Free Essay

To What Extent and in What Ways Does Romantic Writing Engage with Gender Politics?

In: English and Literature

Submitted By charfitz
Words 2406
Pages 10
5. To what extent and in what ways does Romantic writing engage with gender politics?

The study of Literature is inherently involved with a deconstruction of the complex and textured manner in which author’s attempt to express what it is to be human. To be human is a diverging experience between the sexes, both biological and socially, and consequently the extent of gender equitability within society has always been a prevalent and contended concern. An engagement with this contention will define gender politics for this essay. Jane Austen and Mary Shelley, writing at the beginning of the nineteenth-century, joined their female contemporaries in a growing generation of authoresses who forged careers in discipline of male authority. In this respect, they are inescapably engaging with gender politics. Margaret Kirkham comments that ‘this burgeoning of the female talent...was bound to have a profound effect upon any young woman beginning to write once it had occurred’, suggesting that, regardless of whether the female intended to represent female concerns within their work; a female, in becoming ‘an author, was, in itself, a feminist act’ (Kirkham 33). With the status of the authoress in mind whilst analysing Northanger Abbey and Frankenstein, this essay will focus how Austen and Shelley engage with gender politics through characterization and narrative form, and the female concerns they address, both implicitly and explicitly, throughout their texts.

Austen predominately engages with gender politics through her protagonist Catherine. Catherine is presented as the unlikely heroine; ‘no one...would have supposed her born to be a heroine’ (Austen 3). Austen subverts the expectation of an heroine as Catherine possesses ‘feelings rather natural than heroic’, provoking a reading of Catherine as a satire of the passive, unnatural, gothic heroine. When Catherine embarks for Northanger Abbey, she hopes for an experience ‘just like what one reads about’ (Austen 138). However, Catherine is left disillusioned; her stay absent of gothic excitement. Mary Oliphant comments that Austen makes ‘the innocent ridiculous’ (Austen 209) in a parody of the gothic heroine. This is a qualified reading, however, another reading can be drawn; it is not the fact Austen makes the ‘innocent’ Catherine ‘ridiculous’ but rather, it is the men of her novel which make her seem ‘ridiculous’. The male dialogue and actions signify not Austen’s own voice but those of her male contemporaries who were quick to discredit the female status; it is this which she wished to satirize.

There are two incidents where Catherine is silenced by men. The first, by John Thorpe who leaves ‘Catherine...agreeing...with all the civility and deference of the youthful female mind, fearful of hazarding an opinion of its own in opposition to that of a self-assured man and the reader’ (Austen 33). This initially invites the reader to perceive Catherine’s naivety against Oxford educated Thorpe. However, on reflection it is the force of Thorpe’s intellectual superiority which move Catherine to silence any intelligent comment she may have to rebuke him. On a further occasion, Henry turns conversation, as soon as Catherine seems ‘so hopeful a scholar’, to politics as ‘from politics, it was an easy step to silence’ (Austen 87). These are incidences where women are denied vocalization of any gumption or intuition they might possess. The injustice of this is most evident at the novel’s climax, with revelation that ‘the General had had nothing to accuse her of’ (Austen 193); Catherine’s instincts were correct. The protagonist’s intuition leads her to see beyond a matter which Captain Tilney, pertinently male, thought concealed. This undermines male hubris; it was ‘his pride [which he] could not pardon‘ (Austen 193). Austen leaves the extent to which Catherine is an heroine up to her ‘reader’s sagacity’ (Austen 195), however, through Catherine’s subjectivity to the silence of men and in proving herself more intelligent than Captain Tilney expects, Catherine can be read as Austen’s vehicle to glorify the intelligence of women, suppressed by the authority of men.

