Free Essay

To What Extent Has Popular Music Culture Challenged Dominant Gender Norms? Critically Analyse with Reference to Relevant Literature and Examples

In: Film and Music

Submitted By magnolia09
Words 2161
Pages 9
To what extent has popular music culture challenged dominant gender norms? Critically analyse with reference to relevant literature and examples
Traditional dominant gender norms state that women are feminine in appearance, including everything from their hair down to their shoes and of course their demeanour, voice and behaviour. The traditional man would be that who is strong and rugged with a deep voice and who is overtly masculine without a hint of make up or traditionally feminine clothing. It has been decades since these norms have begun to alter and be challenged as both sexes began experimenting with gender and identity through the medium of music. By looking at different music genres throughout the ages I will attempt to show how popular music has broken down social barriers and in my opinion has succeeded in challenging gender norms to a point where the perceptions of what is socially acceptable have been altered. Before delving into the world of rock and roll it is noteworthy that the music industry was like any other business, a typically male environment in which women were not expected to survive.

The music industry and specifically the Rock genre were sexually focused from the very early stages, as far back as the 40’s and 50’s. Rock music posed a question of morality and was perceived as shocking and dangerous because of its explicit sexual overtones. An example of these first steps in the scene would be Elvis whose gold, tight outfits and pelvic thrusts were considered hugely taboo yet millions of young girls, and indeed boys, idolised and fantasized about him. Rock music had a large following because of its rebellious nature and the rise of consumerism whereby it meant that teenagers could freely buy records themselves. Through this boom in consumerism and the addictive and thrilling nature of the music, rock was pushed into the mainstream of popular culture.

Glam rock emerged and was more about performance and image than previous rock music to date. The idea of androgyny and subversion of one’s gender became more and more apparent with characters such as David Bowie’s ‘Ziggy Stardust’ a controversial challenge to tradition and heterosexuality. This was in stark contrast with the indie rock scene present in Liverpool in the 1990’s where the accepted look and style was that of ‘lads off the street’ and people were violently opposed to men in flamboyant dress as they were of the strong belief that ‘real men don’t wear make-up’.

On the other end of the spectrum came about artists like K. D. Lang who dressed in boyish clothes making no attempt at femininity because of the unwanted attention it would draw to her appearance and the discomfort she felt at being objectified by her fellow musicians. Kathy Lang sang songs about a non-descript lover and often her image was portrayed so carefully in music videos that she appeared truly ambiguous with regard to her gender identity. Many influential artists partook in the gender-bending experimentation, even huge names such a Mick Jagger. Despite his macho persona and controversial opinions of women as subservient beings, his very feminine style and demeanour added a different dimension to his character. As the singer/songwriter, writing the lyrics to his songs, he is a male with masculine views but his ambiguous persona allows him to play at once the ‘titillating/submissive woman and the male perpetrator of violence’.

For women to be involved in rock music it was the common presumption that they would be background singers or maybe lead vocals however they were very rarely instrumentalists. Women were often relegated to the roles of singers which were believed required less talent than a musician playing the drums or electric guitar. The electric guitar was seen as a masculine tool. Music making, often seen as an activity that involves a large amount of technological knowledge, was assumed to be something that women could not handle, the electric guitar being a very good symbol for this. The softer tones of an acoustic guitar could be seen as feminine but it was thought that the ‘rock’n’roll’ sound of an electric guitar was too heavy and strong for a woman. The guitar was seen as ‘an extension of the male body’, a phallic symbol with which to boost their egos and therefore they were not culturally accepted as a unisex instrument.

