Free Essay

To What Extent Do the Classical Arguments Make It Believable to Have Faith in God?

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By katysiu
Words 2038
Pages 9
In arguing the existence of God, there are numerous teachings and arguments, some more rational than others, the classical arguments being the most well known to all. The claim in all these arguments uses a non-religious approach to logically reason the existence of God, rather than argue on the premise of faith to obtain a rational belief; a belief reasoning as justification. The classical arguments are divided into what is considered empirical and rational arguments, with every individual finding their own reasoning to relate to them. In this essay, I will explore the extent of how the classical arguments can proves God existence, and why some people counter-argue they cannot. The first of the classical arguments being Anselm’s Ontological argument, an argument attempting to prove God’s existence through abstract reasoning alone. The argument is entirely a priori as it does not include real evidence or anything factual, seeking to demonstrate that God exists based on the concept of God alone. The outline of the argument is that because we have an idea of God, an idea of a being which no greater can be thought, therefore God must exist. The argument relates to three concepts: the concept of God, perfection and of existence. The three concepts associate with one another, arguing that perfection is part of the concept of God, and that perfection entails existence, therefore the concept of God entails God’s existence. Anselm’s argument is set on the basis of a conception of God as “that than which no greater being can be conceived”, and it is upon this concept that the hypothesis that God exists is presented.

However, this is counter-argued in Gaunilo’s argument of the Perfect Island. Gaunilo criticized the logic in Anselm’s argument, claiming that if the Ontological argument was correct, then a perfect island could easily exist as well, which is evidently untrue. Anselm responded by saying that an island was limited to it’s potential, as a better island can always be thought of whilst God is a distinct omnipotent and omniscient being having no limitations and therefore cannot be compared to the Perfect Island.

I believe that the ontological argument can prove God’s existence to a very minimal extent given that the basis is simply a concept. The argument although weak, can be used to argue the existence of God, considering that it does seem logical that because we have the idea of it, it must exist, otherwise we would not have the concept of God being existent in reality. If disregarding the weak first premise, I still do continue to believe that the reasoning in the argument is logically sound, with each succeeding argument supporting one another putting the argument in deductive form.

On the other hand, many people (in particular extreme rationalists and atheists) may disagree with the argument. Firstly as an atheist, they may not believe in the theist description of God’s perfection, and that it is not a greater being to be thought of. Because of that belief, the first premise cannot be reasoned and the argument will fail making it irrational to believe in God. There are many reasons to why people do not believe in God, with evil and suffering being the most prominent, and in many of the counter-arguments I explore for it to be irrational to believe in God, I will explore the depths of many atheism views.

In support of Anselm’s Ontological argument, René Descartes also came up with a deductive argument to prove God’s existence. It follows the idea that existence is a necessary part of perfection and because God is the most perfecting being, therefore existence is a necessary part of God. The similarity to the fault in this argument is literally the same as Anselm’s; the idea that the definition of God is different to everyone and therefore cannot be rationalized.

The next of the classical arguments is the Teleological argument, also known as the Classical Design argument. The outline of this argument is argued based on the fact that because the universe is so complex there has to be a designer, and then only being powerful and knowledgeable to do so is God. The argument was made prominently by William Paley, who rationalizes that ball intricate things i.e. a watch, must have a designer. He argues that if you were to stumble upon a watch in a field of nowhere, you would not think it appeared out of nowhere and rather think of the origin and how it came into existence. Much like the watch, the universe is as intricate and detailed, all the little pieces coming together and functioning must mean that someone (a designer) must have thought it all out.

However, Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution counter-argues to Paley’s proposition. According to Darwin, the world is not the way it was from the beginning or the way it was “designed”. Throughout the centuries, mammals have been adapting to the environment and their habitats for survival, therefore gaining favourable characteristics, therefore it is evolution and natural selection that has brought the universe as it is today to this complex stage. A noted sceptic, Anthony Flew has also criticized the Design argument. Flew exclaims that if the universe contains design then there must be some intelligence behind it which is simple logic, however there must be something else behind that intelligence to support it at the same time. This minimalizes the extent to which you can believe in God and the idea of the perfect being, however I do not think that it affects the rational belief in God, rather how powerful God is.