Frankenstein follows with the absence or passivity of women set against the intellectual ambition of man. Where Shelley presents women, they serve for a purpose. This purpose, as Stephanie Haddad puts it, is ‘to serve a very specific function and impact a man’s life’ (Haddad). Drawing on examples from the novel, Elizabeth and Justine are described as ‘the beautiful and adored companion’ (Shelley 24) and a ‘most grateful little creature’ (Shelley 53), respectively. Describing Justine as a creature reflects passivity and a self-effacing view of women. These women, in turn, take the blame for the actions of men; Elizabeth, after William’s murder, ‘weeps continually and accuses herself unjustly as the cause of his death’ (Shelley 61) whilst Justine ‘do[es] not pretend that...[her] protestations should acquit [her]’ (Shelley 69). Women, where present, serve to embody unrealistic perfection reduced to objects for revenge. This engagement with gender politics, although subtle can be read as a means to ‘specifically portray the consequences of a social construction of gender which values men over women.’ Shelley’s society ‘is founded on a rigid division of sex-roles: the man inhabits the public sphere, the woman is relegated to the private or domestic sphere’ (Mellor 116). Reflecting upon Mellor, Shelley deliberately excludes women from the central narrative body and reduces her female characters to minor roles within the domestic sphere, to draw upon the consequences of neglecting the female role; seen through Frankenstein’s downfall as a result of his hubristic attempt to usurp the female role; linking directly to Shelley’s status as a female writer in the public sphere.

This corresponds to Northanger Abbey, in which, as Claudia Johnson asserts, ‘Austen proclaims the dignity of her genre as well as the authority of her own command’. Austen ‘proclaims the dignity of her genre’ (as a female author), by disproving Henry’s statement that ‘the usual style of letter-writing among women is faultless, except in three particular ways’ : ‘a general deficiency of subject, a total inattention to stops, and a very frequent ignorance of grammar’. Through a dextrously crafted conversation, Austen presents the male belief, as outlined by Richardson, ‘that a young lady should be in love, and the love of the young gentleman undeclared, is an heterodoxy which prudence, and even policy, must not allow’ (Johnson), as ridiculous. The absurdity of male attempt to govern the ‘proper’ way in which women should fall in love, is constructed by showing the futility of dictating Catherine’s feelings, which are linked to her imagination, her ‘dream[s] (Austen 16); a boundless quantity which cannot be controlled, nor suppressed by men. This point is reflected on further when Catherine’s mother perceives that her daughter is ‘fretting about General Tilney’. Austen shows a female understanding of a females mind, reflecting her own understanding of her sex. In a demonstration of grammatical understanding and ‘attention to stops’, shown in Henry’s correctly punctuated speech, Austen proceeds from this early conversation in this manner to contradict Henry. In this way, Austen proves the‘dignity of her genre’, implicitly satirising Henry’s perception of the authoress and his intellectual hubris.

Similarly, Shelley exploits the downfall met by Frankenstein, showing the consequences of usurping the female role of creating life; a maternal process reserved for women. A connection between nature and the female is weaved into the narrative which, Mellor comments, ‘shows the penalties of raping nature but also celebrates nature and in doing so celebrates women’. Looking at the sublime Alpine landscape, Shelley presents nature as female, rich in imagery of ‘omnipotent fertility beyond the control of man’ (Mellor 221). Frankenstein describes ‘the beautiful Mont Blanc, and the assemblage of snowy mountains that in vain endeavor to emulate her’, evoking a vision of Mount Blanc as a mother figure with the other mountains her offspring. This far-reaching, mountainous imagery mirrors Frankenstein’s immense ambition. Furthermore, Nature appears in correlation to Frankenstein’s sentiment. When miserable, ‘dark melancholy clouded every thought’ (Shelley 84). When delighted by his ‘nuptial embarkation’, the ‘beautiful Mount Blanc’ serves as a backdrop to frame his ‘last moments of...[his] life during which..[he] enjoyed the feeling of happiness’. Sublime nature represents the union of Frankenstein and his beloved Elizabeth; implicitly suggesting the harmonious relationship between nature and women. In usurping the female role; in transgressing against nature, Frankenstein is denied a married life with Elizabeth. Consequently, the imagery of nature in the novel shifts to darkness, with the ‘spirits of the departed seem[ing] to flit around and to cast a shadow’ (Shelley 182) on the rest of Frankenstein’s life.