The punk rock genre evolved in the 70’s and was considered a more ‘DIY’ form of rock. This new approach and attitude to the genre seemed to open up more space for women in the industry as it offered the opportunity to speak one’s mind and experiment with music. The ‘riot grrrl’ movement was a product of this genre and was an underground feminist punk movement by which female artists were reclaiming the word ‘girl’. Instead of following male trends in rock the grrrls wanted to create their own sound and so took inspiration from British reggae, finding a lot in common with the style of music as it relates to being an outsider. Women would hold underground shows where various female artists would perform to female audiences in an attempt to alter and undermine performance conventions. Problems that they were likely to face was that by shutting men out of their target audience and by being self proclaimed feminists, their success rates would not be particularly high as half of the market would not buy into the scene. This led to worry that the message of the movement might have been lost somewhat because men didn’t necessarily listen to what they had to express. Although most artists were self proclaimed feminists, many also refused to call themselves feminists. ‘Feminism’ seemed to come with strings attached to it, as though one had to know all the ‘rules’ and details of feminism and when dealing with a movement as rebellious as the riot grrrls, it was unlikely that they were interested in following a set of perceived rules when all they wanted at the time was anarchy. Women in the industry are rarely taken as seriously as men. Alanis Morissette was criticized for being pretentious when attempting to write clever lyrics and was accused of ‘sixth-form self-indulgence’ because she sounded like someone having ‘just discovered Philip Larkin’ whereas the Manic Street Preachers were openly praised for their intelligence when quoting Larkin in their lyrics, clear double standards at work. Women are often seen to be whining and irritating when writing of emotions in their work whilst men are the objects of our sympathies for their troubled lives, an example of this mistreatment by the press can be seen when comparing the deaths of both Polly Jean Harvey and Kurt Cobain. While Cobain was mourned as a tragedy where an authentic and honest musician was tortured and ground down by the industry and henceforth driven to his deathbed, Harvey was seen as mentally unstable because she was not strong enough to handle the business and went through typical female issues like leaving home and having a failed relationship. The triviality with which P. J. Harvey’s death was handled shows how discrimination is apparent even in death. Although the sounds of Poly Styrene and the Slits are difficult to come by in popular music of our generation, there are still constant hints of their inspiration in artists such as Lily Allen and Kate Nash who’s latest album has a track titled ‘Kiss that grrrl’.

Rap and hip-hop music holds a very different female stereotype in that women are simply sex objects that come second only to money. Although a generalisation, in the majority of male dominated music videos for the genre support this. However, that being said, there have been a fair few very successful female artists of the genre who break these stereotypes. Missy Elliot is one of the most successful female artists of the generation and along with others, her personal style and take on rap music found a way to diffuse the idea that all black women are objects of sexual desires and nothing more.

Country music is another genre shrouded with racial stereotypes but which has had a very strong female presence from an early age with the likes of Dolly Parton. However, much like rap and hip-hop, one doesn’t ever see gender bending or ambiguity within the genre. This lack of variation and sexual experimentation is due to the roots of the genres. The social conditions by which these genres are formed and enjoyed are social environments in which sexual ambiguity would be completely unacceptable.

The treatment of women in the industry by the music press is another hot topic of much debate. In June 1996, mojo produced a ‘100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time’ list where a mere three of these were women. It can be argued that as the majority of music journalism is written by males, that their interest would be in other male artists whom they admire and less so in female musicians and when women are in fact written about they are regarded primarily as ‘women’ and then as musicians instead of the other way around. It is almost as if women’s achievements in the industry are being forgotten about and sometimes seems as though the riot grrrl movement may as well have never happened. Even when women make it onto the cover of a music magazine they will more often than not be portrayed in an overtly sexual manner whereby their talent is overlooked because what is really intriguing is their femininity.

Although inequality is still rife in the music business, I think that men, as sexual human beings who are primarily stimulated by images, will always find a woman in woman’s clothes attractive in some way. To say that this is always a dismissal of the woman’s talent I find irrational as it sometimes may simply be their admiration for the female form and not personally undermining the artist at all. However, that there are still criticisms of intelligence and strength of character simply because someone is a woman I find simply intolerable and this attitude represents yet another barrier that remains intact. I feel that the popular music industry has definitely cleared the way for experimentation with gender and identity and although it was considered extremely taboo initially, the likes of La Roux and Lady GaGa today have had huge success and have been accepted without question into the industry, showing in my opinion that thanks to musicians all those decades ago, music has become a medium by which one can openly express their creativity and originality with little objection from the public.
Word Count: 1,700