I personally believe that it is rational to quite an extent to believe in God given this argument given the reasoning within the argument is logical. Paley’s analysis of the watch out of nowhere presents a logical point. I believe this to be a better argument in comparison to the Ontological argument given it has a more defined first premise. If the universe is as complex as it is, you would naturally expect there to be a designer.

However, some may argue that given the universe is so complex, it is also immensely flawed, examples being natural disasters, global warming and so on. If there really was a God to design it, God would be omniscient, omnipotent and omnibenevolent, so why would a being of perfection design a world full of flaw? This leads to the conclusion that there is simply no God at all. This shows the extent to which the teleological argument can proves God existence, as if a watch were to be a faulty product, you would simply just doubt the designer of it and question whether or not you may have just found a piece of junk on the field.

The last of the classical arguments is the Cosmological argument, otherwise known ad the “First Cause” argument. The cosmological argument is the argument that the existence of the world or universe in itself is strong evidence for the existence of God who created it. The existence, the argument claims, is in need of an explanation, and the only adequate one being that the existence was created by God. The cosmological arguments like the rest is argued in deductive reasoning form. The first premise argues that everything that exists has a cause of its existence and given that the universe exists, it must therefore mean that the universe has a cause of its existence. If the universe has a cause of its existence, then that cause has to be God, therefore God must exist.

I personally find this argument to be the strongest out of all three of the classical arguments given that it uses deductive reasoning following a reasonable and logical first premise. It is easy to argue that because the universe could not have existed by itself, God must have made it exist. God can do this because God is an omnipotent and omniscient perfect being. However some would argue that if God were the first cause of the universe, what is God’s first cause? I would then like to rationalize that because God is omnipotent and the perfecting being that God does not need a first cause, if he did exist he would be the greater power and therefore could make himself exist. I also find this argument to be the most powerful and logical in its deductive reasoning, each premise following the other. Without God there would be one entity the existence of which we could not explain; with God there would be one entity the existence of which we could not explain, namely God.

However many people would disagree with the rationalizing of this argument. If God were thought not to have a cause of existence, for example if God were to be thought of as an uncaused being, then his existence would be a counter example to the first premise, If God exists but does not have a cause of his existence, then premise one is false, in which case the rest of the cosmological argument cannot be rationalized. If some things that exist do not have a cause, then the cosmological argument might be resisted on the ground that the universe itself might be such a thing. Many non-believers argue that there is no factual evidence to support the first premise and that it is just an assumption rather than a rational reasoning. As well as that, scientific discoveries has also provided more evidence about the Big Bang Theory as a cause of the universe, another instance of science weakening an argument for the existence of God.

Another argument making it irrational to believe in God is the argument of Evil and Suffering. The Evil and Suffering argument basically explains that there is no logical reasoning to how there could be an omnibenevolent perfect being when there is so much suffering occurring and no-one stopping it. This is considered the strongest argument to prove that God does not exist. However, Many religions respond to the counter arguments in response that God puts everyone under the test of faith. This is unrelated to the classical arguments as they do not involve any religious perspective and rather rationalizes the existence of God through logical thinking, therefore more powerful than religious arguments.

I personally believe that if there were a God, it would be a perfect being with omniscience, Omni benevolence and omnipotent powers. I don’t believe that there is anyway there is a greater being than us that isn’t perfect, otherwise it would just be equal amongst us. I believe that the argument for free will that God gave us is immensely powerful and that you can argue that with the idea of evil and suffering. If there were never and evil and suffering then people would never no how to appreciate the truly lucky and good times, just like if you never felt sad you wouldn’t know what it felt to be happy. I think that the idea of evil and suffering could also be in a form of punishment or “Karma”, or simply just part of a greater plan.

In conclusion, I believe that it can be rational to believe in God, but not with all of the arguments given. I believe that the Ontological argument is weak and I personally cannot rationalize any belief of God with the argument. The cosmological and teleological arguments are similar in the way with the idea of the first premise being similar of a designer and a first cause. I believe that these arguments are easier to rationalize that there is a God as it explains all the uncaused causes with God. Despite the flaws in the world, the universe too is complicated for there not to be even a basic design, and if ever there is anything we do not understand, it is rational to argue that God will simply because he is the perfect being. However I do believe that there is a certain extent to how the arguments can prove the existence of God, but it is how a person rationalizes the deductive reasoning’s of the classical arguments that enable them into believe in it..