In undermining Henry, who exerts himself as an authoritative male, Austen is proving ‘the authority of her own command’. Henry states, there being ‘a general deficiency of subject’ in authoress’ genre which, in fact, highlights Henry’s deficient ability to comprehend the depth of the authoress’ capability, as Austen’s novel can be proved sufficient in subject. When the book was reviewed anonymously in 1818, a critic censured that ‘in imagination...she appears to have been extremely deficient; not only her stories are utterly and entirely devoid of invention..She seems to be describing such people as meet together each night’ (Austen 209). This reflects a perfunctory reading of Austen, in which the ‘tenor of...life in Bath’, ‘The civilities and compliments of everyday’, and ‘various dressed to be remembered’ (Austen 14) shown in the quotidian activities and conversation of Catherine’s visit to bath, are seen as an adequate summary of the novel. However, this is only the frame of Northanger Abbey; the frame which allows a complex argument such as this to synthesize into a satirization of male figures who discredited the ability of female writers and attempted to govern the way women fell in love. The fact Tilney only sees the fantastical semblance of female writers, which he perceives to lack consequential meaning, reduces the exact intellectual superiority he exerts such opinions with and disproves critical claims that Austen was merely ‘an homely songbird, unconscious of her art’ (Johnston 4). Austen’s shows men as ‘not...always superior in his judgements’ (Kirkham.88). In doing so, Austen consciously addresses male prejudice towards the authoress, a female concern, operating beneath the veil of a frivolous, Bath society.

Frankenstein exemplifies a male ‘not...always superior in his judgements’, as his hubris allows him to misjudge his ability to usurp nature and the female role. Shelley sets up a stark contrast between the narrative of Frankenstein and the passivity of women, to show the tyranny of man against nature. Although men dominate, the text is deeply concerned with female concerns. In a series of narrative pregnancies which fold out from one another, at the source is Mary Saville, a female. Regarding the initials of ‘M’ and ‘S’, those of Mary Shelley, the reader is implicitly reminded that a female is at the heart of this male weighted account. The autobiographical element of the Shelley’s work continues generating a reading that Frankenstein’s hysteria of ‘breathless horror and disgust [which] filled... [his] heart’ (Shelley 86), after he creates the monster,reflects the trauma of post-natal depression. Sussman comments, Shelley was ‘not a secure mother’ and notes how the novel is not focused upon ‘what precedes birth, not upon birth itself, but upon what follows birth: the trauma of the afterbirth’ (Sussman 81). In this respect, Shelley ‘had indeed written as a woman, about women’s concern’ (Sussman 164), which encourages the reading that Frankenstein, although capable of a purely gothic reading, is deeply concerned with female creation and, in this respect, the importance and relevance of the authoress to vocalize female concerns in the public sphere. QUOTE

In conclusion, Austen and Shelley can be seen to significantly engage with gender politics, not only in their status as authoresses but in the way they vocalize female concerns. An interesting parallel can be drawn between the texts; Catherine’s view of history ‘with men all so good for nothing, and hardly any women at all’ (Austen 85), reflects the male dominance of Shelley’s narrative. Both writers, highlight the importance of women. Shelley shows the grave consequences for Frankenstein in usurping the female role, and equally presents a male psyche in ‘a hell of intense tortures’, which suggests that the wild imagination of the gothic heroine is not exclusively reserved to women. In a similar way, Henry is enlightened by the ‘natural rather than heroic’ qualities possessed by Catherine as he is described to ‘blush... for the narrow- minded counsel which he was obliged to expose’ at the novel’s end. Furthermore, Henry needs Catherine to be an hero as much as she needs him to be an heroine, as her naivety serves to be an attractive quality which facilitates Henry to seem intellectually superior and act as an enlightening hero. Mary Poovey comments upon the strategies that enabled women either to conceive themselves... to express themselves in a code capable of being read in two ways: an acquiescence to the norm and as a departure from it (Austen 207). These ‘strategies’ are shown by Shelley and Austen through characterization, narrative arrangement and most crucially the levels of meaning which operate to allow a basic, entertaining reading to come through their texts whilst simultaneously, implicitly engaging with the broader, contemporary gender politics which concerned their sex.