Bibliography

* Sexing the Groove – popular music and gender, edited by Sheila Whitely, Routledge 1997 * Critical Readings: Media and Gender, Edited by Cynthia Carter and Linda Steiner, Maidenhead Open University Press 2004 * ‘Punk’s forgotten female heroes’ Leonie Cooper, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/aug/08/gender.arts Wednesday 8th August 2007

--------------------------------------------

[ 2 ]. Pg. 26, ‘Men making a scene’ Sarah Cohen, Sexing the Groove – popular music and gender, edited by Sheila Whitely, Routledge 1997
[ 3 ]. Pg. 29, ‘Men making a scene’ Sarah Cohen, Sexing the Groove – popular music and gender, edited by Sheila Whitely, Routledge 1997
[ 4 ]. Pg. 192, ‘K. D. Lang: from cowpunk to androgyny’ Stella Bruzzi, Sexing the Groove – popular music and gender, edited by Sheila Whitely, Routledge 1997
[ 5 ]. Pg. 95, ‘Jagger, sexuality, style and image’ Sheila Whiteley, Sexing the Groove – popular music and gender, edited by Sheila Whitely, Routledge 1997
[ 6 ]. Pg. 59, ‘(R)evolution’ Norma Coates, Sexing the Groove – popular music and gender, edited by Sheila Whitely, Routledge 1997
[ 7 ]. Pg. 43, ‘Women and the electric guitar’ Mavis Bayton, Sexing the Groove – popular music and gender, edited by Sheila Whitely, Routledge 1997
[ 8 ]. “took musical inspiration not from the 4/4 garage rock of the 1960s but from reggae music” Punk’s forgotten female heroes, Leonie Cooper, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/aug/08/gender.arts
[ 9 ]. “feminism at that time came as a set of rules and punk was about anarchy and rejecting rules” Punk’s forgotten female heroes, Leonie Cooper, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/aug/08/gender.arts
[ 10 ]. Pg. 169, ‘The great Rock and Roll Swindle’ Helen Davies, Critical Readings: Media and Gender, Edited by Cynthia Carter and Linda Steiner, Maidenhead Open University Press 2004
[ 12 ]. ‘Mojo: Greatest 100 Guitarists of All Time’ Gordon Stephen , Mojo Magazine 1996, http://www.rocklistmusic.co.uk/mojo.html
[ 13 ]. Pg. 164, ‘The great Rock and Roll Swindle’ Helen Davies, Critical Readings: Media and Gender, Edited by Cynthia Carter and Linda Steiner, Maidenhead Open University Press 2004
[ 14 ]. Pg. 166, ‘The great Rock and Roll Swindle’ Helen Davies, Critical Readings: Media and Gender, Edited by Cynthia Carter and Linda Steiner, Maidenhead Open University Press 2004

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Prose

...In: English and Literature Tess of the D'Urbervilles Male Dominance Male Dominance in Tess of the D’urbervilles The Victorian era, as described by Professor of History and Women's & Gender Studies Nancy Reagin in her essay “Victorian Women: the Gender of Oppression”, witnessed the ideology of separate spheres in which society viewed men as independent and reasonable while viewing women as passive, dependent on men, emotional, and submissive. Men were given the governing role in which they would dominate society due to their ability to make rational decisions while women were expected to unquestionably fill the social roles that men decided for them, and those roles usually revolved around a woman’s duties as a mother and a wife. In marriage, a woman was expected to abide by the orders and views of her husband, and man and wife became one in terms of a woman’s rights, property, and identity. In Tess of the D’urbervilles, a book written in the Victorian Era, Hardy conveys this ideology of separate spheres in his portrayal of men and their dominance over women in society, primarily Tess. Their dominance is shown in how the men act as the masters of society, but it is also seen in how the women in Tess unquestionably view the men as the dominant gender. Often, the women are blindly influenced and act passively when interacting with male characters such as Alec and Angel. They are also seen to be very dependent on the men, and the men acknowledge that, for that is expected of...

