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Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research http://jht.sagepub.com/ A World Ranking of the Top 100 Hospitality and Tourism Programs
Denver E. Severt, Dana V. Tesone, Timothy J. Bottorff and Monica L. Carpenter Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research 2009 33: 451 DOI: 10.1177/1096348009344210 The online version of this article can be found at: http://jht.sagepub.com/content/33/4/451

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A WORLD RANKING OF THE TOP 100 HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM PROGRAMS
Denver E. Severt Dana V. Tesone Timothy J. Bottorff Monica L. Carpenter University of Central Florida
The article provides an analysis of scholarly contributions to 11 hospitality and tourism refereed journals for the years 2002 to 2006. It presents the top 100 programs as ranked by instances of publications across 11 journals for a recent 5-year period. For the 5-year period, results indicate The Hong Kong Polytechnic University in the top position based on sums of instances, authors, and articles. Second, the researchers updated, modified, and extended a previous study published by the Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research for similar information for the years 1992 to 2001. Following the update, an additional 15-year aggregate snapshot of research output for top producing institutions provided a top 18 over the last 15-year period. Next, researchers provide an updated analysis by contribution and world region among the specific journals with results indicating a large growth in the number of articles produced in Asia going from 6% of all publications over the earlier 10-year period from 1992 through 2001 to nearly 15% of published articles over the past 5-year period from 2002 through 2006. The article concludes with suggestions for the extension of similar studies and provides implications for hospitality and tourism educators. KEYWORDS: universities; hospitality journals; tourism journals; publications

The perceptual status of departments, programs, schools, and colleges within universities is based to some extent on the ability of affiliated researchers to create and disseminate new knowledge (Treischmann, Dennis, Northcraft, & Niemi, 2000). Academic excellence is a term associated with many programs and departments of institutions that are recognized as possessing high-quality research output (e.g., Neary, Mirrlees, & Tirole, 2003). By and large, institutional ranking for specific programs is typically determined by national and international research publication records (Arpan, Raney, & Zivnuska, 2003). Faculty members within these institutions often manage their research productivity independently with minimal guidance from institutional administrators (Bowen, 2005). The rankings based on research records and the independence associated with the research agenda is no exception for programs of hospitality and tourism management.
Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, Vol. 33, No. 4, November 2009, 451-470 DOI: 10.1177/1096348009344210 © 2009 International Council on Hotel, Restaurant and Institutional Education
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Pressure often accompanies a research stream. Embedded in this pressure are expectations that the researcher used sound methodologies, employed rigorous statistical testing, helped with the creation of theory and/or supported or refined current theories, and, finally, studied areas considered important to the respective research specialization of each faculty. Additionally, most tenure granting institutions set a goal for expectations regarding research output. Beginning tenure-track researchers might seek or be granted institutional support to assist in the development of a narrowly focused research stream. Tenured professors seem to independently evolve toward more pragmatic insights used to investigate and solve problems (Bolton & Stolcis, 2003). For these reasons, pretenured professors commonly experience pressure to produce quality research streams as the means of attaining career security and progression (Cheng, Chan, & Chan, 2003). Thus, the measurement of output across time by institutions and by various journals becomes an important activity for understanding contributions to knowledge as well as for various ranking reports that are produced for purposes of comparing programs and institutions. Because of the importance of monitoring research progression, this article presents a 5-year snapshot (2002-2006) of research contributions to 11 prominent hospitality and tourism journals. The snapshot is based on a blend of journals including hospitality journals, tourism journals, and journals with an international focus. Based on this and because a previous study was being extended, the following journals were chosen for the analysis. The journals include The Annals of Tourism Research (Annals), The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly (CHRAQ), The Florida International University Hospitality Review (FIUHR), The International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management (IJCHM), The International Journal of Hospitality Management (IJHM), The Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing (JHLM), The Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Education (JHTE), The Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research (JHTR), The Journal of Travel Research (JTR), The Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing (JTTM), and The Journal of Tourism Management (TM). The editors, affiliations, and abbreviations for those journals are included in Table 1. The information presented represents the editors in place during the 2002 to 2006 time period analyzed in this article. The primary method used in the study involves aggregating research instances or a counting method to identify differences between institutions by contributions. The highlights are provided regarding output by institution in article instances, number of articles, number of contributing authors, and world region. These are further classified according to a ranking of the top 100 hospitality and tourism management programs for 2002 to 2006, a world ranking of the top 20 programs classified by journal for 2002 to 2006, contributions by world regions classified by journal for 2002 to 2006, and a top 18 hospitality and tourism management programs for the years from 1992 to 2006. This and other reports concerning research contributions of any grouping of journals provide insights to current levels of scholarly activities within the hospitality and tourism disciplines. It also provides various frames of references (e.g., across time, by journal
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Table 1 Hospitality and Tourism Journals Used in the Analysis Abbreviation Annals CHRAQ FIUHR IJHM IJCHM Journal Name Annals of Tourism Research Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly Florida International University Hospitality Review International Journal of Hospitality Management International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Education Journal of Hospitality &Tourism Research Journal of Travel Research Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing Tourism Management Editor and Affiliation Jafar Jafari, University of Wisconsin, Stout Linda Canina, Cornell University Marcel Escoffier, Florida International University Abraham Pizam, University of Central Florida Richard Teare, Global University for Lifeline Learning Bonnie Knutson, Michigan State University Linda O’Shea, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Kaye Chon, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Richard Perdue, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Kaye Chon, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Chris Ryan, University of Waikato