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Myun

...Metaphysics From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to:navigation, search This article is about the branch of philosophy. For the work of Aristotle, see Metaphysics (Aristotle). |Philosophy | |[pic] | |Branches[show] | |Aesthetics | |Epistemology | |Ethics | |Logic | |Metaphysics | |Social philosophy | |Political philosophy | |Eras[show] | |Ancient | |Medieval | |Modern | |Contemporary | |Traditions[show] | |Analytic | |Continental | |Eastern | |Islamic | |Marxist | |Platonic | |Scholastic | |Philosophers[show] | |Aestheticians ......

Words: 48829 - Pages: 196

Premium Essay

History 1

...the emperor, that is, was preoccupied with a war against the Parthians in Mesopotamia, the Roman frontier along and beyond the Danube was poorly defended, and the barbarians could make raids deep into the Roman provinces. Despite the danger of wars on two fronts, the Roman empire was able to manage well enough from the 160s until 235, when the decline became precipitous, and brought with it radical economic, cultural and religious changes. This chapter, therefore, will look at the empire in its relatively golden period, from the first century until the death of Alexander Severus, the last of the Severi, in 235. The classes This was a stratified, hierarchical society in all ways. In civic status the top of the pyramid was the emperor, followed by Roman provincial governors, senators and other officials, then by the local gentry, and next by the rank and file of Roman citizens. Of all the free men in the empire, only about a third ranked as Roman citizens. Right behind the Romans were the Hellenes (in the Greek-speaking eastern provinces the Hellenes were enrolled as such in the municipal census), then came Judaeans, and finally the other barbarians. So in Alexandria an “Egyptian” had fewer privileges than Judaeans and Hellenes, and far fewer than Romans. This hierarchy was illustrated, as we have seen in Chapter Five, by the difficulties Pliny encountered in promoting his Egyptian physician to the “Roman” rank.1 A significant change in the hierarchies occurred in 212, when...

Words: 14783 - Pages: 60

Free Essay

Alchemist

...| | |  | |Introductory Note | |  | |  | |BEN JONSON was born of poor parents at Westminster in 1573. Through the influence of Camden, the antiquary, he got a good |  1| |education at Westminster School; but he does not seem to have gone to a University, though later both Oxford and Cambridge gave | | |him degrees. In his youth he practised for a time his stepfather’s trade of bricklaying, and he served as a soldier in Flanders. | | |  It was probably about 1595 that he began to write for the stage, and within a few years he was recognized as a distinguished |  2| |playwright. His comedy of “Every Man in His Humour” was not only a great immediate success, but founded a school of satirical | | |drama in England. “Sejanus” and “Catiline” were less popular, but are impressive pictures of Roman life, less interesting but more| | |accurate than the Roman plays of Shakespeare. ...

Words: 30021 - Pages: 121

Premium Essay

Job Cover Letter

...GIVING VOICE TO VALUES (What would I say and do if I were going to act on my values) Description 1 Value Clarification: What is a value? Exercises to reveal values. Value Formation. (Please use the exercises in the attached notes, or anything else you can find in books on values) 4 2 Comparative Religions: Inter-religious sensitivity, understanding and common action to build a world on shared values. Breaking through stereotypes. Communalism and Building community. (Video presentation on 3 religions: Hinduism, Islam and Christianity- Arnold Toynebee. After viewing a video programme on each religion, please get a group of 5 students to share on the meaning they get from their religions. Clarifications from the rest of the class are welcome. No discussions. A session on communalism and community building could follow. Talk by Ram Puniyani on communalism. 10 3 Corruption as a way of life: Case studies e.g. CWG, Adarsh and 2G. Attempt to analyse the causes. Don’t get stuck on description. Then try and discuss strategies to avoid corruption. RTI. Civil Society groups. Other strategies to bring accountability and transparency. 4 4 Violence and Conflict Resolution: Input from Kishu Daswani – conflict resolution at the individual level 5 5 Attraction to substance abuse: Resources from Linda. Film: My brother Nikhil, Portrait of an addict. 2 6 The Problem of Evil: Video: God in the dock. A discussion following the film is useful 2 7 Prayer Communal and Personal: Video:......