Bibliography

Austen, Jane, Northanger Abbey (London: Orion Publishing Group, 1996)

Gerster, Carole, Rereading Jane Austen: Dialogic Feminism in Northanger Abbey in A Companion to Jane Austen Studies (London: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000) pp. 115- 130

Johnson, Samuel, in Number 97, Tuesday, February 19, 1751 of The Rambler (Longman, 1793) pp. 252-59

Johnston, Claudia, Jane Austen: Women, Politics and the Novel (Chicago and London: Chicago University Press, 1988)

Keller, James R. Austen’s Northanger Abbey: A Bibliographic Study in A Companion to Jane Austen Studies (London: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000) pp. 131

Kirkham, Margaret, Jane Austen: Feminism and Fiction (Brighton: Harvester, 1983)

Mellor, Anne K, Mary Shelley: Her Life, Her Fiction, Her Monsters (New York: Methuen, 1988), pp. 115-26

Poovey, Mary, The Proper Lady and the Woman Write: Ideology as Style in the Works of Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary Shelley, and Jane Austen (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984)

Shelley, Mary, Frankenstein, (London: Harper Press, 2010)

Websites

Sussman, Charlotte, Daughter of the Revolution: Mary Shelley in Our Times in Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1, Women Writers of the Eighteenth Century (Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, Spring/Summer 2004), pp. 158-186
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27793781 accessed: 17/11/13

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Write an Essay Exploring How Kureishi’s Novel Maps Englishness as a Contested Terrain of Identities, Politics and Performance. Your Discussion Should Refer to Stuart Hall’s Work on Ethnicities and on Judith Butler’s

...always wogs and nigs and Pakis and the rest of it”. Write an essay exploring how Kureishi’s novel maps Englishness as a contested terrain of identities, politics and performance. Your discussion should refer to Stuart Hall’s work on ethnicities and on Judith Butler’s writing on performance as identity. Much of the Kureishi’s early work is grounded primarily in racial and cultural conflict between British mainstream culture and ethnic minority communities; the conflict between the cultural claims that the first-generation immigrants were prone to clinging onto and the sense of belonging, which they their children aspired to develop in mainstream British society. To the children of immigrants, particularly those who had migrated from British Commonwealth or ex-colonized countries, any reflection on Britain, or their parents’ homeland, in terms of “home” may differ significantly from that perceived by their parents. As a writer born and bred in Britain of a Pakistani father and an English mother, Kureishi reflects upon his own identity, affirming in an interview his own sense of identity be seeing himself as British: “Critics have written that I’m caught between two cultures. I’m not. I’m British; I’ve made it in England. It’s my father who’s caught. He can’t make it. Elsewhere he proclaims his British identity in a similar way: I’m British, as wrote in The Rainbow Sign. Just like Karim in the Buddha. But being British is a new thing now. It involves people with......

Words: 3962 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Paper

...EVERYBODY Passionate Politics bell hooks South End Press Cambridge, MA CONTENTS Copyright © 2000 by Gloria Watkins Cover design by Ellen P. Shapiro Cover illustration by Laura DeSantis, © Artville Any properly footnoted quotation of up to 500 sequential words may be used without permission, as long as the total number of words quoted does not exceed 2,000. For longer quotations or for a greater number of total words, please write to South End Press for permission. INTRODUCTION Come Closer to Feminism 1. 2. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hooks, Bell. Feminism is for everybody: passionate politics / Bell Hooks. p.cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-89608-629-1 - ISBN 0-89608-628-3 (pbk.) 1. Feminist theory. 2. Feminism - Philosophy. 3. Feminism Political aspects. 4. Sex discrimination against women. 1. Title. FEMINIST POLITICS Where We Stand 1 CONSCIOUSNESS-RAISING A Constant Change of Heart 7 3. SISI:ERHOOD IS STILL POWERFUL 4. Vll 13 00-036589 South End Press, 7 Brookline Street, #1, Cambridge, MA 02139 06 05 04 7 8 9 Printed in Canada 19 OUR BODIES, OURSELVES Reproductive Rights 25 6. HQl190 .H67 2000 305.42'01 - dc21 FEMINIST EDUCATION FOR CRITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS BEAUTY WITHIN AND WITHOUT 31 7. FEMINIST CLASS STRUGGLE 37 8. GLOBAL FEMINISM 44 5. 9. WOMEN AT WORI( 48 10. RACE AND GENDER 55 11. ENDING......