JHLM JHTE JHTR JTR JTTM TM

Note: The editors represented here were the editors during the period 2002 to 2006. Since then, there have been several changes in editors and/or titles of some of the journals.

type, and by region) allowing leadership to compare their research output with the output of other universities with similar and different types of weighting systems for teaching, research, and service activity. Finally, this research article focuses completely on research output in the journals mentioned. First, the article presents the top 100 programs by instances also reporting total authors by institution. Second, the article serves as an update and an extension to a former JHTR study by Jogaratnam, McCleary, Mena, and Yoo (2005), which featured an examination of the contributions to the same journals by academic institutions during the period starting from the year 1992 through the year 2001. In addition to adding the top 100 universities and updating portions of the information, since Jogaratnam, McCleary, et al. (2005), the researchers highlight significant changes in current 5-year trends as compared with the former 10-year period previously reported.
LITERATURE REVIEW

A number of content analyses with varying themes were published during the 1980s and 1990s. Dann, Nash, and Pearce (1988) focused on articles in Annals of Tourism Research and the Journal of Leisure Research reviewing publications
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over the period of 1974 to 1986. Chon, Evans, and Sutherlin (1989) presented interesting findings concerning publications among four hospitality journals (CHRAQ, JHTR, IJHM, and FIUHR). Reid and Andereck (1989) provided a content analysis of publications within three tourism journals (JTR, Annals, and TM). A later study reviewed publications found within five leading hospitality journals (Crawford-Welch & McCleary, 1992), which was later replicated by Baloglu and Assante (1999), showing that there was an increase in the use of multivariate statistics from earlier research. Other studies presented findings among either tourism or hospitality publications (Hing & Dimmock, 1997). These studies, though similar to this one, were focused on a fewer number of selected journals. The narrow scope of earlier studies may have been reflective of the limited number of existing hospitality and tourism journals during those years. There has certainly been a recent proliferation of additional academic journals in the field in more recent years. Some report the existence of between 60 and 90 possible journals related to tourism, hospitality, and business as publication avenues for hospitality and tourism research. Though the scope has broadened from previous studies, the authors acknowledge the multiple outlets for publication and refrain from making sweeping generalizations related to total publication records. This keeps the focus of this article and the subsequent rankings on only the 11 journals analyzed. Some content analysis studies report findings that focus on a single publication, usually a commonly known premier journal such as Annals (e.g., Xiao & Smith, 2006). The obvious limitation to single publication studies involves the exclusion of other tourism research outlets. Other studies presented analyses of research activities across a limited number of tourism journals (e.g., Annals, JTR, and TM) during the 1980s (Sheldon, 1991; Sheldon & Collison, 1990). Although the aforementioned studies provided findings representative of a broader range of publication outlets, the exclusive focus on tourism journals fails to account for productivity on the part of hospitality researchers. Certain hospitality researchers conduct studies directly related to hotel, restaurant, airline, resort, spa, and casino operations (Sturman, 2005). For others, the primary focus concerns traditional business disciplines, such as finance, marketing, and human resource management. The latter group of researchers would be more likely to publish in both hospitality and nonhospitality refereed journals (Schmidgall & Woods, 1993). It has been suggested that content analysis research should consider broader ranges of publication outlets to account for the varied venues of hospitality researchers (Roberts & Shea, 2005). The readership of certain hospitality journals includes practitioners and academics (Newman, Escoffier, & Kay, 2001). It has been reported that a number of educators and students frequently review the hospitality literature to acquire information concerning lectures, student assignments, research information, and professional development (Schmidgall & Woods, 1996). Research contributions to the content analysis literature appear to focus on quality and quantity related issues. Furthermore, many departments or programs are mixed between researchers
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espousing specialties in hospitality and tourism. This enhances the relevance for reviews including hospitality, tourism, and journals with varied content including studies in hospitality and tourism. Researchers have advocated citation analysis as a method to determine both quantity and quality of publications (Woods & Schmidgall, 1995). The quantitative aspect appears in the number of times authors are cited in later contributions to the literature. Weaver and McCleary (1989) conducted a citation analysis of academic contributors from 1983 through 1987 across four journals. In 1990, Weaver, McCleary, and Farrar revisited this topic, extending the former analysis to include the period between the years 1983 and 1988. Additionally, Weaver, Wilson, and McCleary (1990) examined the publication activity of the association members from the Academy of Marketing Science, the American Marketing Association, and Southern Marketing Association. This study was an extension of a previous study conducted by McCleary and Weaver (1987) providing a different viewpoint because many university faculty members are regularly involved in professional associations. Rutherford and Samenfink (1992) conducted a citation analysis from 1989 through 1999 reporting education’s most influential scholars among five major journals (CHRAQ, FIUHR, HRJ, JHRM, and JHTE). Woods and Schmidgall (2001) conducted an update and extension of the citation analysis by Weaver, McCleary, et al. (1990) covering the period of years from 1989 through 1999. In a later study, Rutherford and Samenfink (2002a) conducted a 10-year update to their citation analysis of the most influential scholars from hospitality and tourism education published in four journals (CHRAQ, FIUHR, IJHM, and JHTR). However, these previous studies did not include tourism journals (e.g., Annals, TM, and JTTM). A citation study combined hospitality and tourism journals and concluded that little cross-citing existed between highly ranked hospitality (IJHM, CHRAQ, and JHTR) and highly ranked tourism journals (Annals, JTR, and TM). The article further concluded that more outside of both industry citing occurred than any other type of citing (Howey, Savage, Vergeeten, & Van Hoof, 1999). The qualitative aspect is founded on the argument that suggests that higher quality works will be cited more frequently. In this sense, prominence is noted as those authors whose work is cited by other scholars in the production of new research. Also, journals with higher rankings tend to become more available within academic databases and are more commonly accessed in citation indices. Finally, studies conducting citation analysis still warn about the possible misinterpretations that can come from these studies adding to our argument for a variety of multimethod rankings and ratings to be performed (Jamal, Smith, & Watson, 2007). During the 12th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism (2007) held in Houston, Texas, Dr. Kaye Chon, editor of multiple journals (e.g., JHTR, JTTM) in the hospitality and tourism field, shared helpful tips for graduate students regarding the publication of work. Dr. Chon further discussed the evolvement of current journals and provided his opinion on the current top tier journals. According to Dr. Chon, the top-tier journals include IJHM, JHTR, TM, and Annals. Hence, various ranking
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processes of journals have become the concern of contributors to the literature because journals that are more available in databases may be available to a broader range of readership. These are more likely to be found and more likely to be cited than journals that are not as accessible. As suggested, there are many different beliefs regarding publications and scholarly activity. One study reported that 37% of Council of Hotel Restaurant Institutional Education respondents (program directors) admitted to the hierarchical rankings of refereed journals within their institutions (Ferreira, DeFranco, & Rappole, 1994). It has been suggested that ranking studies could differentiate classification according to pure research journals and applied management journals (Roberts & Shea, 2005). Others contended that journals should be rated on readership frequency, scientific and practical relevance, and overall reputation among academics (Pechlaner, Zehrer, Matzler, & Abfalter, 2004). Another assertion prescribed rigorous and sophisticated quantitative research as the primary quality measurement of hospitality journals (Crawford-Welch & McCleary, 1992). There has been some criticism of publication counting methods being used to report research productivity. Some researchers contend that counting methods are too subjective in terms of journal selection, timeframes, and sampling procedures (Losekoot, Verginis, & Wood, 2001). However, the publication counting method has been frequently used to measure research quality and quantity (Wood, 1995). The publication counting method remains a standard practice within academic institutions as many times the counting of articles is done to add objectivity to the documents disclosing requirements for tenure and promotion of faculty. Although healthy and professionally cynical debate surrounding the best methods for assessing research output of institutions continue, many studies employ publication counting or frequency methods to measure the quantity of contributions. Finally, to overcome a portion of the quality argument, these journals are all blind reviewed securing the fact that the work meets the minimum criteria of each representative editorial review board associated with each particular journal. Researchers using the counting method to report publication frequencies may ameliorate limitations by expanding the number of selected journals and by providing data on varied timeframes. For this reason, the authors chose to review 11 journals over a period of 5 recent years, which updates and extends the recently published article by Jogaratnam, McCleary, et al. (2005) in the Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. This update also allows for the selection of the top 100 programs according to instances in these journals. Though many general hospitality and tourism reviews have been published, none have included recent activities that provide current information concerning the 11 journals noted in this study.
METHOD