Words: 31007 - Pages: 125

Premium Essay

Philosophy

...P LA T O and a P LAT Y P U S WA L K I N TO A B A R . . . Understanding Philosophy Through Jokes < T H O M A S C AT H C A RT & D A N I E L K L E I N * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * P l at o a n d a P l at y p u s Wa l k i n t o a B a r . . . PLATO and a PLAT Y PUS WA L K I N T O A B A R . . . < Understanding Philosophy Through Jokes Th o m as Cat h c a rt & Dan i e l K l e i n A B R A M S I M AG E , N E W YO R K e d i to r : Ann Treistman d e s i g n e r : Brady McNamara pro d u c t i on m anag e r : Jacquie Poirier Cataloging-in-publication data has been applied for and may be obtained from the Library of Congress. ISBN 13: 978-0-8109-1493-3 ISBN 10: 0-8109-1493-x Text copyright © 2007 Thomas Cathcart and Daniel Klein Illlustration credits: ©The New Yorker Collection 2000/Bruce Eric Kaplan/ cartoonbank.com: pg 18; ©Andy McKay/www.CartoonStock.com: pg 32; ©Mike Baldwin/www.CartoonStock.com: pgs 89, 103; ©The New Yorker Collection 2000/ Matthew Diffee/cartoonbank.com: pg 122; ©The New Yorker Collection 2000/ Leo Cullum/cartoonbank.com: pg 136; ©Merrily Harpur/Punch ltd: 159; ©Andy McKay/www.CartoonStock.com: pg 174. Published......

Words: 41407 - Pages: 166

Premium Essay

Logical Reasoning

...earlier version of the book was published by Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California USA in 1993 with ISBN number 0-534-17688-7. When Wadsworth decided no longer to print the book, they returned their publishing rights to the original author, Bradley Dowden. The current version has been significantly revised. If you would like to suggest changes to the text, the author would appreciate your writing to him at dowden@csus.edu. iv Praise Comments on the earlier 1993 edition, published by Wadsworth Publishing Company, which is owned by Cengage Learning: "There is a great deal of coherence. The chapters build on one another. The organization is sound and the author does a superior job of presenting the structure of arguments. " David M. Adams, California State Polytechnic University "These examples work quite well. Their diversity, literacy, ethnic...

Words: 189930 - Pages: 760

Premium Essay

Reearch

...Enquiry 3. European Origins of Science 4. Contributions of Early India 5. Science in China 6. The role of Arabs in the History of Science MODULE 2 7. Science in the Middle Ages MODULE 3 MODERN SCIENCE 8. Newton and After 9. The Advancing Frontiers: Modern Medicine to Nanotechnology MODULE 4 PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 10. Basic concepts in the Philosophy of Science 11. Some Issues in the Philosophy of Science Pages 5 10 17 24 31 36 44 53 64 79 88 History and Philosophy of Science   3  School of Distance Education             History and Philosophy of Science   4  School of Distance Education   MODULE 1  ANCIENT HISTORY OF SCIENCE  UNIT – 1 INTRODUCTION Objectives This chapter will help you to: 1. Understand what is science 2. Understand...

Words: 34637 - Pages: 139

Premium Essay

First Filipino

...THE FIRST FILIPINO Republie of the Philippines Department of Education & Culture NATIONAL HISTORICAL COMMISSION Manila FERDINAND E. MARCOS President Republic of the Philippines JUAN L. MANUEL Secretary of Education & Culture ESTEBAN A. DE OCAMPO Chairman DOMINGO ABELLA Member HORACIO DE LA COSTA, S. J. Member GODOFREDO L. ALCASID Ex-Oficio Member TEODORO A. AGONCILLO Member EMILIO AGUILAR CRUZ Member SERAFIN D. QUIASON Ex-Oficio Member FLORDELIZA K. MILITANTE Exccutive Director RAMON G. CONCEPCION Chief, Administrative Division BELEN V. FORTU Chief, Budget & Fiscal Division JOSE C. DAYRIT Chief, Research & Publications Division AVELINA M. CASTAÑEDA Chief, Special & Commemorative Events Division ROSAURO G. UNTIVERO Historical Researcher & Editor EULOGIO M. LEAÑO Chief Historical Writer-Translator & Publications Officer GENEROSO M. ILANO Auditor JOSE RIZAL (1861-1896) THE FIRST FILIPINO A Biography of José Rizal by LEÓN Ma. GUERRERO with an introduction by CARLOS QUI R INO ( Awarded First Prize in the Rizal Biography Contest held under the auspices of the José Rizal National Centennial Commission in 1961) NATIONAL HISTORICAL COMMISSION Manila 1974 First Printing 1963 Second Printing 1965 Third Printing 1969 Fourth Printing 1971 Fifth Printing 1974 This Book is dedicated by the Author to the other Filipinos Speak of me as I am; nothing extenuate, Nor set down aught in malice, Shakespeare: °the/Lo. Paint my picture truly like me, and not flatter me at all ;......