Words: 37459 - Pages: 150

Free Essay

Sire

...of the Sri Lankan government’s violations of human rights during the country’s period of acute civil war. Yet, by the end of the novel, Anil has lost the evidence that could have indicted the government and is forced to leave the country, carrying with her a feeling of guilt for her unwitting complicity in Sarath’s death. On one hand, Anil certainly embodies an ethical (albeit rather schematic) critique of the failure of global justice. On the other, her character stages diaspora, in Vijay Mishra terms, as the “normative” and “ exemplary … condition of late modernity” (“Diasporic” 441) — a condition usually associated with the figure of the nomad rather than the diasporic subject — and thus raises questions about the novel’s regulatory politics of diasporic identity. In contrast, Anita Rau Badani’s The Hero’s Walk represents the formation of diasporic identities as an empowering process shaped by multiple changes on the local level rather than by transnational mobility. Set in a fictive seaside town in...

Words: 12618 - Pages: 51

Premium Essay

50 Key Concepts in Gender Studies

...50 Key Concepts in Gender Studies Jane Pilcher & Imelda Whelehan Fifty Key Concepts in Gender Studies i Recent volumes include: Key Concepts in Social Research Geoff Payne and Judy Payne Key Concepts in Medical Sociology Jonathan Gabe, Mike Bury and Mary Ann Elston Forthcoming titles include: Key Concepts in Leisure Studies David Harris Key Concepts in Critical Social Theory Nick Crossley Key Concepts in Urban Studies Mark Gottdiener The SAGE Key Concepts series provide students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension. JANE PILCHER AND IMELDA WHELEHAN Fifty Key Concepts in Gender Studies SAGE Publications London • Thousand Oaks • New Delhi iii © Jane Pilcher and Imelda Whelehan 2004 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission in writing from the Publishers. SAGE Publications Ltd 1 Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP SAGE Publications Inc 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd B-42 Panchsheel Enclave Post Box 4109 New Delhi 100 017 British......

Words: 86432 - Pages: 346

Premium Essay

Cyrus the Great

...critical theory today critical theory today A Us e r - F r i e n d l y G u i d e S E C O N D E D I T I O N L O I S T Y S O N New York London Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business Routledge Taylor & Francis Group 270 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10016 Routledge Taylor & Francis Group 2 Park Square Milton Park, Abingdon Oxon OX14 4RN © 2006 by Lois Tyson Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business Printed in the United States of America on acid‑free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number‑10: 0‑415‑97410‑0 (Softcover) 0‑415‑97409‑7 (Hardcover) International Standard Book Number‑13: 978‑0‑415‑97410‑3 (Softcover) 978‑0‑415‑97409‑7 (Hardcover) No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging‑in‑Publication Data Tyson, Lois, 1950‑ Critical theory today : a user‑friendly guide / Lois Tyson.‑‑ 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0‑415‑97409‑7 (hb) ‑‑ ISBN 0‑415‑97410‑0 (pb) 1.......

Words: 221284 - Pages: 886

Premium Essay

Ir Theories

...Burchill 2001, Scott Burchill and Andrew Linklater 2005 Chapter 2 © Jack Donnelly 2005 Chapter 3 © Scott Burchill, Chapters 4 and 5 © Andrew Linklater, Chapters 6 and 7 © Richard Devetak, Chapter 8 © Christian Reus-Smit, Chapter 9 © Jacqui True, Chapter 10 © Matthew Paterson 2001, 2005 All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No paragraph of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP. Any person who does any unauthorized act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. The authors have asserted their rights to be identified as the authors of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. First edition 1996 Second edition 2001 Published 2005 by PALGRAVE MACMILLAN Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS and 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10010 Companies and representatives throughout the world. PALGRAVE MACMILLAN is the global academic imprint of the Palgrave Macmillan division of St. Martin’s Press, LLC and of Palgrave Macmillan Ltd....

Words: 132890 - Pages: 532

Premium Essay

The Rise of the Tale

...BRITISH SHORT FICTION IN THE EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY This page intentionally left blank British Short Fiction in the Early Nineteenth Century The Rise of the Tale TIM KILLICK Cardiff University, UK © Tim Killick 2008 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher. Tim Killick has asserted his moral right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as the author of this work. Published by Ashgate Publishing Limited Gower House Croft Road Aldershot Hampshire GU11 3HR England Ashgate Publishing Company Suite 420 101 Cherry Street Burlington, VT 05401-4405 USA www.ashgate.com British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Killick, Tim British short fiction in the early nineteenth century : the rise of the tale 1. Short stories, English – History and criticism 2. English fiction – 19th century – History and criticism 3. Short story 4. Literary form – History – 19th century I. Title 823’.0109 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Killick, Tim. British short fiction in the early nineteenth century : the rise of the tale / by Tim Killick. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-7546-6413-0 (alk. paper) 1. Short stories, English—History and criticism. 2. English fiction—19th...