A counting or frequency method was employed to develop a recent 5-year snapshot and to provide data that are comparable with the previously mentioned
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article (Jogaratnam, McCleary, et al., 2005) Researchers used a database manager with Microsoft Office Excel. They counted and recorded all the necessary information into a database. One researcher coded or entered the articles by journal into the database and another researcher verified the accuracy of the process by reentering the data. Once the data were entered, the researchers started the counting process for instances, authors, and institutions. Two researchers were in charge of a database. When the tables were constructed these researchers compared data from their respective databases. When inconsistencies existed, the researchers recounted the area for inconsistencies (i.e., recounting where inconsistencies were uncovered) until the database was deemed accurate. The third reviewer provided oversight to the steps of the two researchers who were constructing the database as a further check for accuracy in logic and reason. The reviewed journals are refereed and have more than 10 volumes of publishing history. The general hospitality journals included CHRAQ, FIUHR, JHLM, and JHTR. The travel and tourism journals included Annals, JTR, and TM. A final group of journals was added to enhance breadth and international viewpoints also replicating the logic of the previous study (Jogaratnam, McCleary, et al., 2005). These journals included the IJCHM, IJHM, JHTE, and the JTTM. As mentioned earlier, an inclusive list of journals examined here is listed in Table 1. The selected journals employ a double-blind peer review process for manuscript selection providing an assumption that the published articles possess appropriate quality levels (Heck & Cooley, 1998; Samenfink & Rutherford, 2002b, as cited in Jogaratnam, McCleary, Mena & Yoo, 2005). It was not the intent of the researchers to analyze the quality but rather the quantity of articles published. A count was conducted using a procedure that provides actual numbers of instances (i.e., instances of articles and instances of authors). This method is unlike other methods that use the number of citations or total volume and has been used and justified by other authors (e.g., Barry, 1990; Jogaratnam, McCleary, Mena & Yoo, 2005; Jogaratnam, Chon, McCleary, Mena & Yoo, 2005; Sheldon, 1991). The researchers analyzed total output of institutions and authors through counting the instances of articles and authors represented across the analysis period and across the journals analyzed. “Instances” refers to the number of times a university or author is represented in a journal. The study analysis used “university instances,” “article instances,” and “author instances” as the primary units of analysis in this study. For example, if an article were cowritten by an author from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and an author from Purdue University that would be counted as one “university instance” for each Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and one “university instance” for Purdue University. Also, credit for an article is not adjusted based on multiple authored articles; though some have called for fractional awarding of credit by multiple authors, no partial credit was calculated in this analysis, keeping with past output reviews (e.g., Barry, 1990). As a quality check and also another metric, the number of articles counted to provide readers with a comparison between the number of articles and instances.
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RESULTS A World Ranking of the Top 100 Programs by Research Instances (2002-2006)

