Programme of the Competition Commission of India for a period of one month from January 2, 2012 to January 30, 2012. This report is for academic purposes only. The views expressed in the report are personal to the intern and do not reflect the views of the Commission or any of its staff or personnel and do not bind the Commission in any manner. This report is the intellectual property of the Competition Commission of India and the same or any part thereof may not be used in any manner whatsoever, without express permission of the Competition Commission of India in writing. Priyanka Varma M.A. (Final) Economics Banaras Hindu University ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My sincere thanks and regards to Mr. Vijay Kumar Singh, Deputy Director (Law), Competition Commission of India, Government of India, for giving me the opportunity to work on this sector and for guiding me every step of the way. I would also like to acknowledge the Library and Support Staff of CCI for their unconditional help and cooperation during the entire duration of my......

Words: 20915 - Pages: 84

Premium Essay

Term Paper on “Climate Change and Bangladesh”

...Climate change is a long-term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in the average weather conditions or a change in the distribution of weather events with respect to an average, for example, greater or fewer extreme weather events. Climate change may be limited to a specific region, or may occur across the whole Earth. In recent usage, especially in the context of environmental policy, climate change usually refers to changes in modern climate. It may be qualified as anthropogenic climate change, more generally known as global warming or anthropogenic global warming Bangladesh is frequently cited as one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change because of its disadvantageous geographic location, flat and low-lying topography, high population density, high levels of poverty, reliance of many livelihoods on climate sensitive sectors- particularly agriculture and fisheries and inefficient institutional aspects. Many of the anticipated adverse affects of climate change, such as sea level rise, higher temperatures, enhanced monsoon precipitation, and an increase in cyclone intensity, will aggravate the existing...

Words: 5957 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Negotiation

...MEGATRENDS UNDERPINNING TOURISM TO 2020 Analysis of key drivers for change Larry Dwyer, Deborah Edwards, Nina Mistilis, Carolina Roman, Noel Scott and Chris Cooper Analysis of Key Drivers for Change Technical Reports The technical report series present data and its analysis, meta-studies and conceptual studies, and are considered to be of value to industry, government and researchers. Unlike the Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre’s Monograph series, these reports have not been subjected to an external peer review process. As such, the scientific accuracy and merit of the research reported here is the responsibility of the authors, who should be contacted for clarification of any content. Author contact details are at the back of this report. National Library of Australia Cataloguing in Publication Data Dwyer, Larry. Megatrends underpinning tourism to 2020: analysis of key drivers for change. Bibliography. ISBN 9781920965525. 1. Tourism - Economic aspects - Australia. 2. Tourism - Social aspects - Australia. 3. Tourism - Political aspects - Australia. 4. Tourism - Environmental aspects - Australia. 5. Tourism - Australia. I. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism. II. Title. 338.47910994 Copyright © CRC for Sustainable Tourism Pty Ltd 2008 All rights reserved. Apart from fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part of this book may be reproduced by any process......

Words: 40109 - Pages: 161

Premium Essay

R in Brics

...the unipolar configuration of international politics (e.g. France), may create a basis for a coalition having the potential to balance American power.2 There is ample evidence from all of the emerging powers of unhappiness with the existing structure of international politics. There has also been substantial consideration of the potential for cooperation among them and with certain European states to constrain the hegemon—from the suggestion of entente between France, Germany and Russia to the repeated examination of prospects for a SinoRussian–Indian triangle, and the growing Chinese and Russian interest in bilateral cooperation over shared security concerns.3 This article assesses the role of Russia as an ‘emerging power’. How do Russians interpret the international system in which they operate? What kind of system would they prefer? What are they trying to do in the current system and why? How do these considerations affect their relations with the hegemon, with other centres of power such as the EU, and with other emerging powers? The notion of ‘emerging power’ is partly informed by a theoretical assumption that the international behaviour of states is determined by their place in * This article is based on a presentation at a conference at the University of Brasilia in April 2005 on ‘Hegemony, order and the emerging powers’. 1 A Goldman Sachs report of...

Words: 8446 - Pages: 34

Free Essay

Mergers and Acquisitions

...value creation and the size of the transaction. However, large scale transactions (more than $1bn) tend to destroy value whereas small scale transactions (less than $50m) tend to create value. During 2004-2005 periods, for instance, small scale transactions in our sample have an average positive return after one year of 6 percent, compared to -5 percent for the large scale transactions. Furthermore, the average return weighted by transaction amount is below the average non-weighted return, which means that large scale transactions are obviously tending to destroy more value than small scale ones. In this respect, it is interesting to mentionthe existence of some country specificities regarding the average transaction size. Although M&A operations are much more numerous in the UK than in other European countries, France is the place where large scale operations occurred most frequently. Between 2000 and 2005, the average value of transactions was $1.2bn in France compared to $1bn in Germany and $500m in the UK. Second, an acquirers’ previous M&A experience has an influence on value creation. Our...