Words: 98420 - Pages: 394

Premium Essay

British Short Fictions

...BRITISH SHORT FICTION IN THE EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY This page intentionally left blank British Short Fiction in the Early Nineteenth Century The Rise of the Tale TIM KILLICK Cardiff University, UK © Tim Killick 2008 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher. Tim Killick has asserted his moral right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as the author of this work. Published by Ashgate Publishing Limited Gower House Croft Road Aldershot Hampshire GU11 3HR England Ashgate Publishing Company Suite 420 101 Cherry Street Burlington, VT 05401-4405 USA www.ashgate.com British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Killick, Tim British short fiction in the early nineteenth century : the rise of the tale 1. Short stories, English – History and criticism 2. English fiction – 19th century – History and criticism 3. Short story 4. Literary form – History – 19th century I. Title 823’.0109 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Killick, Tim. British short fiction in the early nineteenth century : the rise of the tale / by Tim Killick. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-7546-6413-0 (alk. paper) 1. Short stories, English—History and criticism. 2. English fiction—19th...

Words: 98420 - Pages: 394

Free Essay

Literary Theory

...Very Short Introduction ‘Jonathan Culler has always been about the best person around at explaining literary theory without oversimplifying it or treating it with polemical bias. Literary Theory: A Very Short Introduction is an exemplary work in this genre.’ J. Hillis Miller, University of California, Irvine ‘An impressive and engaging feat of condensation . . . the avoidance of the usual plod through schools and approaches allows the reader to get straight to the heart of the crucial issue for many students, which is: why are they studying literary theory in the first place? . . . an engaging and lively book.’ Patricia Waugh, University of Durham Very Short Introductions are for anyone wanting a stimulating and accessible way in to a new subject. They are written by experts, and have been published in 15 languages worldwide. Very Short Introductions available from Oxford Paperbacks: ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY Julia Annas THE ANGLO-SAXON AGE John Blair ARCHAEOLOGY Paul Bahn ARISTOTLE Jonathan Barnes Augustine Henry Chadwick THE BIBLE John Riches Buddha Michael Carrithers BUDDHISM Damien Keown CLASSICS Mary Beard and John Henderson Continental Philosophy Simon Critchley Darwin Jonathan Howard DESCARTES Tom Sorell EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY BRITAIN Paul Langford The European Union John Pinder Freud Anthony Storr Galileo Stillman Drake Gandhi Bhikhu Parekh HEIDEGGER Michael Inwood HINDUISM Kim Knott HISTORY John H. Arnold HUME A. J. Ayer Indian......

Words: 45107 - Pages: 181

Premium Essay

Marxist

...BRITISH SHORT FICTION IN THE EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY This page intentionally left blank British Short Fiction in the Early Nineteenth Century The Rise of the Tale TIM KILLICK Cardiff University, UK © Tim Killick 2008 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher. Tim Killick has asserted his moral right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as the author of this work. Published by Ashgate Publishing Limited Gower House Croft Road Aldershot Hampshire GU11 3HR England Ashgate Publishing Company Suite 420 101 Cherry Street Burlington, VT 05401-4405 USA www.ashgate.com British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Killick, Tim British short fiction in the early nineteenth century : the rise of the tale 1. Short stories, English – History and criticism 2. English fiction – 19th century – History and criticism 3. Short story 4. Literary form – History – 19th century I. Title 823’.0109 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Killick, Tim. British short fiction in the early nineteenth century : the rise of the tale / by Tim Killick. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-7546-6413-0 (alk. paper) 1. Short stories, English—History and criticism. 2. English fiction—19th...