The top 100 universities that provided the most instances by journal article are presented in Table 2. It also presents the total number of contributing author instances and the total number of articles from an institution. In the case of a tie in instances of articles, the total instances of authors were used. In the case of a tie between article instances and instances of authors, the number of articles was used. No same rank was given to institutions unless they had equal instances, authors, and articles. This was simply done in an effort to reduce confusion and to provide a unique number ranking for as many institutions as possible. Data presented include the top 100 institutions by research output, ranked according to total instances across 11 journals over a recent 5-year period. The total number of authors and article instances is presented. The most recent top five contributors by instances along with the associated absolute number of instances from the years 2002 through 2006 were (a) The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (211 instances), (b) Cornell University (128 instances), (c) University of Nevada at Las Vegas (104 instances), (d) Pennsylvania State University (99 instances), and (e) University of Surrey (79 instances). The past 10-year review presented by Jogaratnam, Chon, et al. (2005) showed the following rankings: (a) Cornell University (354 instances), (b) Michigan State University (248 instances), (c) Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (194 instances), (d) The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (185 instances), and (e) University of Nevada at Las Vegas (174 instances). The Hong Kong Polytechnic University repositioned to first from a previous fourth place. The University of Surrey became the institution with the fifth most volume in the 11 journals whereas Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University moved to sixth place. Pennsylvania State University is fourth in the ranking and Michigan State University was second in the prior study and is now ninth. The top five institutions by number of author contribution to these 11 journals for the 5-year period from the years 2002 through 2006 along with their associated absolute number of authors include (a) The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (68 authors), (b) Cornell University (51 authors), (c) University of Nevada at Las Vegas (47 authors), (d) Pennsylvania State University (36 authors), and (e) University of Surrey (37 authors). This can be compared with the number of contributing authors from 10-year period of 1992 through 2001 in the Jogaratnam, Chon, et al. (2005) study that revealed (a) Cornell University (106 authors), (b) Pennsylvania State University (73 authors), (c) University of Nevada at Las Vegas (72 authors), (d) The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (68 authors), and (e) University of Surrey (48 authors). When comparing and updating the article from the JHTR Jogaratnam, McCleary, et al. (2005) study, Cornell had many less contributing authors over the recent period of 5 years than during the previous 10-year period across these
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Table 2 World Ranking of the Top 100 Programs by Research Instances (2002-2006) Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Institution The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Cornell University University of Nevada at Las Vegas Pennsylvania State University University of Surrey Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Purdue University Oklahoma State University Michigan State University University of Central Florida Washington State University Texas A&M University Griffith University Kansas State University Iowa State University University of Houston Sejong University University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Eastern Mediterranean University Chinese University of Hong Kong University of Guelph Northern Arizona University Manchester Metropolitan University Temple University Florida International University University of Queensland Victoria University Arizona State University Ben-Gurion University of the Negev University of Massachusetts at Amherst Ohio State University Sheffield Hallam University Florida State University Monash University University of Nottingham University of Waikato Universidad of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria University of Otago James Cook University University of the West Indies University of Western Australia Texas Tech University Universidad de les Illes Balears University of Strathclyde Chinese Culture University University of Delaware Eastern Michigan University Instancesa Authorsb Articlesc 211 128 104 99 79 72 71 65 59 55 48 46 45 37 36 34 34 33 30 29 28 28 27 27 26 25 24 24 24 23 22 21 21 21 20 20 20 19 19 19 19 18 18 18 18 18 18 68 51 47 36 37 27 27 20 20 18 12 15 31 13 13 22 13 18 16 18 17 14 10 8 15 17 15 13 9 13 11 15 13 11 11 10 9 12 12 10 7 14 14 11 10 7 7 134 87 69 70 48 54 49 43 39 35 34 41 29 24 24 12 30 22 16 16 23 19 22 20 20 17 15 19 16 15 15 18 14 16 10 16 10 14 12 14 9 10 8 15 11 14 13 (continued)
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Table 2 (continued) Rank 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 60 61 62 62 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 Institution University of Florida Oxford Brookes University University of Calgary Glasgow Caledonian University University of Alicante Colorado State University College of Charleston University of Missouri at Columbia Seattle University Kyunghee University La Trobe University University of Brighton Ming Chuan University University of North Texas Lincoln University University of Valencia George Washington University Eindhoven University of Technology Bournemouth University East Carolina University Hebrew University of Jerusalem Mugla University Clemson University University of Stirling Queen Margaret University College University of New South Wales University of Memphis University of New Orleans University of Hawaii RMIT University Southern Cross University University of Kentucky New Mexico State University Adnan Menderes University University of Waterloo Ecole Hoteliere de Lausanne University of Hawaii at Manoa San Francisco State University University of Hong Kong Leeds Metropolitan University Massey University Bowling Green State University Kaohsiung Hospitality College San Deigo State University Yonsei University East Tennessee State University Georgia Southern University Ryerson University Brock University Instancesa Authorsb Articlesc 17 17 17 16 16 16 16 15 15 15 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 13 13 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 12 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 9 7 7 13 10 9 5 8 6 6 11 11 11 9 8 8 4 4 9 6 6 5 5 4 8 7 6 6 7 7 7 5 5 4 4 8 7 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 3 2 6 5 5 11 18 14 10 10 14 10 7 6 5 10 10 8 9 8 8 5 3 11 9 8 9 7 11 10 9 12 10 9 7 6 9 5 9 8 5 4 7 4 7 6 3 8 6 7 6 5 6 4 (continued)
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Table 2 (continued) Rank 96 98 99 100 University University University University Institution of Southern Mississippi of Utah of Western Sydney of Wollongong Instancesa Authorsb Articlesc 7 7 7 7 5 4 4 4 4 7 6 5