Words: 671 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Caribbean Studies

...CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION (CAPE) CARIBBEAN STUDIES For Self-Study and Distance Learning This material has been developed for The Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC) With assistance from The Commonwealth of Learning (COL) Copyright © 2004 CXC/COL Prepared by Dr Jennifer Mohammed Mr. Samuel Lochan Dr. Henderson Carter Dr. David Browne CARIBBEAN STUDIES TABLE OF CONTENTS Study Guide 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Titles Society, Culture and the Individual Geography, Society and Culture History, Society and Culture Cultural Diversity in Caribbean Society and Culture Impact of Societal Institutions on Caribbean People Caribbean - Global Interaction Concepts and Indicators of Development Contribution of Sports to Development in the Caribbean Regional Integration and Development Factors Promoting or Hindering Development Intellectual Traditions The Mass Media Social Justice Investigating Issues in the Caribbean Pages 1 – 21 22 – 51 52 – 87 88 – 116 117 – 146 147 – 170 171 – 187 188 – 195 196 – 207 208 –222 223 – 247 248 – 255 256 – 262 263 – 303 INTRODUCTION Purpose The Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC), in collaboration with the Commonwealth of Learning (COL), has developed Self-Study Guides for a number of Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate (CSEC) and Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination (CAPE) subjects. The main purpose of the Guides is to provide both in-school and......

Words: 10072 - Pages: 41

Premium Essay

50 Key Concepts in Gender Studies

...50 Key Concepts in Gender Studies Jane Pilcher & Imelda Whelehan Fifty Key Concepts in Gender Studies i Recent volumes include: Key Concepts in Social Research Geoff Payne and Judy Payne Key Concepts in Medical Sociology Jonathan Gabe, Mike Bury and Mary Ann Elston Forthcoming titles include: Key Concepts in Leisure Studies David Harris Key Concepts in Critical Social Theory Nick Crossley Key Concepts in Urban Studies Mark Gottdiener The SAGE Key Concepts series provide students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension. JANE PILCHER AND IMELDA WHELEHAN Fifty Key Concepts in Gender Studies SAGE Publications London • Thousand Oaks • New Delhi iii © Jane Pilcher and Imelda Whelehan 2004 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission in writing from the Publishers. SAGE Publications Ltd 1 Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP SAGE Publications Inc 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd B-42 Panchsheel Enclave Post Box 4109 New Delhi 100 017 British......

Words: 86432 - Pages: 346

Premium Essay

English 11 in Ontario

...English-E11-12 7/27/07 2:24 PM Page 1 Ministry of Education The Ontario Curriculum Grades 11 and 12 English Printed on recycled paper 07-003 ISBN 978-1-4249-4741-6 (Print) ISBN 978-1-4249-4742-3 (PDF) ISBN 978-1-4249-4743-0 (TXT) © Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2007 2007 REVISED CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 3 Secondary Schools for the Twenty-first Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Importance of Literacy, Language, and the English Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principles Underlying the English Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roles and Responsibilities in English Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE PROGRAM IN ENGLISH 3 3 4 5 9 Overview of the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Curriculum Expectations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Strands in the English Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Basic Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . ....

Words: 100005 - Pages: 401

Premium Essay

Feminism

...Declaration Concurrent registration for two or more academic awards I declare that while registered as a candidate for the research degree, I have not been registered candidate or enrolled student for another award of the University or other academic or professional institution Material submitted for another award I declare that no material contained in the thesis has been used in any other submission for an academic award and is solely my own work Signature of Candidate Type of Award School ___PhD_________________________________ ___Centre for Professional Ethics___________ 1   Abstract It was long assumed that both multiculturalism and feminism are connected to progressive movements and hence have comparable and compatible goals. However, both in academia and in popular media the critique on multiculturalism has grown and is often accompanied with arguments related to gender equality and/or feminism. According to political scientist Susan Moller Okin for example there are fundamental conflicts between our commitment to gender equality and the desire to respect the customs of minority cultures or religions. If we agree that women should not be disadvantaged because of their sex, she argues, we should not accept group rights that permit oppressive practices. Okin’s claims led to a complex and highly important debate both in academia and in public debates. The main aim of this thesis is to explore in depth the different discourses about......