Words: 98420 - Pages: 394

Premium Essay

Film Essay

...THE RULES OF THE GAME: NOUVELLE EDITION FRANCAISE/THE KOBAL COLLECTION DEEP FOCUS CANON FODDER As the sun finally sets on the century of cinema, by what criteria do we determine its masterworks? BY PAU L SC H RA D E R Top guns (and dogs): the #1 The Rules of the Game September-October 2006 FILM COMMENT 33 Sunrise PREFACE THE BOOK I DIDN’T WRITE I n march 2003 i was having dinner in london with Faber and Faber’s editor of film books, Walter Donohue, and several others when the conversation turned to the current state of film criticism and lack of knowledge of film history in general. I remarked on a former assistant who, when told to look up Montgomery Clift, returned some minutes later asking, “Where is that?” I replied that I thought it was in the Hollywood Hills, and he returned to his search engine. Yes, we agreed, there are too many films, too much history, for today’s student to master. “Someone should write a film version of Harold Bloom’s The Western Canon,” a writer from The Independent suggested, and “the person who should write it,” he said, looking at me, “is you.” I looked to Walter, who replied, “If you write it, I’ll publish it.” And the die was cast. Faber offered a contract, and I set to work. Following the Bloom model I decided it should be an elitist canon, not populist, raising the bar so high that only a handful of films would pass over. I proceeded to compile a list of essential films, attempting, as best I could,......

Words: 11026 - Pages: 45

Free Essay

Literature

...Delhi Florence Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Mumbai Nairobi Paris São Paulo Shanghai Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto Warsaw with associated companies in Berlin Ibadan Oxford is a registered trade mark of Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries Published in the United States by Oxford University Press Inc., New York © Jonathan Culler 1997 The moral rights of the author have been asserted Database right Oxford University Press (maker) First published as an Oxford University Press paperback 1997 Reissued 2000 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by...

Words: 44695 - Pages: 179

Free Essay

Communication in Our Lives

...duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Licensed to: iChapters User This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for materials in your areas of interest. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional...

Words: 58631 - Pages: 235

Premium Essay

Gooh

... Northwestern University; 2Texas A&M University; 3University of California, Los Angeles; University of Rochester; and 5Illinois State University 4 Summary Online dating sites frequently claim that they have fundamentally altered the dating landscape for the better. This article employs psychological science to examine (a) whether online dating is fundamentally different from conventional offline dating and (b) whether online dating promotes better romantic outcomes than conventional offline dating. The answer to the first question (uniqueness) is yes, and the answer to the second question (superiority) is yes and no. To understand how online dating fundamentally differs from conventional offline dating and the circumstances under which online dating promotes better romantic outcomes than conventional offline dating, we consider the three major services online dating sites offer: access, communication, and matching. Access refers to users’ exposure to and opportunity to evaluate potential romantic partners they are otherwise unlikely to encounter. Communication refers to users’ opportunity to use various forms of computer-mediated communication (CMC) to interact with specific potential partners through the dating site before meeting face-to-face. Matching refers to a site’s use of a mathematical algorithm to select potential partners for users. Regarding the uniqueness question,...

Words: 59050 - Pages: 237

Free Essay

A Cursed Love

...America. 2 1 f e 0 9 d c 8 7 b a For information, write: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 75 Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116 (617-399-4000) ISBN-10: 0–312–44705–1 ISBN-13: 978–0–312–44705–2 Instructors who have adopted Rereading America, Seventh Edition, as a textbook for a course are authorized to duplicate portions of this manual for their students. Preface This isn’t really a teacher’s manual, not, at least, in the sense of a catechism of questions and correct answers and interpretations. Because the questions provided after each selection in Rereading America are meant to stimulate dialogue and debate — to generate rather than terminate discourse — they rarely lend themselves to a single appropriate response. So, while we’ll try to clarify what we had in mind when framing a few of the knottier questions, we won’t be offering you a list of “right” answers. Instead, regard this manual as your personal support group. Since the publication of the first edition, we’ve had the chance to learn from the experiences of hundreds of instructors nationwide, and we’d like to use this manual as a forum where we can share some of their concerns, suggestions, experiments, and hints. We’ll begin with a roundtable on issues you’ll probably want to address before you meet your class. In the first section of this manual, we’ll discuss approaches to Rereading America and help you to think through your class goals. We’ll examine some options for tailoring the book to fit your interests and the time......

Words: 57178 - Pages: 229