a. Rank refers to the absolute number of research instances. In the case of a tie in instances, number of authors was considered to break the tie. In the case of ties based on instances and number of authors, the number of articles was used to break the tie. This resulted in only one tie for 96. b. Instances refer to the total count of journal articles for the university—if two authors are listed from one university, then two instances are awarded, thus this ranking is inflated based on dual authorship. The number of contributing authors and the number of articles are presented to give a better indication of the output as well. c. One article occurrence is equal to the number of articles from the university. This number was not double counted for dual authorship at the same university but if the same article was coauthored by an individual at Georgia Southern University and University of Western Sydney, then each institution would receive one occurrence for an article. Thus, this score is slightly inflated for dual authorship between universities. These biases are likely not big enough to change rank at the top of the table but of course become more sizeable because of smaller absolute numbers.

11 journals. This does not imply less contribution to research by Cornell faculty but fewer contributions to the 11 journals studied. The results further showed that Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University had more than 40 contributing authors during the 10-year period versus 27 during the recent 5-year period. Additionally, the data indicated that Oklahoma State University had 20 contributing authors produce 65 instances during the most recent 5-year period analyzed. This was the largest increase noted placing Oklahoma State University as the eighth most productive institution among the top 100.
The World Top 20 Programs by Journal Contribution (2002-2006)

Additionally, the contributions to the 11 journals for the top 20 institutions were compiled to reveal the contributions of the top 20 by journal title over the 5-year period. These data are presented in Table 3. It allows a further detailed look at where various institutions are publishing their research output. For the 5-year period analyzed, and as compared with the other universities reported, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University made the most contributions to five of the journals including (a) IJCHM, (b) IJHM, (c) JHTR, (d) JTTM, and (e) TM, confirming the large growth in publications for that institution. Cornell University was the largest contributor to the CHRAQ with approximate instances of 68 of the 86 total instances reported among the top 20 institutions. For Annals, the University of Surrey and Texas A&M University were tied as the largest contributors out of the top 20 institutions. For the JHLM, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and Michigan State University were the most frequent contributors, whereas University of Nevada at Las Vegas was
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462 Annals 6 — — 4 7 6 2 1 2 — 6 7 3 2 1 — 3 3 — — 53 2 68 6 10 2 — 2 2 4 2 — — 1 — 1 2 1 3 — 4 110 5 3 5 3 2 1 1 3 11 3 2 — — — — 1 — — — — 40 18 1 9 5 5 3 2 1 3 2 — — 5 1 2 7 1 — 7 1 73 26 4 8 6 6 5 1 8 — 8 8 1 4 2 4 — — 1 1 8 101 2 1 1 8 5 9 6 4 9 6 2 — 1 2 4 — 1 — 1 — 62 5 1 11 4 — 4 8 5 2 1 5 1 — 4 4 3 — 1 — — 59 20 7 16 16 2 11 4 6 — 2 6 1 2 6 4 — 2 1 — 3 109 9 1 1 5 9 3 2 1 6 2 — 11 1 2 1 — 2 3 — — 59 19 — 9 3 3 5 12 8 2 4 1 3 1 5 1 3 — 2 1 — 82 CHRAQ FIUHR IJCHM IJHM JHLM JHTE JHTR JTR JTTM TM 20 — 4 5 7 5 9 4 — 4 4 16 11 3 1 — 18 7 5 — 123 Total 132 86 70 69 48 52 49 43 39 34 34 40 29 27 23 16 28 21 15 16 871

Table 3 The World Top 20 Programs Classified by Journal Contribution (2002-2006)

No.

Institution

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Cornell University University of Nevada at Las Vegas Pennsylvania State University University of Surrey Virginia Polytechnic and State University Purdue University Oklahoma State University Michigan State University University of Central Florida Washington State University Texas A&M University Griffith University Kansas State University Iowa State University University of Houston Sejong University University of Illinois at Urbana-Champagne Eastern Mediterranean University Chinese University of Hong Kong Total

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the most frequent contributor to the JHTE. Michigan State University was also the most frequent contributor to the FIUHR. Texas A&M University was the most frequent contributor to the JTR.
The Contributions of the World Regions Classified by Journal (2002-2006)