Words: 97145 - Pages: 389

Free Essay

Relationships

...FROM LOVE AT FIRST SIGHT TO SOUL MATE: ROMANTIC IDEALS IN POPULAR FILMS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH YOUNG PEOPLE‘S BELIEFS ABOUT RELATIONSHIPS BY VERONICA HEFNER DISSERTATION Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Speech Communication in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2011 Urbana, Illinois Doctoral Committee: Professor Barbara J. Wilson, Chair Associate Professor John P. Caughlin Associate Professor Kristen Harrison Associate Professor Travis L. Dixon ABSTRACT Romantic comedy films have been popular since motion pictures first entered the media world. Scholars have speculated why these movies remain appealing to viewers and have argued for several reasons. These movies might foster hope about real-life romance (Galician, 2004), or demonstrate that that there are no limits to how love may manifest itself (Harvey, 1998). Despite this speculation, few studies have systematically investigated the content of these movies or the effects they may have on viewers. The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate that potential. In particular, I conducted two studies that explored the nature of romantic ideals in romantic comedy films and their influence on viewer endorsement of romantic beliefs. The first study was a content analysis of the themes or romantic ideals embedded in romantic comedies. The second study was a survey designed to explore whether exposure to......

Words: 17212 - Pages: 69

Premium Essay

Poverty Report

...Poverty in Urban America Jennifer Price Wolf Psychological Theories of Poverty Kelly Turner & Amanda Lehning An Anthropological View of Poverty Kristine Frerer & Catherine Vu Political Science Perspectives on Poverty Amanda Lehning Theories of Global Poverty in the Developed and Developing World Jennifer Morazes & Indira Pintak Part II Theory Integration and Practitioner Perspectives Social Capital and Neighborhood Poverty: Toward an Ecologically-Grounded Model of Neighborhood Effects Kathy Lemon Osterling Social Work Students’ Perceptions of Poverty Sherrill Clark The Explosive Nature of the Culture of Poverty: A Teaching Case Based on An Agency-based Training Program Catherine Vu & Michael J. Austin 2 Understanding Poverty From Multiple Social Science Perspectives Introduction This BASSC learning resource has its origins in both historical and contemporary attempts to address the complex social problem of poverty in the U.S. It grew out of a doctoral seminar and therefore most of the authors are current or former doctoral students at the School of Social Welfare, University of...

Words: 65096 - Pages: 261

Premium Essay

Miss Mitchell

...This is a protected document. Please enter your student or faculty username and password. Username: Password: Log In Need assistance logging in? Contact Technical Support. Doc ID: 1009-0001-1993-00001994 Toll Free: 877.428.8447 M-F, 6am MST or Sat-Sun, 7am-12am MST Find us on Facebook and Follow us on Twitter! F I F T H E D I T I O N An Introduction to Multicultural Education James A. Banks University of Washington, Seattle Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo ISBN 1-269-53060-7 An Introduction to Multicultural Education, Fifth Edition, by James A. Banks. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Vice President/Editorial Director: Jeffery Johnston Executive Editor: Linda Bishop Editorial Assistant: Laura Marenghi Senior Marketing Manager: Darcy Betts Production Editor: Karen Mason Production Project Manager: Elizabeth Gale Napolitano Manager, Central Design: Jayne Conte Cover Designer: Laura Gardner Cover Art: “Sea and Sky” (013) 2003 © Marvin Oliver Artist Full Service Project Manager: Niraj Bhatt, Aptara® , Inc. Composition: Aptara® , Inc. Printer/Binder/Cover Printer: Courier Westford Text Font: ITC Stone Serif Std 10/12 Text Credits: Page 11, Stiglitz excerpt: From Stiglitz, J.E. (2012). The......