Words: 203166 - Pages: 813

Premium Essay

Critical Thinking

...gap between Its comprehensiveness allows instructors to tailor the material to their individual teaching styles, resulting in an exceptionally versatile text. Highlights of the Fourth Edition: Additional readings and essays in a new Appendix as well as in Chapters 7 and 8 nearly double the number of readings available for critical analysis and classroom discussion. An online chapter, available on the instructor portion of the book’s Web site, addresses critical reading, a vital skill for success in college and beyond. Visit www.mhhe.com/bassham4e for a wealth of additional student and instructor resources. Bassham I Irwin Nardone I Wallace New and updated exercises and examples throughout the text allow students to practice and apply what they learn. MD DALIM #1062017 12/13/09 CYAN MAG YELO BLK Chapter 12 features an expanded and reorganized discussion of evaluating Internet sources. Critical Thinking thinking, using real-world examples and a proven step-by-step approach. A student ' s Introduction A student's Introduction everyday culture and critical thinking. It covers all the basics of critical Critical Thinking Ba ssha m I Irwin I Nardone I Wall ace CRITICAL THINKING A STUDENT’S INTRODUCTION FOURTH EDITION Gregory Bassham William Irwin Henry Nardone James M. Wallace King’s College TM bas07437_fm_i-xvi.indd i 11/24/09 9:53:56 AM TM Published by McGraw-Hill, an imprint of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY......

Words: 246535 - Pages: 987

Premium Essay

Marketing

...fourth EDItION Critical Thinking A student ' s Introduction Ba ssha m I I rwi n I N ardon e I Wal l ac e CRITICAL THINKING A STUDENT’S INTRODUCTION FOURTH EDITION Gregory Bassham William Irwin Henry Nardone James M. Wallace King’s College TM TM Published by McGraw-Hill, an imprint of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005, 2002. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. This book is printed on acid-free paper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOC/DOC 0 ISBN: 978-0-07-340743-2 MHID: 0-07-340743-7 Vice President, Editorial: Michael Ryan Director, Editorial: Beth Mejia Sponsoring Editor: Mark Georgiev Marketing Manager: Pam Cooper Managing Editor: Nicole Bridge Developmental Editor: Phil Butcher Project Manager: Lindsay Burt Manuscript Editor: Maura P. Brown Design Manager: Margarite Reynolds Cover Designer: Laurie Entringer Production Supervisor: Louis Swaim Composition: 11/12.5 Bembo by MPS Limited, A Macmillan Company Printing: 45# New Era Matte, R. R. Donnelley & Sons Cover Image: © Brand X/JupiterImages Credits: The credits section for this book begins on page C-1 and is considered...

Words: 240232 - Pages: 961

Free Essay

Momoland

...Complex Systems in Education CSE ESSAYS COURSE Complex Course on Writing English and American Essays for Advanced Students English Language Programs Division Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs Writing 2 United States Information Agency, Washington, D. C. 1999 2 3 How to Use this Complex Course Частные уроки Английского Языка 387-1231 MIND Speaks to MIND – Selected American Essays 4 Preface Some years ago, a visitor to our office, a professor of English at a large foreign university, asked if the English Language Programs Division had published a book of American essays for foreign students – especially students at the advanced level. Having to respond in the negative, I was, nonetheless, “intrigued” by the idea of a collection of essays that would form a source of stimulating ideas or thoughts that could be thoroughly examined in the EFL classroom, discussed and debated in free conversation, and perhaps, ultimately, lead to a significant growth in the exchange of information between cultures – via the printed page. From this rationale, then, there issues an explanation for the title, Mind Speaks to Mind, which itself is an “exchange of information” between the editor and Edward Hoagland in his essay, “On Essays”! And, readers are encouraged to study this essay first as a type of guideline concerning the nature/purpose of the essay. It is found on page 26. For ease of reference, the essays are presented in alphabetical order......