Of further interest, the absolute and relative contributions of world regions to the 11 journals are listed at the bottom of Table 4. These numbers indicate the relative contribution in absolute numbers and percentages for the research instances analyzed. It is important to keep in mind that where two authors from different regions contributed an article, each of the regions got an instance. In this regard, Table 4 will be inflated by those journals with the most authors across regions. Because journals are published in various times and according to various rules with some featuring many short research briefs, research in progress, and research in full sections, no conclusions can be drawn about the contributions of the journals from the data presented. However, the numbers have been presented because they may be of interest to various readers. For example, TM indicates a relatively high number of 406 instances with a total relative contribution of 18.59% of the total research output. Annals contributed 257 instances and 11.77% of the total. The third is the IJCHM with 273 or 12.50% of the contributions followed by the IJHM with 191 instances or 8.75% of the contributions to instances. The fifth journal is the JTTM with 195 instances making up 8.93% of the total contributed instances by regions across the 11 journals for the 5-year period analyzed. The contributions to journals by geographic area were tabulated in an effort to observe the most significant contributors by region across the 11 journals analyzed. The totals by region across the 11 journals are given in Table 3, both listed by percentages and absolute totals. Of course, the location of the editor of the journal and the country represented may have some impact on the authors publishing in that journal. As can be seen in Table 4, certain journals based out of North America have a solid number of contributors from North America including, but not limited to, CHRAQ, JHTE, and FIUHR. The biggest difference in these findings as compared with the 10-year period analyzed by Jogaratnam, Chon, et al. (2005) was that Asia has become a substantial contributor across 11 journals going from 6.3% (see Jogaratnam, McCleary, Mena & Yoo, 2005) of all contributions in the period analyzed by Jogaratnam, McCleary, Mena & Yoo (2005) to approximately 15% of all contributions to these journals over the 5-year period analyzed. This indicates that Asia is the continent with the fastest rate of growth in research contribution, which is no surprise given the rankings and changes in the earlier tables. For all 11 journals, the contributors by region indicated that North America produced the greatest number of instances in journals, totaling 1,027 instances and making up 47.02% of the contributions. Second is Europe with 520 instances making up 23.81% of the contributions over the past 5-year period. Third is Asia with 14.84% or 365 instances, followed by Australia with 214 Downloaded from jht.sagepub.com at RUTGERS UNIV on rapid growth instances representing 9.80%. The significance of February 12, 2012 in the research

464 Journal IJCHM 3 28 19 120 13 5 82 3 IJCHM No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % IJHM JHLM JHTE JHTR JTR No. % JTTM No. % No. 1 40 15 49 — 6 80 — — 12 8 23 — 3 93 1 — 8 3 6 — — 103 — — 38 8 12 — 2 103 — 1 22 31 34 1 5 80 1 2 30 18 41 2 101 1 7 107 73 122 7 90 TM % IJHM JHLM JHTE JHTR JTR JTTM TM No. 35 324 214 520 16 40 1027 8 Totala % 1.60 14.84 9.80 23.81 0.73 1.83 47.02 0.37 Total No. %

Table 4 The Contributions of the World Regions Classified by Journal (2002-2006)

Region

Annals

CHRAQ

FIUHR

Africa Asia Australia Europe Latin America Mid East North America South America

2b 19 30 96 2 7 80 2

— 14 5 12 — 2 155 —

— 6 4 5 — 1 60 —

Annals

CHRAQ

FIUHR

Journal

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

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Totalc

257 11.77 188 8.61 76 3.48 273 12.50 191 8.75 140 6.41 120 5.49 163 7.46 175 8.01 195 8.93 406 18.59 2184 100

a. This column represents the geographic region total for the 11 journals from 2002 to 2006 with number (No.) representing the absolute number and percentage representing the relative or percentage total article occurrence by region when compared with total contributions by all regions. b. Absolute number of occurrences for regions and journals. Explanation: A simple article count sorted by region. Cowritten articles in more than one region such as in Asia and in Latin America are given one occurrence for each region (i.e., the total number of articles will be greater than the total number of articles published in that journal during that period because of this inflation factor). The purpose of the table was to examine at contribution by geographic region to articles. c. This represents the total absolute number (No.) and the relative contribution of instances to the total combined instance contribution for all the journals. For example, Annals contributed 257 instances or 11.77% of all the works published in this data set.

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output of Asia is likely because of the increase in number of hotel schools in Taiwan and Hong Kong and because of the research commitment made by The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Of equal importance, though smaller in numbers, are the other geographical areas including but not limited to Africa, the Middle East, Latin America, and South America with 1.60%, 1.83%, 0.73%, and 0.37%, respectively.
A World Ranking of the Top 18 Programs by Research Output (1992-2006)

Table 5 presents the top 18 institutions over the 15-year period. Combining the top producing universities from the previously reported data (i.e., the top 20) and the data reported here (i.e., the top 100) allowed for an aggregated list of the top producers. Because the only data available from the previous study were the top 20, they were the only data available for the period of 1992 to 2001. This resulted in a listing of the top 18 institutions ranked according to total research volume in the 11 journals over the 15-year period. For comparative purposes, the data from the recent 5-year period and the previously reported data for the 10-year period are reported. By university instances, the top five contributors to these 11 journals for the 15-year period of 1992-2006 included (a) Cornell University (480 article instances), (b) The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (396 article instances), (c) Michigan State University (307 article instances), (c) University of Nevada at Las Vegas (278 article instances), and (e) Pennsylvania State University (261 article instances).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