Words: 78362 - Pages: 314

Free Essay

A Cursed Love

...America. 2 1 f e 0 9 d c 8 7 b a For information, write: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 75 Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116 (617-399-4000) ISBN-10: 0–312–44705–1 ISBN-13: 978–0–312–44705–2 Instructors who have adopted Rereading America, Seventh Edition, as a textbook for a course are authorized to duplicate portions of this manual for their students. Preface This isn’t really a teacher’s manual, not, at least, in the sense of a catechism of questions and correct answers and interpretations. Because the questions provided after each selection in Rereading America are meant to stimulate dialogue and debate — to generate rather than terminate discourse — they rarely lend themselves to a single appropriate response. So, while we’ll try to clarify what we had in mind when framing a few of the knottier questions, we won’t be offering you a list of “right” answers. Instead, regard this manual as your personal support group. Since the publication of the first edition, we’ve had the chance to learn from the experiences of hundreds of instructors nationwide, and we’d like to use this manual as a forum where we can share some of their concerns, suggestions, experiments, and hints. We’ll begin with a roundtable on issues you’ll probably want to address before you meet your class. In the first section of this manual, we’ll discuss approaches to Rereading America and help you to think through your class goals. We’ll examine some options for tailoring the book to fit your interests and the time......

Words: 57178 - Pages: 229

Premium Essay

Learning Style

...LSRC reference Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review This report critically reviews the literature on learning styles and examines in detail 13 of the most influential models. The report concludes that it matters fundamentally which instrument is chosen. The implications for teaching and learning in post-16 learning are serious and should be of concern to learners, teachers and trainers, managers, researchers and inspectors. Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review LSRC reference Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review LSRC reference LSRC reference Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review Frank Coffield Institute of Education University of London David Moseley University of Newcastle Elaine Hall University of Newcastle Kathryn Ecclestone University of Exeter The Learning and Skills Research Centre is supported by the Learning and Skills Council and the Department for Education and Skills The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Learning and Skills Research Centre or the Learning and Skills Development Agency Published by the Learning and Skills Research Centre www.LSRC.ac.uk Feedback should be sent to: Sally Faraday Research Manager Learning and Skills Development Agency Regent Arcade House 19–25 Argyll Street......

Words: 108874 - Pages: 436

Free Essay

Economic Geography

...advanced level, so do not offer an expansive and accessible overview of the variety of concepts in use within a subdiscipline. The Key Concepts in Human Geography series seeks to fill this gap, providing detailed description and discussion of the concepts that are at the heart of theoretical and empirical research in contemporary Human Geography. Each book consists of an introductory chapter that outlines the major conceptual developments over time along with approximately twenty-five entries on the core concepts that constitute the theoretical toolkit of geographers working within a specific subdiscipline. Each entry provides a detailed explanation of the concept, outlining contested definitions and approaches, the evolution of how the concept has been used to understand particular geographic phenomena, and suggested further reading. In so doing, each book constitutes an invaluable companion guide to geographers grappling with how to research, understand and explain the world we inhabit. Rob Kitchin Series...

Words: 94626 - Pages: 379

Premium Essay

Will Do Next Time

...Instructor’s Manual and Test Bank to accompany A First Look at Communication Theory Sixth Edition Em Griffin Wheaton College prepared by Glen McClish San Diego State University and Emily J. Langan Wheaton College Published by McGraw­Hill, an imprint of The McGraw­Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright Ó 2006,  2003, 2000, 1997, 1994, 1991 by The McGraw­Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The contents, or parts thereof, may be reproduced in print form  solely for classroom use with A First Look At Communication Theory provided such reproductions bear copyright notice, but may not be reproduced in  any other form or for any other purpose without the prior written consent of The McGraw­Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any  network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. PREFACE Rationale We agreed to produce the instructor’s manual for the sixth edition of A First Look at Communication Theory because it’s a first-rate book and because we enjoy talking and writing about pedagogy. Yet when we recall the discussions we’ve had with colleagues about instructor’s manuals over the years, two unnerving comments stick with us: “I don’t find them much help”; and (even worse) “I never look at them.” And, if the truth be told, we were often the people making such points! With these statements in mind, we have done some serious soul-searching about the texts that so many......