Words: 7385 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

Agenda Foe Economica Revival

...Economic Revival June 2012 June 2012 © Confederation of Indian Industry Copyright © 2011 by Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in, or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. CII has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of information presented in this document. However, neither CII nor any of its office bearers or analysts or employees can be held responsible for any financial consequences arising out of the use of information provided herein. However, in case of any discrepancy, error, etc., same may please be brought to the notice of CII for appropriate corrections. Published by Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), The Mantosh Sondhi Centre; 23, Institutional Area, Lodi Road, New Delhi-110003 (INDIA), Tel: +91-11-24629994-7, Fax: +91-11-24626149; Email: info@cii.in; Web: www.cii.in Confederation of Indian Industry The Mantosh Sondhi Centre 23, Institutional Area , Lodi Road, New Delhi – 110 003 Tel.: 011-24621874, 24629994-97 : Fax: 011-24626149 Website:www.cii.in Edited, printed and published by: Chandrajit Banerjee, Director General, CII on behalf of Confederation of Indian Industry from The Mantosh Sondhi Centre, 23, Institutional Area, Lodi Road, New Delhi –110 003 Tel: 91-11-24629994-7 Fax: 91-11-24626149......

Words: 19794 - Pages: 80

Premium Essay

How China Rises

...How China rises What lessons can be drawn from China's spectacular and sustained economic growth? As Hu Jintau remarked at the 17th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, the period since the previous Congress five years ago has been extraordinary. China's economic achievements have been arousing not only astonishment and admiration but also some anxiety. In the past twelve months alone, The People's Republic of China (PRC) has overtaken Canada as the biggest source of imports to the USA, and overtaken the USA as the biggest source of imports to the European Union. Concern about the low level of investment in Africa has been displaced by concern about the effects of the high level of Chinese investment in Africa; there is now even anxiety about the effects of investment by Chinese state-owned firms into the Western economies. The Chinese Communist Party is also expressing concerns. The themes of its 2007 Congress included protection of the environment and the achievement of social harmony. According to some estimates, China has displaced the USA as the world's biggest source of greenhouse gases. Inequality is rising as fast as pollution: China now has over 800 individuals with a personal wealth of more than a hundred million US dollars each, up from 500 in 2006; while the average income in rural areas of China is 480 dollars per year. Made in China. Hu Jintau's remark on the extraordinary nature of the most recent years can be faulted in only one sense: China......

Words: 51278 - Pages: 206

Premium Essay

Consumption

...to the 2012 World Water Week and its Special Focus on Water and Food Security. Feeding a Thirsty World Challenges and Opportunities for a Water and Food Secure Future RepORT 31 Copyright © 2012, Stockholm International Water Institute, SIWI ISBN: 978-91-978846-5-5 ISSN: 1404-2134 How to Cite: Jägerskog, A., Jønch Clausen, T. (eds.) 2012. Feeding a Thirsty World – Challenges and Opportunities for a Water and Food Secure Future. Report Nr. 31. SIWI, Stockholm. Cover photo: iStockphoto Design by Britt-Louise Andersson and Elin Ingblom, SIWI Printing by Elanders, Mölnlycke, Sweden. The printing process has been certified according to the Nordic Swan label for environmental quality. For electronic versions of this and other SIWI publications, visit www.siwi.org. Feeding a Thirsty World Challenges and Opportunities for a Water and Food Secure Future Note to the Reader Today, in 2012, nearly one billion people still suffer from hunger and malnourishment, in spite of the fact that food production has been steadily increasing on a per capita basis for decades. Producing food to feed everyone well, including the 2 billion additional people expected to populate the planet by mid-century, will place greater pressure on available water and land resources. This report provides input into the discussions at the 2012 World Water Week in Stockholm, which is held under the theme of Water and Food Security, and was edited by Anders Jägerskog, Director, Knowledge Services......

Words: 19153 - Pages: 77

Free Essay

Economic Sectors

...Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012–2017) Economic Sectors Volume II Copyright © Planning Commission (Government of India) 2013 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilised in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. First published in 2013 by SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd B1/I-1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044, India www.sagepub.in SAGE Publications Inc 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA SAGE Publications Ltd 1 Oliver’s Yard, 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP, United Kingdom SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd 33 Pekin Street #02-01 Far East Square Singapore 048763 Published by Vivek Mehra for SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, Phototypeset in 11/13pt Minion Pro by RECTO Graphics, Delhi and printed at Saurabh Printers, New Delhi. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Available ISBN: 978-81-321-1131-3 (PB) The SAGE Team: Rudra Narayan, Archita Mandal, Rajib Chatterjee and Dally Verghese Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012–2017) Economic Sectors Volume II Planning Commission Government of India Thank you for choosing a SAGE product! If you have any comment, observation or feedback, I would like to personally hear from you. Please write to me at contactceo@sagepub.in —Vivek Mehra, Managing Director and CEO, SAGE Publications India......

Words: 131771 - Pages: 528