Words: 42425 - Pages: 170

Premium Essay

English

...|Word |Synonym |Sentence | |Abase |to humiliate, degrade, debase, corrupt, |Don’t abase yourself by accepting this offer. | | |disgrace | | |Abash |to bewilder, confound, confuse, puzzle, amaze,|That poor man felt abashed in the company of rich man & women. He was not at | |[uh-bash] |stun, leave speechless, bamboozle. |all abashed by his open admiration (প্রশংসা). | |Abate |to remove, lessen |We resumed our journey when the rain abated. Rather than leaving immediately, | | | |they waited for the storm to abate. | |Abdicate |to forsake, give up, (পরিত্যাগ করা, অস্বীকার |Edwar VIII abdicated the British throne to marry the woman he loved. Saddam was| | |করা), resign, relinquish, hand over, step down|abdicated from his throne. | | |from, abandon | ......

Words: 27003 - Pages: 109

Premium Essay

Researching and Writing

.... ReseaRching and WRiting a disseRtation a guidebook foR business students Colin Fisher second edition . Researching and Writing a Dissertation: A Guidebook for Business Students . We work with leading authors to develop the strongest educational materials in management, bringing cutting-edge thinking and best learning practice to a global market. Under a range of well-known imprints, including Financial Times Prentice Hall, we craft high-quality print and electronic publications which help readers to understand and apply their content, whether studying or at work. To find out more about the complete range of our publishing, please visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsoned.co.uk . Researching and Writing a Dissertation: A Guidebook for Business Students Second edition Colin Fisher with John Buglear Diannah Lowry Alistair Mutch Carole Tansley . Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies throughout the world Visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsoned.co.uk First published 2004 Second edition 2007 © Pearson Education Limited 2004 © Pearson Education Limited 2007 The right of Colin Fisher to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,......

Words: 142971 - Pages: 572

Premium Essay

Will Do Next Time

... or broadcast for distance learning. PREFACE Rationale We agreed to produce the instructor’s manual for the sixth edition of A First Look at Communication Theory because it’s a first-rate book and because we enjoy talking and writing about pedagogy. Yet when we recall the discussions we’ve had with colleagues about instructor’s manuals over the years, two unnerving comments stick with us: “I don’t find them much help”; and (even worse) “I never look at them.” And, if the truth be told, we were often the people making such points! With these statements in mind, we have done some serious soul-searching about the texts that so many teachers—ourselves included—frequently malign or ignore. As we have considered our quandary, we have come face-to-face with the central paradox that characterizes the genre: Teaching manuals tend to be distant, mechanical, impersonal, and lifeless, when in fact good teaching is immediate, flexible, personal, and lively. In this manual, therefore, we have attempted to communicate to fellow teachers...

Words: 159106 - Pages: 637

Premium Essay

Your Research Project

...be sent to the publishers. SAGE Publications Ltd 6 Bonhill Street London EC2A 4PU SAGE Publications Inc 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd 32, M-Block Market Greater Kailash – I New Delhi 110 048 British Library Cataloguing in Publication data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0 7619 6538 6 ISBN 0 7619 6539 4 (pbk) Library of Congress catalog record available Typeset by Keystroke, Jacaranda Lodge, Wolverhampton. Printed in Great Britain by The Cromwell Press Ltd, Trowbridge, Wiltshire CONTENTS Acknowledgements Introduction 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Research and the Research Problem Information, and How to Deal with It Types of Research Nature and Use of Argument More about the Nature of Research Research Quality and Planning Research Methods Preparing the Research Proposal and Starting to Write References Index vi 1 5 39 69 117 151 189 225 276 314 318 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My grateful thanks go to Dr Roland Newman and Professor Mike Jenks, who gave me inspiration to write...

Words: 136496 - Pages: 546