Words: 159106 - Pages: 637

Premium Essay

Global Political Economy

...GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND DIPLOMACY STUDENT GUIDELINE NOTES GLOBAL POLITICAL ECONOMY MODULE Paste the notes here… Political economy originally was the term for studying production, buying and selling, and their relations with law, custom, and government. Political economy originated in moral philosophy (e.g. Adam Smith was Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Glasgow), it developed in the 18th century as the study of the economies of states — polities, hence political economy. In late nineteenth century, the term "political economy" was generally replaced by the term economics, used by those seeking to place the study of economy upon mathematical and axiomatic bases, rather than the structural relationships of production and consumption (cf. marginalism, Alfred Marshall). History of the term Originally, political economy meant the study of the conditions under which production was organized in the nation-states. The phrase économie politique (translated in English as political economy) first appeared in France in 1615 with the well known book by Antoyne de Montchrétien: Traicté de l’oeconomie politique. French physiocrats, Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Karl Marx were some of the exponents of political economy. In 1805, Thomas Malthus became England's first professor of political economy, at the East India Company College, Haileybury, Hertfordshire. The world's first professorship in political economy was......

Words: 39122 - Pages: 157

Premium Essay

Learning Theory

...this book - 1 Approaching theory - 6 Slop and think: reviewing your study of literature to date - 8 My own 'stock-taking' - 9 1 Theory before 'theory' - liberal humanism - 11 The history of English studies - 11 Stop and think - 11 Ten tenets of liberal humanism - 16 Literary theorising from Aristotle to Leavis some key moments - 21 Liberal humanism in practice - 31 The transition to 'theory' - 32 Some recurrent ideas in critical theory - 34 Selected reading - 36 2 Structuralism - 39 Structuralist chickens and liberal humanist eggs Signs of the fathers - Saussure - 41 Stop and think - 45 The scope of structuralism - 46 What structuralist critics do - 49 Structuralist criticism: examples - 50 Stop and think - 53 Stop and think - 55 39 Stop and think - 57 Selected reading - 60 3 Post-structuralism and deconstruction - 61 Some theoretical differences between structuralism and post-structuralism - 61 Post-structuralism - life on a decentred planet - 65 Stop and think - 68 Structuralism and post-structuralism - some practical differences - 70 What post-structuralist critics do - 73 Deconstruction: an example - 73 Selected reading - 79 4 Postmodernism - 81 What is postmodernism? What was modernism? - 81 'Landmarks' in postmodernism: Habermas, Lyotard and Baudrillard - 85 Stop and think - 90 What postmodernist critics do - 91 Postmodernist criticism: an example - 91 Selected reading - 94 5 Psychoanalytic criticism - 96 Introduction......

Words: 98252 - Pages: 394

Premium Essay

Understanding Cross-Cultural Management

...Browaeys & Roger Price Part One CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT Concept 1.1 Facets of culture Introduction to Part One Setting the scene This introductory chapter will give an outline of the research in the field of culture and management, which in turn serves as a framework for Part One. The concept of culture Many experts in their fields have wracked their brains to come up with what they consider to be their concept of ‘culture’. Those working in the field of cultural anthropology, alone, for example, have come up with a long list of definitions of the concept, based on their analysis of ethnological, social, psychological and linguistic data. The attempt made by Bodley (1994) to summarize these (Table I.1) gives an idea of all the facets of culture that need to be taken into account from an anthropological perspective. Although acknowledging the multiplicity of cultures, the authors of this book consider that the fundamental aspect of culture is that it is something all humans learn in one way or another. It is not something people inherit, but rather a code of attitudes, norms and values, a way of thinking that is learnt within a social environment. Family, the social environment, school, friends, work – all these help to form this code and determine how people see themselves and the world. The national culture and the particular region which people live in also help to shape a person’s cultural profile. Although culture is reflected in individual......

Words: 97340 - Pages: 390