This article argued that a counting method of refereed journals can provide significant information related to the top research producing universities and can provide helpful information for purposes of comparison of data across ratings of programs and universities. Next, by employing a counting method a database was created, which helped identify the top 100 hospitality and tourism programs by instances. Additional information was also provided related to the number of articles and authors. Also, a previous 1992 to 2001 JHTR article was updated to include the years 2002 to 2006. The top university by instances to the 11 journals across the 5-year period was The Hong Kong Polytechnic University up from fourth in the comparison study to the same 11 journals over a 10-year period. Next, a 15-year total for contributions made to 11 journals was created with the available data from the Jogaratnam, Chon, McCleary, Mena & Yoo (2005) article and from the data from the current database yielding the top 18 programs over a 15-year period of 1992-2006. The 15-year tabulation showed many universities that had not previously been in the top 20 analyzed by Jogaratnam, Chon, McCleary, Mena & Yoo (2005) to have now made the list of top producers, particularly Oklahoma State University, which placed in the top 8 out of the top 100. Additionally, the institutional contributions by journal were totaled to show the contributions made by
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Table 5 World Ranking of the Top 18 Programs by Research Output (1992-2006) Ranka 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 16 14 15 17 18 1992-2006b 480 396 307 278 261 266 229 187 165 117 113 115 102 100 98 91 72 66 Institution Cornell University The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Michigan State University University of Nevada at Las Vegas Pennsylvania State University Virginia Polytechnic and State University Purdue University University of Surrey University of Central Florida Griffith University Northern Arizona University Texas A&M University Kansas State University Washington State University University of Houston University of Massachusetts at Amherst Manchester Metropolitan University James Cook University 1992-2001 352 185 248 174 162 194 158 108 110 72 85 69 65 52 64 68 45 47 2002-2006 128 211 59 104 99 72 71 79 55 45 28 46 37 48 34 23 27 19

a. Database used is compiled from the top lists by instances for the 2002 to 2006 period, and from the data available from the top 20 in the Jogaratnam, McCleary, et al. (2005) JHTR article for 1992 to2001. Data limited to the combining the two top 20 from which a top 18 across the 11 journals analyzed over a period of 15 years was found. These totals were then ranked to arrive at the total. b. A simple totaling of the 1992 to 2001 column with the 2002 to 2006 allowed for the 1992 to 2006 summations.

region by the top 20 universities across the 11 journals. The most significant change was the increase in contributions by Asia, particularly from Hong Kong, attributable to the large number of contributions of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the Chinese University of Hong Kong. North America still had the highest number of accepted articles making up 47.02% of the total followed by Europe with 23.81% and then Asia with 14.84%. However, most of this article confirmed trends established in the similar study by Jogaratnam, Chon, McCleary, Mena & Yoo (2005). This was particularly true in the larger more established research institutions (e.g., University of Nevada at Las Vegas, Pennsylvania State University), changing little in performance over the periods observed. Certain exceptions were discovered in the number of instances per established institution such as Cornell University and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, possibly subject to changes, as the composition of tenured and tenure-earning faculty becomes altered within institutions or because faculty contribute to other journals outside the 11 included in this study. Additionally, universities that grow significantly in size and universities with new doctorate of philosophy programs seem likely to increase the number of publications at a quicker rate than other universities. For
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example, Oklahoma State University’s rank of eighth in the current 5-year period after not making the top 20 in the previous 10-year period may be indicative of the establishment of a growing PhD program. Although this article does not attempt to assess overall rankings or quality issues among institutions, the information indicates output trends across the 11 journals by the most frequently contributing institutions, allowing for the creation of the top 100 list of contributing universities to hospitality and tourism research. The measurements presented in this study can be used for many reasons including but not limited to (a) assisting hospitality educators in identifying research contributions across certain journals, (b) assisting would-be doctoral students with research information by program, and (c) showing changes in contribution at various institutions (e.g., an increasing, decreasing, or stable productivity) over a number of years. Future studies might produce content analyses to include qualitative and quantitative reports on varying aspects of hospitality and tourism research contributions. Additionally, tables could be included that adjust for single-author versus multiple-author contributions, which is a limitation of this current study as compared with the Jogaratnam et al. (2005) study, which featured three levels of frequency of contributions by authors. Additionally, as research databases become more sophisticated, it is more possible for studies to offer information broader in scope than a few journals. For example, some highly specialized institutions may contribute a great deal but to only a select few journals. A more comprehensive database may reveal this information and allow for more comprehensive valuations related to contribution by quality and quantity to be made across programs. Other topics of future interest would be to analyze institutional contributions by subject matter (i.e., tourism, human resource, finance, guest services, marketing, etc.), methods employed (i.e., qualitative or quantitative techniques), and to identify the expertise of scholars at different universities in a more useable format that would be helpful for the identification of scholars based on specialty area (i.e., most frequent contributing tourism scholar). This would also prove useful for potential graduate students desiring to select schools based on a focused area of research concentration. Finally, a tiered system of journals combined with a sole versus multiple author reduction may again provide more realistic examples of the work being carried out by various institutions. The tables by region raise some interesting research questions that merit further investigation as well (Jogaratnam et al., 2005; Ryan, 2005). Are the regions that contribute very little to the research also underresearched? If this is the case, scholars may attempt to focus international research efforts toward investigations in the geographic regions that have contributed less to the research efforts. Though many of these may not be surprising as they are lesser developed countries, the output can still provide helpful information in determining where research efforts are needed. This may serve those regions well if it could be surmised that those not contributing are underresearched and so may need various research outputs more than other regions that are thoroughly studied.
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Regardless of the varying arguments surrounding methodologies, the continued practice of analyzing hospitality and tourism research production provides insights concerning current trends in research. The existing patterns of program expansion and globalization make this an interesting time period to produce studies to track the dissemination of scholarly publications. The fields of hospitality and tourism combine to form a relatively young discipline in comparison with more established academic areas. The proliferation of additional journal titles lends evidence to the assertion that the field is constantly expanding. Future content analyses will provide more insightful snapshots of recognizing development patterns in the hospitality and tourism knowledge base and can help further development the knowledge base in the hospitality and tourism field (Jamal et al., 2007).
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Jogaratnam, G., Chon, K., McCleary, K., Mena, M., & Yoo, J. (2005). An analysis of institutional contributors to three major academic tourism journals: 1992-2001. Tourism Management, 26, 641-648. Jogaratnam, G., McCleary, K., Mena, M., & Yoo, J. (2005). An analysis of hospitality and tourism research institutional contributions. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 29, 356-371. Losekoot, E., Verginis, C. S., & Wood, R. C. (2001). Out for the count: Some methodological questions in “publications counting” literature. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 20, 233-244. McCleary, K. W., & Weaver, P. A. (1987, November). A study of publishing activity of the Southern Marketing Association, American Marketing Association, and Academy of Marketing Science for 1986. Paper presented at the Proceeding of the Southern Marketing Association Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA. Neary, J., Mirrlees, J., & Tirole, J. (2003). Evaluation economics research in Europe: An introduction. Journal of the European Economic Association, 1, 1239-1249. Newman, D. R., Escoffier, M. R., & Kay, C. (2001). What do managers read? A survey of journals and periodicals used by lodging managers in the hospitality industry. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Education, 13, 76-87. Pechlaner, H., Zehrer, A., Matzler, K., & Abfalter, D. (2004). A ranking of international tourism and hospitality journals. Journal of Travel Research, 42, 328-332. Reid, L. J., & Andereck, K. L. (1989). Statistical analyses use in research. Journal of Travel Research, 28, 21-26. Roberts, C., & Shea, L. (2005). Ranking hospitality and tourism journals [Editorial]. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, 17, 4. Ryan, C. (2005). The ranking and rating of academics in tourism journals. Tourism Management, 26, 657-662. Rutherford, D. G., & Samenfink, W. H. (1992). Most frequent contributors to the hospitality literature. Hospitality Research Journal, 16, 23-29. Rutherford, D. G., & Samenfink, W. H. (2002a). Most frequent contributors to the hospitality literature: A ten-year update. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Education, 14, 5-15. Rutherford, D. G., & Samenfink, W. H. (2002b). Out for the count: A response. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 21, 111-117. Schmidgall, R. S., & Woods, R. H. (1993). Rating of publishing channels by hospitality faculty. Hospitality Research Journal, 16, 89-94. Schmidgall, R. S., & Woods, R. H. (1994). CHRIE member perceptions of tenure requirements in hospitality education programs. Hospitality Research Journal, 18, 101-120. Schmidgall, R. S., & Woods, R. H. (1996). Journal and periodical usefulness as rated by hospitality faculty members. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 37, 47-55. Sheldon, P. J., & Collison, F. M. (1990). Faculty review criteria in tourism and hospitality. Annals of Tourism Research, 17, 556-567. Sheldon, P. J. (1991). An authorship analysis of tourism research. Annals of Tourism Research, 18, 473-484. Sturman, M. C. (2005). From the editor: Reflecting on our recent articles. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 46, 108-109. Treischmann, J. S., Dennis, A. R., Northcraft, G. B., & Niemi, A. W. (2000). Serving multiple constituencies in business schools: MBA programs versus research performance. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 1130-1141.
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Weaver, P. A., & McCleary, K. W. (1989, May). Academic contributors: An analysis of academic contributors to four major hospitality journals. Ohio Hospitality Journal, 2, 6-11. Weaver, P. A., McCleary, K. W., & Farrar, A. (1990). Academic contribution to four major hospitality journals revisited. Hospitality and Tourism Educator, 2, 30-32. Weaver, P., Wilson, J. H., & McCleary, K. W. (1990, Spring). Publishing activity of members of three major marketing associations: An update and extension. Journal of Midwest Marketing, 5, 146-156. Wood, R. C. (1995). Assessing publications output as an indicator of academic productivity: The case of hospitality management. Tourism Management, 16, 171-174. Woods, R. H., & Schmidgall, R. S. (1995). Hospitalities influential authors: Using citation analysis to evaluate the research contributions of hospitality faculty and programs. Hospitality and Tourism Educator, 7, 66-72. Woods, R. H., & Schmidgall, R. S. (2001). Update of hospitality management education’s most influential scholars: A citation analysis 1989-1999. Hospitality and Tourism Educator, 13, 4-11. Xiao, H., & Smith, S. L. J. (2006). The making of tourism research: Insights from a social sciences journal. Annals of Tourism Research, 33, 490-507.

Submitted August 17, 2006 First Revision Submitted February 21, 2007 Second Revision Submitted September 4, 2007 Third Revision Submitted February 11, 2008 Final Revision Submitted May 13, 2008 Accepted May 19, 2008 Refereed Anonymously
Denver E. Severt, PhD (e-mail: dsevert@mail.ucf.edu), is an associate professor in Rosen School of Hospitality Management at University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida. Dana V. Tesone, PhD (e-mail: dtesone@mail.ucf.edu), is an assistant professor in Rosen School of Hospitality Management at University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida. Timothy J. Bottorff (e-mail: tbottorf@mail.ucf.edu) is an assistant librarian in Rosen School of Hospitality Management at University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida. Monica L. Carpenter (e-mail: mlcarpen@mail.ucf.edu) is a doctoral student in Rosen School of Hospitality Management at University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida.

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